American Civil Liberties Union
The American Civil Liberties Union is a nonprofit organization whose stated mission is "to defend and preserve the individual rights and liberties guaranteed to every person in this country by the Constitution and laws of the United States." Nonpartisan, the organization has been supported and criticized by liberal and conservative organizations alike. The ACLU works through litigation and lobbying and it has over 1,200,000 members and an annual budget of over $100 million. Local affiliates of the ACLU are active in all 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico; the ACLU provides legal assistance in cases. Legal support from the ACLU can take the form of direct legal representation or preparation of amicus curiae briefs expressing legal arguments when another law firm is providing representation. In addition to representing persons and organizations in lawsuits, the ACLU lobbies for policy positions that have been established by its board of directors. Current positions of the ACLU include: opposing the death penalty.
The ACLU consists of two separate but affiliated nonprofit organizations: the American Civil Liberties Union, a 501 social welfare group, the ACLU Foundation, a 501 public charity. Both organizations engage in civil rights litigation and education, but only donations to the 501 foundation are tax deductible, only the 501 group can engage in unlimited political lobbying; the two organizations share employees. The ACLU was founded in 1920 by a committee including Helen Keller, Roger Baldwin, Crystal Eastman, Walter Nelles, Morris Ernst, Albert DeSilver, Arthur Garfield Hays, Jane Addams, Felix Frankfurter, Elizabeth Gurley Flynn, Rose Schneiderman, its focus was on freedom of speech for anti-war protesters. During the 1920s, the ACLU expanded its scope to include protecting the free speech rights of artists and striking workers, working with the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People to decrease racism and discrimination. During the 1930s, the ACLU started to engage in work combating police misconduct and supporting Native American rights.
Many of the ACLU's cases involved Jehovah's Witnesses. In 1940, the ACLU leadership voted to exclude Communists from its leadership positions, a decision rescinded in 1968. During World War II, the ACLU defended Japanese-American citizens, unsuccessfully trying to prevent their forcible relocation to internment camps. During the Cold War, the ACLU headquarters was dominated by anti-communists, but many local affiliates defended members of the Communist Party. By 1964, membership had risen to 80,000, the ACLU participated in efforts to expand civil liberties. In the 1960s, the ACLU continued its decades-long effort to enforce separation of state, it defended several anti-war activists during the Vietnam War. The ACLU was involved in the Miranda case, which addressed conduct by police during interrogations, in the New York Times case, which established new protections for newspapers reporting on government activities. In the 1970s and 1980s, the ACLU ventured into new legal areas, involving the rights of homosexuals, students and the poor.
In the twenty-first century, the ACLU has fought the teaching of creationism in public schools and challenged some provisions of anti-terrorism legislation as infringing on privacy and civil liberties. Fundraising and membership spiked after the 2016 election; the ACLU is led by a president and an executive director, Susan N. Herman and Anthony Romero in 2015; the president acts as chairman of the ACLU's board of directors, leads fundraising, facilitates policy-setting. The executive director manages the day-to-day operations of the organization; the board of directors consists of 80 persons, including representatives from each state affiliate, as well as at-large delegates. The organization has its headquarters in 125 Broad Street, a 40-story skyscraper located in Lower Manhattan, New York City; the leadership of the ACLU does not always agree on policy decisions. In 1937, an internal debate erupted over whether to defend Henry Ford's right to distribute anti-union literature. In 1939, a heated debate took place over whether to prohibit communists from serving in ACLU leadership roles.
