Rifat Chadirji was born on December 6, 1926 in Baghdad, is an Iraqi architect, photographer and activist. He is admired as the greatest modern architect of Iraq, taught at the Baghdad School of Architecture for many years. Rifat Chadirji was born in Baghdad in 1926 into an influential family, his father, Kamil Chadirji, played a central role in Iraq's political life as founder and president of the National Democratic Party. He trained as an architect. In 1952, after completing his graduate training, Rifat returned to Baghdad and began working on what he called his "architectural experiments." Rifat Chadirji's architecture is inspired by the characteristics of regional Iraqi architecture, the time-tested intelligence inherent in it, but at the same time, he wanted to reconcile tradition with contemporary social needs. In an interview, Chadirji explains his philosophy: "From the outset of my practice, I thought it imperative that, sooner or Iraq create for itself an architecture regional in character yet modern, part of the current international avant-garde style."
In the context of architecture, Rifat called this approach, international regionalism. Chadirji's approach was consistent with the objectives of the Modern Baghdad Group, founded in 1951, of which he was an early member; this art group sought to combine ancient Iraqi heritage with modern art and architecture, in order to develop an Iraqi aesthetic, not only unique to Iraq, but influence the development of a pan-Arab visual language. His early works were grounded in the discourse being conducted by members of the Baghdad Modern Art Group, including sculptors Jawad Saleem and Mohammed Ghani Hikmat, artist-intellectual, Shakir Hassan Al Said, his designs relied on abtracting the concepts and elements of traditional buildings, reconstructing them in contemporary forms. However, Chadirji's critics have pointed out that although Chadirji was sympathetic to the group's aims, he was a modernist at heart, his early works were reconstructions of old buildings. In 1959, he was commissioned to construct a major public monument, The Monument to the Unknown Soldier, destroyed by Sadam Hussein's Ba'athist government, replaced with a statue of Hussein himself.
Chadirji's monument, centrally located in Baghdad's Ferdous Square, referenced Iraq's tradition, the monument evoked the parabolic arch from the Sassanid Palace, Ctesiphon. Described as a simple, modernist structure, sketches of the design concept found at the Institute of Fine Arts in Baghdad, reveal the inspiration for the design which represents a mother bending over to pick up her martyred child, he would continue to use ancient Iraqi motifs in his building designs. His works, such as the Hussain Jamil Residence, Tobacco Warehouse, the Rafiq Residence and the Central Post Office, are informed by Iraqi practices of temperature control - natural ventilation, screen walls and reflected light, he employs the architectural language of arches and monolithic piers that remind visitors of ancient Iraqi architectural history. Although, his designs used vernacular elements, he abstracted them and incorporated them in new forms. At times, he designed European interiors. During the 1970s, aged 48 years, he was jailed for life, for refusing to work on a government-funded project during the Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr presidency.
However, after serving two years in the Abu Ghraib prison, he was released when Saddam Hussein assumed power and wanted Iraq’s best architect to oversee the preparations for an international conference to be held in Baghdad in 1983 and to assist with general plans to give Baghdad a face-lift. He became Hussein's architectural consultant for Baghdad City Planning, for the period, 1982-1983. While imprisoned, he wrote a book on architecture, Al Ukhaidir and the Crystal Palace, using materials that his wife had smuggled into Abu Ghraib; the book has been described as a "seminal work" on the subject of Iraq's architecture. In the 1980s, he became Councillor to the Mayor, a role that found him overseeing all the reconstruction projects in Baghdad, he left Iraq in 1983. Some years on his return to Baghdad, he was saddened by the deterioration in the city, he and his wife decided to leave Iraq permanently and they settled in London, where he continues to live. Along with his father, Rifat photographically documented much of Baghdad and the larger region of Iraq and Syria.
They feared the regional architecture and monuments would be lost to new development associated with the oil boom. In 1995, he published a book of his father's precious photographs, his father's position as a politician gave him access to many people and places that may have been difficult for other photographers. In an interview with Ricardo Karam, he talked about his atheism, after studying philosophy with his wife, he saw that religions originated from magic, he said that he respected all religions, recommended after his death not to pray for him and burn his body. Although he designed many residences, he is most noted for his public works, including both buildings and monuments, his Monument to the Unknown Soldier, described as a simple, modernist structure, was removed from al-Fardous Square to make way for a statue of Sadam Hussein in the early 1980s. The replacement statue was infamously toppled on 9 April, 2003 in full view of the world, as global media filmed and photographed the destruction.
