Trinity Laban Conservatoire of Music and Dance
Trinity Laban Conservatoire of Music and Dance is a music and dance conservatoire based in London, England. It was formed in 2005 as a merger of two older institutions – Trinity College of Music and Laban Dance Centre. Today the conservatoire has 1,015 undergraduate and postgraduate students based at three campuses in Greenwich and Deptford and New Cross. Trinity College of Music was founded in central London in 1872 by the Reverend Henry George Bonavia Hunt to improve the teaching of church music; the College began as the Church Choral Society, whose diverse activities included choral singing classes and teaching instruction in church music. Gladstone was an early supporter during these years. A year in 1873, the college became the College of Church Music, London. In 1876 the college was incorporated as the Trinity College London. Only male students could attend and they had to be members of the Church of England. In 1881, the College moved to Mandeville Place off Wigmore Street in Central London, which remained its home for over a hundred years.
The college took over various neighbouring buildings in Mandeville Place. These were united in 1922 with the addition of a Grecian portico, substantial internal reconstruction to create a first floor concert hall and an impressive staircase. However, other parts of the college retained a complicated layout reflecting its history as three separate buildings; the building is now occupied by the School of Economic Science. Trinity moved to its present home in Greenwich in 2001; the east wing of King Charles Court was constructed by John Webb as part of a rebuilding of Greenwich Palace. To make the buildings suitable for Trinity's use and remove the accretions of a century of RNC occupation required a substantial refurbishment programme. Work to provide new recital rooms revealed that the building's core incorporates masonry from the Tudor palace; the overall cost of the move to Greenwich was £17 million. Many of the college's staff teach at the Junior Trinity, a Saturday music school for talented young musicians who are keen on pursuing a musical career.
Trinity was the first music college to create such a department, many conservatoires have now followed in Trinity's steps. Admission into the Faculty of Music is by competitive auditions, held annually in November or December and March or April; the Faculty of Dance asks for similar qualifications and entry is by audition. The Conservatoire has an acceptance rate of around 9.9% making Trinity Laban one of the most selective schools in the UK and Europe. Trinity College London was founded in 1877 as the external examinations board of Trinity College of Music. Today, the board's examinations are taken by students in over 60 countries, giving external students the opportunity to attain qualifications across a range of disciplines in the performing arts and arts education and English language learning and teaching. Trinity College London is based at the Blue Fin Building in central London. Trinity College London validated Trinity College of Music's Graduate Diploma before it was replaced by the BMus model in 1997.
Trinity College of Music has an historical association with Freemasonry, with the Trinity College Lodge No 1765 being founded in 1878 by seven early teaching members of the college who were freemasons, including the founder, the Reverend Henry George Bonavia Hunt. In the past, freemasonry was an important though private feature of the life of the College, among both members of staff and the undergraduate and postgraduate men. Trinity College Lodge is no longer associated with the college, since no member of the college belongs to it. By co-incidence, the College's patron, HRH The Duke of Kent, has been Grand Master of the United Grand Lodge of England since 1968. Laban Dance Centre was founded in Manchester as the Art of Movement Studio by Rudolf Laban, an Austro-Hungarian dancer, choreographer and a dance/movement theoretician. In 1958, the school moved from Manchester to Addlestone in Surrey, to New Cross in London in 1975 where it was renamed the Laban Centre for Movement and Dance. In 1997, it was renamed the Laban Centre London.
In 2002, the centre was renamed, Laban. Laban offers undergraduate, amongst other courses; the Faculty of Dance provides classes for adults and young people on the local community including Centre for Advanced Training. Laban Creekside includes 12 purpose build dance studios. Laban Laurie Grove has a number of studios and performance laboratories. Designed by Swiss architects Jacques Herzog and Pierre de Meuron, the centre's building in Deptford won the Stirling Prize for Architecture in 2003. Herzog and de Meuron collaborated with visual artist Michael Craig-Martin to create the building; the building includes an eco-technological roof known as a "brown roof". The Trinity Laban Conservatoire of Music and Dance is internationally recognised as a leading school for music and dance training; the school has been ranked ninth in the world's top 10 music schools. The website shareranks.org listed it as 11th in a list of Best Music Colleges/Conservatories in the world. In The Guardian University Guide 2011, Trinity Laban was ra
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
John Crosby (conductor)
John O’Hea Crosby was an American musician and arts administrator. He is most celebrated as the founding general director of The Santa Fe Opera, a company he oversaw for 43 years. A bout of asthma interrupted Crosby’s early studies in Connecticut, it was Crosby’s first introduction to the West and to the Santa Fe area. After graduating from The Hotchkiss School, Crosby served in the US Army for two years between 1944 and 1946, with time spent in Europe and some with the 18th Regimental Band handling piano, violin and double bass. Attending Yale as an undergraduate soon followed, but at Yale he studied composition with Paul Hindemith and created musical arrangements for musical productions. He graduated with a degree in music in 1950. Having decided that music was to be his life, Crosby spent a few months as an assistant arranger for Broadway musicals before returning to graduate studies at Columbia University between 1951 and 1955. During these years, he became an opera lover, attending the Met and working as the piano accompanist assistant to Dr. Leopold Sachse, the former artistic director of the Hamburg State Opera, teacher of opera classes at Columbia.