During the early 1950s and Cold War McCarthyism, the board was divided on whether to defend communists. In 1968, a schism formed over. In 1973, there was internal conflict over. In 2005, there was internal conflict about whether or not a gag rule should be imposed on ACLU employees to prevent publication of internal disputes. In the year ending March 31, 2014, the ACLU and the ACLU Foundation had a combined income from support and revenue of $100.4 million, originating from grants, membership donations, donated legal services and revenue. Membership dues are treated as donations. In the year ending March 31, 2014, the combined expenses of the ACLU and ACLU Foundation were $133.4 million, s
Ray Milton Blanchard is an American-Canadian sexologist, best known for his research studies on transsexualism and sexual orientation. He has published research studies on phallometry and several paraphilias, including autoerotic asphyxia. Blanchard was born in New Jersey, he received his A. B. in psychology from the University of Pennsylvania in 1967 and his Ph. D. from the University of Illinois in 1973. He conducted postdoctoral research at Dalhousie University until 1976, when he accepted a position as a clinical psychologist at the Ontario Correctional Institute in Brampton, Canada. There, Blanchard met Kurt Freund, who became his mentor. Freund was conducting research in chemical castration for sex offenders. In 1980, he joined the Clarke Institute of Psychiatry. In 1995 Blanchard was named Head of Clinical Sexology Services in the Law and Mental Health Programme of the CAMH, where he served until 2010, he is an adjunct Professor of Psychiatry at the University of Toronto. He served on the American Psychiatric Association DSM-IV Subcommittee on Gender Identity Disorders and was named to the DSM-5 committee.
According to the Web of Science, Blanchard's scientific articles have been cited more than 1800 times, with an h-index of 27. Blanchard has conducted research on factors that influence the development of sexual orientation, including biological factors, he has proposed a theory known as older brother effect. This theory is that the more older brothers a man has, the greater the probability is that he will have a homosexual sexual orientation; the number of older sisters has no effect, however. The same is not true for lesbians—neither the number of older brothers nor the number of older sisters appears to be related to the sexual orientation of women; the fraternal birth order effect has been described by one of its proponents as "the most consistent biodemographic correlate of sexual orientation in men", with each older brother increasing a man's odds of being gay by about 33%. Blanchard hypothesizes that the older brother effect is caused by interactions between a male fetus and the immune system of the mother: because certain proteins are produced by male and not by female fetuses, the mother's immune system reacts only to male fetuses and is more to produce a reaction with each successive exposure to a male fetus.
Blanchard coined the term "autogynephilia" to describe trans women with an erotic desire "to be women," and hypothesized that all gender dysphoria experienced by this group is of two types: "homosexual" gender dysphoria and "non-homosexual" gender dysphoria. Blanchard defined the former as being present in transsexuals attracted to men, while he defined the latter as being present in transsexuals attracted to the idea of themselves as women. Within the transgender community the idea has been criticized. Blanchard's findings and research have been rejected by the World Professional Association for Transgender Health, the largest association of medical professionals who provides care for transsexual people, as lacking empirical evidence. Blanchard supports public funding of sex reassignment surgery as an appropriate treatment for transsexual people, as he believes the available evidence supports that the surgery helps them live more comfortably and with high satisfaction rates. Blanchard defined autogynephilic as "a man's paraphilic tendency to be sexually aroused by the thought or image of himself as a woman".
He researched this theory by conducting a test on a sample of 119 MtF transsexuals who submitted an anonymous questionnaire to test if they were autogynephilic or homosexual. Blanchard believed that not all transsexuals fit in the category of "homosexual" and that some were instead autogynephilic transsexuals. Survey participants felt that they were neither homosexual nor autogynephilic transsexuals and should not be classified in either group. A majority felt that the sexual attraction to become a women weakened with age, but others reported that they had noticed a change after physical transition. Blanchard concluded that transsexuals were either sexually aroused by men, androphilic, or aroused by the thought of being a women, nonandrophilic; the number of transgender women has increased over the past several decades. More and more individuals have undergone operations and hormone therapy, they believe that their gender identity, defined as "one's inner sense of being male or female, masculine or feminine", did not match the body they were in.
According to Blanchard, "Autogynephilic transsexuals were men who were sexually attracted to women, but whose paraphilic sexual interest made them want to go farther and permanently change their bodies to become the objects of their attraction". Blanchard coined the term teleiophilia to refer to a sexual preference for adults. Unlike the terms referring to sexual interest in other age groups, such as pedophilia, teleiophilia is not considered a paraphilia; the term was formalized in order to forestall neologisms, such as "adultophilia" or "normophilia," that were used, but had no precise definition. The term is used by professional sexologists in the scientific literature. Blanchard served on the gender dysphoria sub-working group for the DSM-IV and served as Chair of the paraphilia sub-working group for the DSM-5. Activists protested the latter appointment; the National Gay and Lesbian Task Force issued a statement questioning the APA's decision to appoint Blanchard. In 2008, Blanchard was the lead author of an influential paper proposing the introduction of hebephilia in the DSM-5.