His publications are in Arabic and include: al-Ukhaidar and the Crystal Palace A Dialogue on the Struct
Qawra is a zone within St. Paul's Bay in the Northern Region, Malta, it is located close to Buġibba and Salina, it is a popular tourist resort, containing many hotels and restaurants. In around 1638, the Order of St. John built Qawra Tower at Qawra Point. A battery was built around it in 1715. Today, the tower and battery are a restaurant, parts of the entrenchment can still be seen; the town is home to many water-sport activities, including banana boat, speed boat and jetski rides, as well as kayaking and diving. The area is well known as the "touristy" area of Malta due to the many bars which show British football. Summer temperatures can be as hot as 40 °C, with an average of over 30 °C. Casinos and clubs are a major part of this small town. Many people bathe off the rocks, which provide ample space for sun bathing, it is popular with tourists. The parochial church of Qawra is dedicated to St Francis of Assisi; the parish incorporates both Qawra and the neighbouring locality of Bugibba in its geographical area.
The parish feast is celebrated on 17 September which commemorates the impression of the stigmata on St Francis. The church in Qawra started operating as a parish on 8 December 2004 and the first parish priest was Fr Gorg Zammit, OFM conv; the architect of the church building was Richard England. It is a modern-style church, not in the Latin cross style as most other parishes of the Maltese islands; the main attractions in Qawra include: Malta National Aquarium Malta Classic Car Museum Buġibba Temple is located on the border of Qawra and Buġibba
Parish Church of St Joseph, Manikata
The Parish Church of Saint Joseph is an iconic Roman Catholic parish church in Manikata, dedicated to Saint Joseph. It was designed by Richard England in 1962, it was built between 1964 and 1974; the church marks a break from traditional church building designs, it is an example of Critical regionalism. Its form is inspired by a traditional corbelled stone hut; the first church in the village of Manikata was a small chapel dedicated to St Joseph, built in 1918. By the mid-20th century, this was too small to cater for the village's growing population, plans were made to enlarge the chapel; these proved to be impractical, so in 1961 it was decided to build a new and larger church at a different location. The rector Manwel Grima asked the architect Edwin England Sant Fournier to make plans for the new church, but the latter entrusted the job to his son Richard England, making the church his first commission. England designed the building in 1962, at the time when the Second Vatican Council was causing reforms in the Catholic Church.
These reforms aimed at modernizing the Church proved to be a source of inspiration for England's concept for the new church building. The new church building's capacity stood at 700; the first stone was laid down by Archbishop Mikiel Gonzi on 16 August 1964, in the presence of Prime Minister George Borg Olivier and Minister Joseph Spiteri. The church's construction was marred by a restrictive budget of only £M20,000, a lack of skilled labourers, the death of Grima in 1971, it was inaugurated by Archbishop Gonzi on 29 November 1974. It became a parish church on 16 February 1975, it was consecrated by Archbishop Joseph Mercieca on 17 February 1985; the church was scheduled as a Grade 1 building in 2011. The Manikata church is one of the most innovative churches in Malta, it broke away from traditional Baroque church designs, England's concept was derived from site specific conditions relating to critical regionalism, along with a desire to mirror the then-ongoing reforms in the Catholic Church. The church consists of curving walls, which are meant to create an element of intimacy, their configuration recalls the Megalithic Temples of Malta.
