Order of the British Empire
The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry, rewarding contributions to the arts and sciences, work with charitable and welfare organisations, public service outside the civil service. It was established on 4 June 1917 by King George V and comprises five classes across both civil and military divisions, the most senior two of which make the recipient either a knight if male or dame if female. There is the related British Empire Medal, whose recipients are affiliated with, but not members of, the order. Recommendations for appointments to the Order of the British Empire were made on the nomination of the United Kingdom, the self-governing Dominions of the Empire and the Viceroy of India. Nominations continue today from Commonwealth countries that participate in recommending British honours. Most Commonwealth countries ceased recommendations for appointments to the Order of the British Empire when they created their own honours; the five classes of appointment to the Order are, in descending order of precedence: Knight Grand Cross or Dame Grand Cross of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire Knight Commander or Dame Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire Officer of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire Member of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire The senior two ranks of Knight or Dame Grand Cross, Knight or Dame Commander, entitle their members to use the title of Sir for men and Dame for women before their forename.
Most members are citizens of the United Kingdom or the Commonwealth realms that use the Imperial system of honours and awards. Honorary knighthoods are appointed to citizens of nations where the Queen is not head of state, may permit use of post-nominal letters but not the title of Sir or Dame. Honorary appointees are, referred to as Sir or Dame – Bob Geldof, for example. Honorary appointees who become a citizen of a Commonwealth realm can convert their appointment from honorary to substantive enjoy all privileges of membership of the order, including use of the title of Sir and Dame for the senior two ranks of the Order. An example is Irish broadcaster Terry Wogan, appointed an honorary Knight Commander of the Order in 2005, on successful application for British citizenship, held alongside his Irish citizenship, was made a substantive member and subsequently styled as Sir Terry Wogan. King George V founded the Order to fill gaps in the British honours system: The Orders of the Garter, of St Patrick honoured royals, peers and eminent military commanders.
In particular, King George V wished to create an Order to honour many thousands of those who had served in a variety of non-combatant roles during the First World War. When first established, the Order had only one division. However, in 1918, soon after its foundation, it was formally divided into Military and Civil Divisions; the Order's motto is For the Empire. At the foundation of the Order, the'Medal of the Order of the British Empire' was instituted, to serve as a lower award granting recipients affiliation but not membership. In 1922, this was renamed the'British Empire Medal', it stopped being awarded by the United Kingdom as part of the 1993 reforms to the honours system, but was again awarded beginning in 2012, starting with 293 BEMs awarded for Queen Elizabeth II's Diamond Jubilee. In addition, the BEM is awarded by some other Commonwealth nations. In 2004, a report entitled "A Matter of Honour: Reforming Our Honours System" by a Commons committee recommended to phase out the Order of the British Empire, as its title was "now considered to be unacceptable, being thought to embody values that are no longer shared by many of the country's population".
The British monarch is Sovereign of the Order, appoints all other members of the Order. The next most senior member is the Grand Master, of whom there have been three: Prince Edward, the Prince of Wales; the Order is limited to 300 Knights and Dames Grand Cross, 845 Knights and Dames Commander, 8,960 Commanders. There are no limits applied to the total number of members of the fourth and fifth classes, but no more than 858 Officers and 1,464 Members may be appointed per year. Foreign appointees, as honorary members, do not contribute to the numbers restricted to the Order as full members do. Although the Order of the British Empire has by far the highest number of members of the British Orders of Chivalry, with over 100,000 living members worldwide, there are fewer appointments to knighthoods than in other orders. Though men can be knighted separately from an order of chivalry, women cannot, so the rank of Knight/Dame Commander of the Order is the lowest rank of damehood, second-lowest of knighthood.
Because of this, an appointment as Dame Commander is made in circumstances in which a man would be created a Knight Bachelor. For example, by convention, female judges of the High Court of Justice are created Dames Commander after appointment, while male judges
In team sports, captain is a title given to a member of the team. The title is honorary, but in some cases the captain may have significant responsibility for strategy and teamwork while the game is in progress on the field. In either case, it is a position that indicates honor and respect from one's teammates – recognition as a leader by one's peers. In association football and cricket, a captain is known as a skipper. Depending on the sport, team captains may be given the responsibility of interacting with game officials regarding application and interpretation of the rules. In many team sports, the captains represent their respective teams when the match official does the coin toss at the beginning of the game. Various sports have differing responsibilities for team captains; some of the greatest captains in history are the ones with the most subtle of traits that are required for success. From Sam Walker in his book "The Captain Class" he states that a captain is "the most important factor for a team's success".