The paper, coauthored
Elke Sommer, born Elke Baronesse von Schletz, is a German actress and artist who starred in many Hollywood films. Sommer was born in Berlin to Baron Peter von Schletz, a Lutheran minister, his wife Renata, nee Topp. During the Second World War the family was evacuated to Niederndorf, a village near Erlangen, a small university town in Franconia, where she attended the Gymnasium, her father died. She graduated from high school with an Abitur. After this, she moved to the UK to be an au pair, to perfect her English, to earn a living. There, she received some training as an interpreter, she was spotted by film director Vittorio De Sica while on holiday in Italy, started appearing in films there in 1958. It was in this year that she changed her surname from'Schletz' to'Sommer', easier to pronounce for a non-German audience, she became a noted sex symbol and moved to Hollywood in the early 1960s. She became one of the most popular pin-up girls of the time, posed for several pictorials in Playboy Magazine, those for the September 1964 and December 1967 issues being most noteworthy.
She became one of the top film actresses of the 1960s and made 99 film and television appearances between 1959 and 2005, including A Shot in the Dark with Peter Sellers as Inspector Clouseau, The Art of Love with James Garner and Dick Van Dyke, The Oscar with Stephen Boyd, Did I Get a Wrong Number! with Bob Hope, the Bulldog Drummond extravaganza Deadlier Than the Male, The Wrecking Crew with Dean Martin, The Wicked Dreams of Paula Schultz. In 1964, she won a Golden Globe award as Most Promising Newcomer Actress for The Prize, a film in which she co-starred with Paul Newman and Edward G. Robinson. A frequent guest on television, Sommer sang and participated in comedy sketches on episodes of The Dean Martin Show and on Bob Hope specials, made 10 appearances on The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson, was a panelist on the Hollywood Squares game show many times between 1973 and 1980, when Peter Marshall was its "Square-Master," or host. Sommer's films during the 1970s included the thriller Zeppelin, in which she co-starred with Michael York, a remake of Agatha Christie's oft-filmed murder mystery, Ten Little Indians.
In 1972, she starred in two Italian horror films directed by Mario Bava: Baron Blood and Lisa and the Devil. The latter was subsequently re-edited to make a different film called House of Exorcism. Sommer went back to Italy to act in additional scenes for Lisa and the Devil that its producer inserted into the film to convert it to House of Exorcism, against the wishes of the director. In 1975, Peter Rogers cast her in the British comedy Carry On Behind as the Russian Professor Vrooshka, she became the Carry On films' highest-paid performer, at £30,000. Most of her movie work during the decade came in European films. After the 1979 comedy The Prisoner of Zenda, which reunited her with Sellers, the actress did no more acting in Hollywood films, concentrating more on her artwork. Sommer performed as a singer and releasing several albums, she provided the voice for Yzma in the German release of The Emperor's New Groove. In the 1980s, Sommer was hosting a syndicated program titled The Exciting World of Beauty.
When she subsequently gave up that engagement, Dan Pastorini was recruited to succeed her, but his tenure was not as successful as hers. After the 1990s, Sommer concentrated more on painting than on acting; as an actress, she had worked in half a dozen countries learning the languages and storing up images which she has subsequently expressed on canvas. Her artwork shows a strong Marc Chagall influence. Sommer was embroiled in a long-running feud with Zsa Zsa Gabor that had begun in 1984 when both had appeared on Circus of the Stars. In 2001, a Golden Palm Star on the Palm Springs, Walk of Stars was dedicated to her; as of early May 2017, Frau Baronin von Sommer was living in California. In 1964, she married Hollywood columnist Joe Hyams, 17 years older, in Las Vegas in front of a Justice of the Peace. Sommer suffered her first miscarriage while working on the set of The Money Trap, in which she co-starred with Glenn Ford and Rita Hayworth. A second miscarriage followed one year during the filming of Boy, Did I Get A Wrong Number, in which she starred with Bob Hope under the direction of George Marshall.