Another source of inspiration is the Notre Dame du Haut chapel by Le Corbusier, which broke away from more conservative church designs in favour of sculptural forms. The overall form of England's church is inspired by an abstracted interpretation of the girna, a type of traditional corbelled stone hut common in rural Malta; the church is aimed to capture both human spirituality along with the peace associated with the natural environment surrounding it. Media related to Manikata Parish Church at Wikimedia Commons
University of Malta
Is the highest educational institution in Malta. It offers undergraduate bachelor's degrees, postgraduate master's degrees and postgraduate doctorates, it is a member of the European University Association, the European Access Network, Association of Commonwealth Universities, the Utrecht Network, the Santander Network, the Compostela Group, the European Association for University Lifelong Learning and the International Student Exchange Programme. In post-nominals the University's name is abbreviated as Melit; the precursor to the l-Universita ta Malta was the Collegium Melitense, a Jesuit college, set up on 12 November 1592. This was located in an old house in Valletta, but a purpose-built college was constructed between 1595 and 1597; this building is now known as the Valletta Campus. The Jesuits were expelled from Malta in 1768, although their property was taken over by the Treasury of the Order of St. John, the college remained open and professors retained their posts; the l-Universita ta Malta came to existence on 22 November 1769, when Grand Master Manuel Pinto da Fonseca signed a decree constituting a Pubblica Università di Studi Generali.
The University was suspended during the magistracy of Francisco Ximenes de Texada in the 1770s, but it was reconstituted by his successor Emmanuel de Rohan-Polduc in 1779. The University was replaced by the École Centrale during the French occupation of Malta from 1798 to 1800, but was once again reopened by the British in the early 19th century. From 1937 to 1974, the institution was known as the Royal University of Malta. Over time, the Valletta campus became too small and Evans Laboratories was built in 1959 to house the Faculty of Science. In 1968, the Medical School moved to a building near St. Luke's Hospital in Gwardamanġa; the University opened a much larger campus at Tal-Qroqq in Msida in the late 1960s, but it retained the Valletta building, still used for some lectures and conferences. The administrative set up of the university comprises academic and administrative and technical staff members who are appointed or elected to the governing bodies of the University; the principal officers of the University are the Chancellor, the Pro-Chancellor, the Rector, the Pro-Rectors, the Secretary, the Registrar, the Deans of the Faculties as well as the Finance Officer and the Librarian.
The main governing bodies are the Senate and the Faculty Boards. As the supreme governing body of the University, the Council is responsible for the administration of the University. Faculties group together departments concerned with a major area of knowledge, while institutes are of an interdisciplinary nature; the council is responsible for appointing staff members to academic posts. The senate is responsible for the academic matters of the University regulating studies, research and examinations at the University; the senate establishes the entry regulations. The faculty board directs the academic tasks of the faculty; the board presents proposals to the senate and the council. Besides, it determines the studies and research within the faculty. In March 2016, it was announced that Professor Alfred J. Vella was elected by the members of the University Council as the next Rector of the l-Universita ta Malta He took up the post in July 2016, when the term of the previous Rector, Professor Juanito Camilleri, expired The administration rebranded the university for the fall semester of 2017 with a stylized version of the logo that removed the Latin motto “Ut Fructificemus Deo” for daily use and retained it in a version to be used in ceremonial contexts.
Admission to the university is based on Matriculation examination results, grades are awarded on a seven-point scale. Grade 1 is awarded for the highest level of achievement, whereas Grade 7 indicates the minimum satisfactory performance. However, entry on basis of maturity and experience is granted for certain courses in the arts and sciences; the Faculty of Dental Surgery allows for a maximum of six European students per year chosen according to merit and only after the students have passed an admissions interview. Full-time undergraduate courses are free-of-charge to citizens of the European Union. Maltese students enrolled in higher education in Malta are entitled to a stipend. Fees are charged to nationals from non-EU states. There are 600 international students studying at the university, comprising around 7% of the student population. There are 11,500 students including 750 international students from 82 countries, following full-time or part-time degree and diploma courses, many of them run on the modular or credit system.