In 1951, during a period of regular attendance at the Met as a standee, Crosby saw the Alfred Lunt production of Cosi fan tutte, which influenced him in developing a concept for the future Santa Fe Opera. During the three years preceding Santa Fe’s first season in 1957, Crosby meticulously planned for its creation and encouraged by Dr. Sachse. Asked in a 1991 interview why he founded the company, Crosby responded: "Because of Rudolf Bing" and he went on to explain that Bing's influential productions at the Met in the 1950s had caused him to regard opera "as a serious art form". By this time, Crosby's parents had bought a second home on land located about three miles north of Santa Fe. Close to this location, the San Juan Ranch, a 199-acre guest ranch, became available and, sponsored by his father with a loan of $200,000 to the fledgling company the purchase was completed. From this location Crosby and Sachse selected the specific site of the open-air theatre, planned to seat 480 and to be "the only outdoor theatre in America designed for opera".
In addition, Crosby calculated that about $60,000 was needed to be raised to support the first summer’s operations. Several things characterized Crosby’s approach to the presentation of opera in Santa Fe: all operas were to be sung in English to make them as accessible as possible; the 13 singers who were engaged were young. As Crosby noted: In this country young artists have to do something, impossible – gain experience, but with our plan, these young people will be scheduled in small roles and will have the opportunity of working with their older brothers and sisters who have won their spurs. To get such experience now, a young artist has to go to Europe; the current Apprentice Program for Singers and Technicians continues at The Santa Fe Opera today. Annually, 1,000 singer applicants competed for 43 positions and, of the 900 technician applications, 90 were chosen as apprentices; some apprentices are invited to return for a second season. The program for the first season was characteristic of most of the seasons which Crosby subsequently programmed.
It was an adventurous one consisting of five operas in rotating repertory. There were two popular ones, Madama Butterfly and Il barbiere di Siviglia. Photographs exist of the composer attending rehearsals; the first six performances were sold out and, in spite of some rainouts during what turned out to be one of Santa Fe’s wettest summers, the season was an unquestionable success, creating both national and international attention. Crosby’s tenure as general director was the longest of any opera company director in the US. In addition, between 1957 and 2005, the company staged 135 operas, 11 of which were world premieres and 41 were American premieres. Among the commissioned works which Crosby presented as world premieres are Carlisle Floyd’s Wuthering Heights during the second season in 1958 and Tobias Picker’s Emmeline in 1996, while distinguished American premieres include six operas by Richard Strauss and six operas by Hans Werner Henze between 1965 and 2000. Igor Stravinsky was to return to Santa Fe each summer until 1963 during which time he
Sir James Galway, is an Irish virtuoso flute player from Belfast, nicknamed "The Man with the Golden Flute". He established an international career as a solo flute player. Galway was born in East Belfast near the Belfast docks as one of two brothers, his father, who played the flute, was employed at the Harland and Wolff shipyard until the end of World War II and spent night-shifts cleaning buses after the war, while his mother, a pianist, was a winder in a flax-spinning mill. Surrounded by a tradition of flute bands and many friends and family members who played the instrument, he was taught the flute by his uncle at the age of nine and joined his fife and drum corps. At the age of eleven Galway won the junior and open Belfast flute Championships in a single day, his first instrument was a five-key Irish flute, at the age of twelve or thirteen, he received a Boehm instrument. He worked as an apprentice to a piano repairer for two years, he subsequently went to London to study the flute at the Royal College of Music under John Francis and at the Guildhall School of Music under Geoffrey Gilbert.