The responsibilities of a captain vary from sport to sport. In sports like cricket or volleyball, the decision for the two teams to be on either defense or offense is determined with a coin toss and a decision made by the captains; this decision is crucial for the captain because they will decide the beginning of the game and quite how it all plays out. A captain is the first one a referee looks to while explaining the results of a play or giving a foul, or flag. Oftentimes a referee will not discuss these matters with any other player than a coach; this is important because the reaction of the captain may or may not determine how the referee will proceed. A captain must stay calm and cool headed when talking with a referee to ensure the most accurate determinants of the game. Manager Captain Captain Captain Captain Captain
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Field hockey at the Summer Olympics
Field hockey, was introduced at the Olympic Games as a men's competition at the 1908 Games in London, with six teams, including four from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Field hockey was removed from the Summer Olympic Games at the 1924 Paris Games because of the lack of an international sporting structure; the International Hockey Federation was founded in Paris that year as a response to field hockey's omission. Men's field hockey became a permanent feature at the 1928 Gamesin Amsterdam. For a long time, India dominated the Olympics, winning the men's gold medal in seven out of eight Olympics from 1928 to 1964. Pakistan was dominant, winning three gold and three silver medals between 1956 and 1984. India lost their dominance after Pakistan after the 1990s. India won their last gold medal in Pakistan in 1984 Games. Since 1968, various teams from around the world have seen gold-medal success at the Olympics. Since 1968, several countries in the Southern Hemisphere have won various medals in men's and women's field hockey, including Australia, New Zealand and Zimbabwe.
A leading group of teams from the Northern Hemisphere has come from the Netherlands and from Germany. Spain has appeared in the most Olympic men's competitions without winning the men's gold medal, having won silver three times in 1980, 1996, 2008 and bronze once in 1960. Australia had competed in 11 Olympics without winning gold before breaking their streak in 2004; the first women's Olympic field hockey competition was held at the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow. Olympic field hockey games were first played on artificial turf at the 1976 Montreal Olympic Games; until the 1988 Olympics the tournament was invitational but FIH introduced a qualification system since the 1992 games. India is the leading team in overall medal tally with 11 medals. India lead in most number of gold medals. # = states or teams that have since split into two or more independent nations45 teams have competed in at least one Olympic Games. # = states that have since split into two or more independent nationsAustralia and the Netherlands are the only teams to have competed at every Olympic Games, except for only one edition.
List of Olympic venues in field hockey
Kingston Grammar School
Kingston Grammar School is an independent co-educational day school in Kingston upon Thames, south-west London. The school was founded by Royal Charter in 1561 but can trace its roots back to at least the 13th century, it is a registered charity under English law. In 2015 the GCSE results recorded 81.2% of all grades as A or A*, at A-level 62.7% of all grades were A or A*. The Good Schools Guide described the school as "An academic school with a modern edge"; the school's history is traceable into the Middle Ages, where there are references to schoolmasters like Gilbert de Southwell in 1272, described as "Rector of the Schools in Kingston", to Hugh de Kyngeston in 1364 "who presides over the Public School there". Notable in the school's history are the founding and endowing of the Lovekyn Chapel by John and Edward Lovekyn in 1309-1352 and by William Walworth in 1371; the chapel is still used by the school. After the dissolution of the chantries in 1547, the chapel was deconsecrated. It, by now its substantial related endowments, fell to a court favourite, Richard Taverner.
He preserved the chapel so when in 1561 the bailiffs of Kingston petitioned Queen Elizabeth I for a royal grammar school, the building was still usable. The Queen granted the school a Royal Charter in 1561; the school became a direct grant grammar school in 1946 as a result of the Education Act 1944 and became independent in 1978 after the scheme was abolished by the 1974–9 Labour Government. In the same year, the first girls were introduced. KGS celebrated the four hundredth anniversary of its founding charter in 1961 with a visit from Queen Elizabeth II. In 2005 she opened the new Queen Elizabeth II Building, where she unveiled a plaque, met with students of Music and Geography and watched an excerpt of the play "Smike" after which the new Recording Studio was named. There are five houses, named after Medieval and Elizabethan figures connected with the school and the city of London, with the exception of Stanley Shoveller, an Old Kingstonian who played international hockey in the early 20th Century.
The school's boathouse is on the Thames at Surrey. Students may take up rowing beginning in Third Form and participate in local and national regattas, including The National Schools Regatta; the KGS Veterans Boat Club is for alumni and staff of the school. Paul Butler — Bishop of Durham William Gilbert Chaloner — paleobiologist, Royal Holloway Richard Ian Cheetham — Bishop of Kingston upon Thames James Cracknell — Olympic rowing gold medallist, adventurer Philip Crosland — journalist Richard Dodds — captain of Great Britain Olympic 1988 gold medal hockey team Ian Dyson — Commissioner of the City of London Police Michael Edwards — poet & academic, first Briton elected to the Académie Française Neil Fox — DJ and television presenter Michael Frayn — playwright and novelist Edward Gibbon — author, The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire Air Marshal Sir Gerald Gibbs — RAF officer Tanya Gold — The Guardian journalist Jonathan Kenworthy — sculptor Sophie Hosking — Olympic rowing gold medallist Francis Maseres — lawyer, Attorney-General of Quebec Leif Mills — author and former trade unionist Neil Mullarkey — actor and comedian Jonathon Riley — Director General and Master of the Armouries R. C.