The university hosts other exchange students. A basic Foundation Studies Course enables international high school students who have completed their secondary or high school education overseas but who do not have the necessary entry requirements, to qualify for admission to an undergraduate degree course. Over 3,000 students graduate annually. There are a further 2,500 pre-tertiary students at the Junior College, managed by the university; the university has fourteen Faculties, a number of institutes and centres and the School of Performing Arts. The floor area occupied by the library building is between 6,000 square metres. A collection of one million volumes is housed throughout the Main Library and institutes; the library subscribes to 60,000 e-journals, 308 print journal titles and a collection of e
Polytechnic University of Milan
The Polytechnic University of Milan is the largest technical university in Italy, with about 42,000 students. It offers undergraduate and higher education courses in engineering and design. Founded in 1863, it is the oldest university in Milan; the Polytechnic University of Milan has two main campuses in the city of Milan, where the majority of the research and teaching activities are located, other satellite campuses in five other cities across Lombardy and Emilia Romagna. The central offices and headquarters are located in the historical campus of Città Studi in Milan, the largest, active since 1927; the university was ranked the best for Engineering and among the top big universities in Italy in the CENSIS-Repubblica Italian University rankings for 2014–15. According to the QS World University Rankings, as of 2018 it is the 17th best technical university in the world, ranking fifth for Design, ninth for Architecture, ninth for Civil and Structural Engineering, 17th for Engineering and Technology.
Its notable alumni include Giulio Natta, Nobel laureate in chemistry in 1963, the two-times nominated novelist Carlo Emilio Gadda. The Polytechnic University of Milan was founded on 29 November 1863 by Francesco Brioschi, secretary of the Ministry of Education and rector of the University of Pavia, it is the oldest university in Milan. Its original name was Istituto Tecnico Superiore and only Civil and Industrial Engineering were taught. Architecture, the second main line of study at the university, was introduced in 1865 in cooperation with the Brera Academy. There were only 30 students admitted in the first year. Over the decades, most of students were men: the first female graduate from the university was in 1913. In 1927 the university moved to piazza Leonardo da Vinci, in the district now known as Città studi, where the university's main facilities are still today. At the time, it was named Regio Politecnico; the word Regio was removed as Italy was proclaimed a republic at the end of World War II.
The historical building still in use today was designed and built by engineers and architects all graduated from the university itself. The present logo, based on a detail of the preparatory sketch of Raphael's School of Athens, was adopted in 1942; until there was no official logo for the institution. In 1954, the first European centre of electronic computation was opened at the university by Gino Cassinis and Ercole Bottani. In 1963 Giulio Natta received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his research on crystalline polymers, polypropylene in particular. In 1977, the satellite Sirio, jointly developed by the university and other companies, was launched. Since the end of the 1980s, the university has begun a process of territorial expansion that would have resulted in the opening of its satellite campuses in Lombardy and Emilia Romagna. A university program in industrial design was started in 1993. In 2000, the university's faculty of design was created with new courses in undergraduate and postgraduate programs of graphic & visual and interior design along with the existent industrial design.
In April 2012, the university announced that, beginning in 2014, all graduate courses would be taught only in English. This decision was partially revised, after the decision of the Italian Supreme Court, that stated Italian language could not be abolished nor downgraded to a marginal role; the University is spread over seven campuses: two main campuses in Milan and another five satellite campuses across Lombardy and Emilia Romagna. Milan Leonardo is the oldest of the university's campuses still in use; the first buildings on Piazza Leonardo da Vinci were inaugurated in 1927. Over the years, the complex has been expanded and is now referred to as "Città Studi", City of Studies, which refers to some faculties of the University of Milan in the same area; the campus extends over several streets: Leonardo, Clericetti, Gran Sasso and Colombo. The Leonardo Campus is the main campus of the university, comprises the central administration offices, the rectorate, most of the research departments; the Milan Bovisa campus is located in the Bovisa district of Milan and became active in 1989.
The first is the seat of the School of Design, while the second is dedicated to Industrial, Mechanical and Energy Engineering faculties. Bovisa houses the related research facilities, including the wind tunnel; the first satellite campuses opened in 1987 in 1989 in Lecco. During the 1990s other three branches opened in Cremona and Piacenza; the Polytechnic University of Milan offers several three-year undergraduate courses, two-year graduate courses, one-year master courses and PhD programs in the fields of engineering and design. The university offers 32 first level degree programs; the academic year is divided into two terms, or semesters, the first from mid-September to late January and the second from March to late June. There are 3 exam sessions: those at the end of each semester and one more in September. Students need to achieve 60 "university credits" per year during their Bachelor and master's degrees. Therefore, the 3-years Bachelor requires 180 credits while the 2-years Master 120; the university, like most universities in Italy, is organized to comply with the framework of the Bologna Process.