He studied at the Paris Conservatoire under Gaston Crunelle and Jean-Pierre Rampal and privately with Marcel Moyse. After his education he spent fifteen years as an orchestral player, he has played with Sadler's Wells Opera, Covent Garden Opera, the London Symphony Orchestra and the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra. He auditioned for the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra under Herbert von Karajan, was principal flute of that orchestra from 1969 to 1975. To Karajan's surprise and dismay, after a period of some disagreement, Galway decided that he would leave to pursue a solo career. In addition to his performances of the standard classical repertoire, he features contemporary music in his programmes, including new flute works commissioned by and for him by composers including David Amram, Malcolm Arnold, William Bolcom, John Corigliano, John Wolf Brennan, Dave Heath, Lowell Liebermann and Joaquín Rodrigo; the album James Galway and The Chieftains in Ireland by Galway and The Chieftains reached number 32 in the UK Albums Chart in 1987.
Galway still performs and is one of the world's most well-known flute players. His recordings have sold over 30 million copies. In 1990, he was invited by Roger Waters to play at The Wall – Live in Berlin concert, held in Potsdamer Platz. Galway performed for the Academy Award-winning ensemble recording the soundtracks of Peter Jackson's The Lord of the Rings film trilogy, composed by Howard Shore. In June 2008, he was inducted into the Hollywood Bowl Hall of Fame along with Liza Minnelli and B. B. King, he performs on Nagahara flutes, as well as some Muramatsu Flutes. Conn-Selmer produces his line of flutes, "Galway Spirit Flutes". Galway is president of Flutewise, a global charitable organisation that supports young flute players, run by Liz Goodwin. In 2003 he formed the Music Education Consortium together with Julian Lloyd Webber, Evelyn Glennie, Michael Kamen to pressure the British Government into providing better music education in schools, he is an Ambassador for the National Foundation for a UK charity.
He was made an Officer of the Order of the British Empire in 1977, was knighted in 2001, the first wind player to receive that honour. He is a National Patron of an international professional music fraternity. In December 2013 Galway launched First Flute, an online interactive series of lessons for beginning flute students of all ages, he received the 2014 Gramophone Lifetime Achievement Award. Galway has been married three times, his first marriage, to a Frenchwoman, produced a son. He married his second wife, Anna Renggli, a daughter of a well-known Swiss architect, in 1972, moved from Berlin to Lucerne, her hometown; the couple had a son. In 1978 he recorded for her an instrumental version of John Denver's "Annie's Song", it peaked at no. 3 in the UK Singles Chart. After their divorce he moved to Meggen, Switzerland, a village next to Lucerne, where he resides now with his third wife, the American-born Jeanne Galway, whom he married in 1984, they tour together playing duets. In addition, they give master classes for flutists of all levels.
Galway is a dedicated Christian who visits various types of churches while travelling and prays before his concert performances. He wears a cross pendant, about which he says, "It's not jewellery. It's something that reminds me of what I should be doing and how I should be behaving." In August 1977, Galway was run over by a large speeding motorcycle in Lucerne, breaking his left arm and both legs and requiring a four-month hospital stay. He has the eye condition nystagmus, is a patron of the Nystagmus Network, a UK-based support group for people with the condition. On 23 December 2009, he fell down a flight of stairs at his home, fracturing his left wrist and shattering his right elbow. Appearing on The Nolan Show in June 2015, Galway stated that he views his national identity as Irish, he was critical of the actions of the Northern Irish government during his childhood, singled out prominent Unionist figures such as Ian Paisley for fostering the division that led to The Troubles. His comments were criticised among them Sammy Wilson.
Describing Northern Ireland as "the British-occupied part of Ireland", Galway further elaborated he would like "Ireland to be Ireland" and that when people ask him where he comes from he says "Ireland" and when asked if he is "Irish", he replies affirmatively. James's younger brother George Galway (born Belfas
Mary Violet Leontyne Price is an American soprano. Born and raised in Laurel, she rose to international acclaim in the 1950s and 1960s, was the first African American to become a prima donna at the Metropolitan Opera. One critic characterized Price's voice as "vibrant", "soaring" and "a Price beyond pearls", as well as "genuinely buttery produced but under control", with phrases that "took on a seductive sinuousness." Time magazine called her voice "Rich and shining, it was in its prime capable of effortlessly soaring from a smoky mezzo to the pure soprano gold of a spun high C."A lirico spinto soprano, she was considered well suited to the roles of Giuseppe Verdi and Giacomo Puccini, as well as several in operas by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. After her retirement from the opera stage in 1985, she continued to appear in recitals and orchestral concerts until 1997. Among her many honors are the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the Spingarn Medal, the Kennedy Center Honors, the National Medal of Arts, numerous honorary degrees, 19 Grammy Awards for operatic and song recitals and full operas, a special Lifetime Achievement Award in 1989, more than any other classical singer.