Sherriff — playwright, who donated five rowing eights to the school boat club in the 1960s and 1970s Sir Denis Spotswood — Chief of the Air Staff, 1971-1974 Howard Stoate — MP for Dartford Ward, The Rev David. Chantry Chapel to Royal Grammar School: the History of Kingston Grammar School 1299–1999. Gresham Books. ISBN 978-0946095360 Official website Profile on the Independent Schools Council website BBC school report
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were
Hockey World Cup
The Men's Hockey World Cup is an international field hockey competition organised by the International Hockey Federation. The tournament was started in 1971, it is held every four years. There is a Women's Hockey World Cup, held since 1974 and was organised by the International Federation of Women's Hockey Associations until 1981, when the governing bodies merged into the current International Hockey Federation in 1982. Pakistan is the most successful team; the Netherlands and Australia have each won three titles, Germany has won two titles. Belgium and India have both won the tournament once; the 2018 tournament was held in India from 28 November to 16 December. Belgium defeated Netherlands in a penalty shoot-out 3–2 after the match ended in a 0–0 tie to win their first World Cup title; the World Cup expanded to 16 teams in 2018, FIH will evaluate the possibility of increasing it to 24 in 2022. The Hockey World Cup was first conceived by Pakistan's Air Marshal Nur Khan, he proposed his idea to the FIH through the first editor of World Hockey magazine.
Their idea was approved on 26 October 1969, adopted by the FIH Council at a meeting in Brussels on 12 April 1970. The FIH decided that the inaugural World Cup would be held in Pakistan. However, political issues would prevent that first competition from being played in Pakistan; the FIH had inadvertently scheduled the first World Cup to be played in Pakistan during the Bangladesh Liberation War. Furthermore and India had been at war with each other only six years earlier; when Pakistan invited India to compete in the tournament, a crisis arose. Pakistanis, led by cricketer Abdul Hafeez Kardar, protested against India's participation in the Hockey World Cup. Given the intense political climate between Pakistan and India, the FIH decided to move the tournament elsewhere. In March 1971, coincidentally in the same month Bangladesh declared independence from Pakistan, the FIH decided to move the first Hockey World Cup to the Real Club de Polo grounds in Barcelona, considered a neutral and peaceful European site.
The FIH has set no limitations on the size of the competition. The 1971 Cup included the smallest World Cup to date; the 1978 Cup featured fourteen nations. The 2002 Cup featured the largest World Cup to date; the remaining 9 World Cups have featured 12 nations. The first three tournaments were held every two years; the 1978 cup was the only tournament held three years from the previous one. It has continued that way. In other words, the tournament has been held every four years since; the Hockey World Cup trophy was created by the Pakistani Army. On 27 March 1971, in Brussels, the trophy was formally handed to FIH President Rene Frank by Mr H. E Masood, the Pakistani Ambassador to Belgium; the trophy consists of a silver cup with an intricate floral design, surmounted by a globe of the world in silver and gold, placed on a high blade base inlaid with ivory. At its peak is a model hockey stick and ball. Without its base, the trophy stands 120.85 mm high. Including the base, the trophy stands 650 mm, it weighs 11,560 g, including 6,815 g of silver, 350 g of ivory and 3,500 g of teak.
The Hockey World Cup consists of a final tournament stage. The format for each stage is the same; the qualification stage has been a part of the Hockey World Cup since 1977. All participating teams play in the qualification round; the teams compete for a berth in the final tournament. The top two teams are automatically qualified and the rest of the berths are decided in playoffs; the final tournament features other qualified teams. Sometimes it features the winners of the Summer Olympics' hockey competition or the continental runners-up; the teams play a round robin tournament. The composition of the pools is determined using the current world rankings; the top two teams in each pool play in the semifinals for a place in the final. The bottom two teams in the semifinals have a third place playoff; the rest of the teams have playoffs to determine their final positions. If they are third or fourth in their pool, they play for fifth place. Twenty four teams have qualified for a Hockey World Cup. Of these, eleven teams have made it to the semifinals.
Seven teams have made it through to the finals. To date the most successful teams are Pakistan, with four titles from six final appearances, the Netherlands, with three titles from seven final appearances, Australia with three titles from five final appearances. Germany won in 2002 and 2006, while India and Belgium won their lone titles in 1975 and 2018, respectively. Below is a list of teams that have finished in the top four positions in the tournament: * = host nation ^ = includes results representing West Germany between 1971 and 1990 # = states that have since split into two or more independent nations Nine nations have hosted the Hockey World Cup. Only the Netherlands and Germany have won the tournament as hosts. Spain and Pakistan emerged as host runners-up in the 1971, 1986 and 1990 tournaments. Australia placed third. To date, the finals of the Hockey World Cup have been contested by Asian and Oceania continental teams. European teams have won the most with six titles, followed by Asia