The university maintains several relations with foreign universities and offers a wide range of international projects for student exchange, The university enc
St. Edward's College, Malta
St Edward's College, Malta is a Maltese private boys' independent school, located in Cottonera. The school's population is just under 700 students, aged between 18 years, it was founded in 1929 by the school benefactor Baroness Strickland, Countess della Catena, who gave a generous gift to establish the college. The college was built on the grounds of what was once a Knights of Malta fort and the rear end of the school is still today surrounded by the bastion walls of the fort; the school was modelled on the ideas and ideals of British public schools to educate the boys of the Maltese aristocracy and the boys of the British military officers based in Malta. The Governor of Malta, Sir John Philip Du Cane, obtained the buildings of what was once the Cottonera Military Hospital in Vittoriosa, along with the parade ground adjoining to St. Clement's bastions built by the Knights of Malta; the hospital was where Florence Nightingale once worked and spent some time nursing the wounded soldiers from the Crimean War.
The perimeter of the western side of the site formed part of the impressive Cottonera lines, a fortified wall built by the Knights of St John. The extensive grounds between the bastion walls and the old hospital buildings would serve as ideal recreational areas and would give the college enough space for expansion when needed. Thus, with an ideal site secured and the necessary financial backing guaranteed, a small group of distinguished gentlemen, among them senior notable members of the Maltese nobility, gathered in the Governor's Palace in Valletta on 18 January 1929 to sign a Foundation Deed of Trust; the following October the school opened its gates to twenty-nine foundation pupils. The numbers of pupils during the college's first years would remain low due to the high fees which were necessary to keep the college running; the British Council's timely financial backing made it possible for the college to lower fees for local pupils. As a result, the population grew with an increasing number of Maltese gentry sending their boys to the school.
In the mid-1930s, an old ammunitions depot built by the Knights of St John was converted into the college's chapel. Physics and chemistry laboratories and additional dormitories were developed at this time. By the late 1930s, it became apparent that the buildings could not be altered or modified further and the construction of a new wing was proposed. However, with the advent of World War II, these plans had to be shelved since the college's perilously close proximity to Malta's main harbours necessitated a temporary relocation to the old seminary in M'dina for the duration of the war; the building of the new classrooms occurred after the boys and college masters moved back to Cottonera in 1946. With the new classrooms completed, few other structural changes were made for nearly two decades, at which point the need for modern science facilities became a pressing issue. A successful fund-raising campaign resulted in the laying of the foundation stone of the new block in 1967 by Sir Maurice Dorman, the last British Governor-General of Malta.
With a generous donation made by the Trustees of the British Boys Schools of Alexandria and the Victoria College, Alexandria Foundation, the much-needed Assembly Hall in the new block became a reality. In the 1970s, the block that used to house the married teachers was converted into the Junior School, which included an Infant's Section. Due to the college's growing popularity, the Junior School received a structural revamping and extension in 1994. Classrooms were enlarged and the designs ensured that the Junior School building now had their own drama and music hall as well as an IT room; the school has three houses named after three Governors-General of Malta: Ducane House Sir John Du Cane, Campbell House Sir David Campbell and Congreve House Sir Walter Congreve. Among the many famous alumni of the school is Cambridge University Professor Edward De Bono, known for his ideas on lateral thinking, he is an advisor to many corporations. Other well known alumni include: Architect Richard England, Former Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales, Baron Judge Igor Judge, Chief Justice Emeritus Giuseppe Mifsud Bonnici, Archbishop of Malta Charles Scicluna.