In October 2008, she was one of the recipients of the first Opera Honors given by the National Endowment for the Arts. Leontyne Price was born in Mississippi, her father James worked in a lumber mill and her mother Katie was a midwife who sang in the church choir. They had waited 13 years for a child, Leontyne became the focus of intense pride and love. Given a toy piano at the age of three, she began piano lessons with a local teacher; when she was in kindergarten, her parents traded in the family phonograph as the down payment on an upright piano. At 14, she was taken on a school trip to hear Marian Anderson sing in Jackson, an experience she said was inspirational. In her teen years, Leontyne accompanied the "second choir" at St. Paul's Methodist Church and played for the chorus at the black high school, earned extra money by singing for funerals and civic functions. Meanwhile, she visited the home of Alexander and Elizabeth Chisholm, where Leontyne's aunt worked as a laundress. A wealthy white family connected to the largest lumber company in Laurel, the Chisholms encouraged Leontyne's piano playing and singing, sometimes hired her to entertain guests.
During World War II, Leontyne worked part-time in the Chisholm household as a maid and baby-sitter, was allowed to play the piano and to listen to music on the radio and record player. Mrs. Chisholm accompanied Leontyne in recitals and church appearances in and near Laurel, helped defray some of her college expenses. Aiming at first for a teaching career, Price enrolled in the music education program at the all-black Wilberforce College in Wilberforce, Ohio. Success in the glee club led to solos, her teachers began to encourage her to pursue studies in voice. With the help of the Chisholms and the famous bass Paul Robeson, who put on a benefit concert for her, she enrolled at the Juilliard School in New York City, she won a scholarship and was admitted to the studio of Florence Page Kimball, who would remain her principal teacher and advisor throughout the 1960s. Price is a member of Delta Sigma Theta. In the summer of 1951, she studied in the opera program at the Berkshire Music Center and sang the leading role in a production of Strauss' Ariadne auf Naxos, her first leading role.
In early 1952 she was Mistress Ford in Juilliard student production of Verdi's Falstaff. Shortly thereafter, Virgil Thomson hired her for the revival of his all-black opera, Four Saints in Three Acts. After a two-week Broadway run, Saints went to Paris. Meanwhile, she had been cast as Bess in the Blevins Davis/Robert Breen revival of George Gershwin's Porgy and Bess, returned from France in time to sing the opening night at the State Fair of Texas on June 9, 1952; the tour went on to Chicago and Washington, D. C. and Europe, sponsored by the U. S. State Department. On the eve of the European tour, Price married the noted bass-baritone William Warfield, the lead Porgy in the Davis-Breen production; the wedding was held at the Abyssinian Baptist Church in Harlem, with many of the cast in attendance. In a memoir, My Music and My Life, Warfield says, they were separated in 1967, divorced in 1973. They had no children. At first, though excited about opera, Price discounted her chances and planned instead on a recital career.
She used as a model the careers of Marian Anderson, tenor Roland Hayes and other successful black concert singers. Amid performances of Porgy, she sang the premiere of Hermit Songs, a song cycle by Samuel Barber, at the Library of Congress, she premiered new works by Lou Harrison and John La Montaine. However, she had proved in "Porgy" that she had the voice and the personality for the operatic stage, the Met itself recognized this by inviting her to sing "Summertime" at a "Met Jamboree" fund-raiser on April 6, 1953 at the Ritz Theater on Broadway. Price was therefore the first African American; that distinction went to Marian Anderson, who, on January 7, 1955, sang Ulrica in Verdi's Un ballo in maschera. In November 1954, Price made her recital debut at New York's Town Hall with a program that featured the New York premiere of Samuel Barber's cycle Hermit Songs, with the composer at the piano, set out on her first recital tour in th
Santa Fe Opera
Santa Fe Opera is an American opera company, located 7 miles north of Santa Fe, New Mexico. After creating the Opera Association of New Mexico in 1956, its founding director, John Crosby, oversaw the building of the first opera house on a newly acquired former guest ranch of 199 acres; the company has presented operas each summer festival season since July 1957, is internationally known for introducing new operas as well as for its productions of the standard operatic repertoire. Since its inception, Santa Fe Opera has staged 43 American premieres and 15 world premieres, as of 2017. John Crosby, a New York-based conductor, founded the company in 1956 with the financial support of his parents, who helped in the acquisition of the land and the building of the first opera house. One goal was to give American singers the opportunity to learn and perform new roles while having ample time for rehearsal and preparation in the context of a summer festival situation with the presentation of five operas in repertory.