Since its foundation in 1929, the school had produced many who went on to serve in the British military and the Colonial Service in Egypt and the Sudan. The school has an old-boys' association known as the Old Edwardian Association. Education in Malta List of schools in Malta David Cannadine. Aspects of Aristocracy: Grandeur and Decline in Modern Britain. Yale University Press. ISBN 0300059817. Stuart Rossiter. Malta - The Blue guide. Benn Press. ISBN 0300059817. Www.stedwards.edu.mt, the school's official website
University of Bath
The University of Bath is a public university located in Bath, United Kingdom. It received its royal charter in 1966, along with a number of other institutions following the Robbins Report. Like the University of Bristol and University of the West of England, Bath can trace its roots to the Merchant Venturers' Technical College, established in Bristol as a school in 1595 by the Society of Merchant Venturers; the university's main campus is located on Claverton Down, a site overlooking the city of Bath, was purpose-built, constructed from 1964 in the modernist style of the time. In the 2014 Research Excellence Framework, 32% of Bath's submitted research activity achieved the highest possible classification of 4*, defined as world-leading in terms of originality and rigour. 87% was graded 4*/3*, defined as world-leading/internationally excellent. The annual income of the institution for 2017–18 was £287.9 million of which £37.0 million was from research grants and contracts, with an expenditure of £283.1 million.
As of 2018, in national rankings the university is placed 5th according to the Guardian, 11th in the Complete University Guide and 12th by the Times/Sunday Times. Internationally it is placed in the top 400 by the 2016 ARWU and has featured in the top 300 in the 2016, 2017 and 2018 THE World University Rankings. In The Times and The Sunday Times Good University Guide 2014 the university was awarded the title of "Best Campus University in Britain". and in 2012 the title of ‘University of the Year 2011/12’. The university is a member of the Association of Commonwealth Universities, the Association of MBAs, the European Quality Improvement System, the European University Association, Universities UK and GW4; the University of Bath can trace its roots to the Merchant Venturers' Technical College, an institution founded as a school in 1595 and a technical school established in Bristol in 1856 which became part of the Society of Merchant Venturers in 1885. Meanwhile, in the neighbouring city of Bath, a pharmaceutical school, the Bath School of Pharmacy, was founded in 1907.
This became part of the Technical College in 1929. The college came under the control of the Bristol Education Authority in 1949; the college was housed in the former Muller's Orphanage at Ashley Down in Bristol, which still houses part of the City of Bristol College whilst the remainder has been converted into residential housing. In 1963, the Robbins Committee report paved the way for the college to assume university status as Bath University of Technology. Although the grounds of Kings Weston House, in Bristol, were considered — which and until 1969, accommodated the College's School of Architecture and Building Engineering — the City of Bristol was unable to offer the expanding college an appropriately sized single site. Following discussions between the College Principal and the Director of Education in Bath, an agreement was reached to provide the college with a new home in Claverton Down, Bath, on a greenfield site, purchased through a compulsory purchase order from the Candy family of Norwood Farm, overlooking the city.
Construction of the purpose-built campus began in 1964, with the first building, now known as 4 South, completed in 1965, the Royal Charter was granted in 1966. In November 1966, the first degree ceremony took place at the Assembly Rooms in Bath. Over the subsequent decade, new buildings were added. In the mid-19th century, there were plans to build a college of the University of Oxford on the site; the university logo features the so-called Gorgon's head, taken, via the university's coat of arms, from a Roman sculpture found in the city. Until 30 October 2012, it was a member of the 1994 Group. A report by the Higher Education Funding Council for England into governance at the University was published on 20 November 2017; the Vice Chancellor of the University is the highest paid in the country. The university's main campus is located on Claverton Down 1.5 miles from the centre of Bath. The site is compact; the design involved the separation of vehicular and pedestrian traffic, with road traffic on the ground floors and pedestrians on a raised central thoroughfare, known as the Parade.
Buildings would line the parade and student residences built on tower blocks rise from the central thoroughfare. Such plans were followed. At the centre of the campus is the Library and Learning Centre, a facility open round the clock offering computing services and research assistance as well as books and journals. A number of outlets are housed around the parade, including restaurants and fast-food cafés, plus two banks, a union shop and two small supermarkets, as well as academic blocks. Building names are based on their distance vis-à-vis the library. Odd-numbered buildings are on the same side of the parade as the Library, even-numbered buildings are on the opposite side. Buildings along the east-west axis are directly accessible from the parade, considered to be "level two", but additions, such as 7 West, 9 West, 3 West North and 8 East, follow the rule less strictly. 7 West is accessible only via 5 West or 9 West, 3 West North, 9 West and 8 East have entrances at ground level at varying distances from the main parade.
Buildings on the south of the campus, 1 South to 4 South, are accessible via roads and p