Its first season began on 3 July 1957 with a performance of Puccini's Madama Butterfly. Crosby remained as general director until 2000, the longest general directorship in US opera history. Richard Gaddes served as the company's general director from 2000 through 2008. In November 2007, SFO named Charles MacKay the company's third general director, effective 1 October 2008. In August 2017, the company announced the intention of MacKay to stand down as its general director after the 2018 season. In addition to being the opera company's founding general director, Crosby had served as its de facto first principal conductor. Alan Gilbert became the company's first music director from 2003 to 2006. Kenneth Montgomery, a regular guest conductor starting in 1982, served as interim music director for the 2007 season. In July 2007, Edo de Waart was named as chief conductor, effective 1 October 2007, with an initial contract was of four years, he was the first conductor to hold that title with the company However, in November 2008, the company announced that de Waart stood down from the post before the end of his contract, with de Waart citing health and family reasons for this decision.
In May 2010, the company announced the appointment of Frédéric Chaslin as the company's next chief conductor, effective 1 October 2010, with an initial contract of three years. However, in August 2012, Chaslin resigned as the Opera's chief conductor. In April 2013, the company announced the appointments of Harry Bicket as its next chief conductor, effective 1 October 2013, of Montgomery as conductor laureate for the 2013 season. In November 2016, the company announced the extension of Bicket's contract as chief conductor through 30 September 2020. In February 2018, the company announced the appointments of Robert K. Meya as its next general director and of Alexander Neef as its first-ever artistic director, the elevation of Harry Bicket from chief conductor of the company to its music director, with three appointments effective as of 1 October 2018. In October 2018, the company announced the extension of Bicket's contract as music director through the 2023 season. From the beginning, certain characteristics of what was to become a typical season emerged.
It runs annually from late June or the beginning of July to the third week of August, with five operas presented in rotating repertory. From the time of Crosby's inception of the company, two popular operas opened the season. An American premiere was in the program and these included works commissioned by the company. A lifelong lover of the operas of Richard Strauss, Crosby scheduled one and presented many American premieres of the composer’s work, an example being the 1964 U. S. premiere of the 1938 Daphne. The fifth opera was a performed work; the same philosophy continues to the present day. For modern works, US premiere productions of contemporary operas include Thomas Adès' The Tempest, Tan Dun's Tea: A Mirror of Soul, Kaija Saariaho's Adriana Mater, the July 2009 world premiere of The Letter, by composer Paul Moravec and librettist Terry Teachout, the first full production of Lewis Spratlan's Life Is a Dream in July 2010. World premieres have included Jennifer Higdon's Cold Mountain, and Mason Bates' and Mark Campbell's The evolution of Steve Jobs.
General Directors John Crosby Richard Gaddes Charles MacKay Robert Meya Artistic Directors Alexander Neef Conductors in leadership positions John Crosby Alan Gilbert Kenneth Montgomery Edo de Waart Frédéric Chaslin Kenneth Montgomery Harry Bicket In his first season, Crosby created the Apprentice Singer Program, whereby eight young people were to be given living expenses and paid per performance to be members of the chorus and to cover major roles. Unusual for its time in America in the 1950s, the Apprentice Singers Program helped young singers to make the transition from academic to professional life. To date, over 1,500 aspiring opera singers have participated; as Crosby noted: "In this country young artists have to do something, impossible – gain experience. But with our plan, these young people will be scheduled in small roles and will have the opportunity of working with their older brothers and sisters who have won their spurs. To get such experience now, a young artist has to go to Europe."The Apprentice Program for Technicians was added in 1965.
The program has for