In 1973, Sommer and Hyams tried again to start a family. While working on the set of Die Reise nach Wien she suffered her third miscarriage. By her marriage was on the rocks, her mother, Renata von Schletz, accompanied her to film sets as well as on cinema tours after Elke Sommer's marriage to Joe Hyams had failed and a new man came into her life: Tom Bohla. Bohla moved in with Sommer, who had separated from her husband, but was still sharing the house with him and had no intention of filing for divorce, she met Wolf Walther, eight years her junior and the general manager of New York City's luxury hotel Essex House. They were married on 29 August 1993 in Franconia. In a 2014 interview, Sommer described how she and Walther met: "I was in New York City starring in Tamara and had to stay there for four months. So, I had to find an apartment but they were excruciatingly expensive and loud; as I knew the managing director of the Essex House, I wanted to talk to him about renting a room but the hotel had a new managing dir
The Juris Doctor degree known as the Doctor of Jurisprudence degree, is a graduate-entry professional degree in law and one of several Doctor of Law degrees. The Juris Doctor is earned by completing law school in Australia, the United States, some other common law countries, it has the academic standing of a professional doctorate in the United States, a master's degree in Australia, a second-entry, baccalaureate degree in Canada. The degree was first awarded in the United States in the early 20th century and was created as a modern version of the old European doctor of law degree. Originating from the 19th-century Harvard movement for the scientific study of law, it is a degree that in most common law jurisdictions is the primary professional preparation for lawyers, it involves a three-year program in most jurisdictions. To be authorized to practice law in the courts of a given state in the United States, the majority of individuals holding a J. D. degree must pass a bar examination. The state of Wisconsin, permits the graduates of its two law schools to practice law in that state, in its state courts, without having to take its bar exam—a practice called "diploma privilege"—provided they complete the courses needed to satisfy the diploma privilege requirements.
In the United States, passing an additional bar exam is not required of lawyers authorized to practice in at least one state to practice in the national courts of the United States, courts known as "federal courts". Lawyers must, however, be admitted to the bar of the federal court before they are authorized to practice in that court. Admission to the bar of a federal district court includes admission to the bar of the related bankruptcy court. In the United States, the professional doctorate in law may be conferred in Latin or in English as Juris Doctor and at some law schools Doctor of Law, or Doctor of Jurisprudence. "Juris Doctor" means "Teacher of Law", while the Latin for "Doctor of Jurisprudence"—Jurisprudentiae Doctor—literally means "Teacher of Legal Knowledge". The J. D. is not to be confused with Doctor of Legum Doctor. In institutions where the latter can be earned, e.g. Cambridge University and many other British institutions, it is a higher research doctorate representing a substantial contribution to the field over many years, beyond that required for a PhD and well beyond a taught degree such as the J.
D. The LL. D. is invariably an honorary degree in the United States. The first university in Europe, the University of Bologna, was founded as a school of law by four famous legal scholars in the 11th century who were students of the glossator school in that city; this served as the model for other law schools of the Middle Ages, other early universities such as the University of Padua. The first academic degrees may have been doctorates in civil law followed by canon law. While Bologna granted only doctorates, preparatory degrees were introduced in Paris and in the English universities; the nature of the J. D. can be better understood by a review of the context of the history of legal education in England. The teaching of law at Cambridge and Oxford Universities was for philosophical or scholarly purposes and not meant to prepare one to practice law; the universities only taught civil and canon law but not the common law that applied in most jurisdictions. Professional training for practicing common law in England was undertaken at the Inns of Court, but over time the training functions of the Inns lessened and apprenticeships with individual practitioners arose as the prominent medium of preparation.
However, because of the lack of standardisation of study and of objective standards for appraisal of these apprenticeships, the role of universities became subsequently of importance for the education of lawyers in the English speaking world. In England in 1292 when Edward I first requested that lawyers be trained, students sat in the courts and observed, but over time the students would hire professionals to lecture them in their residences, which led to the institution of the Inns of Court system; the original method of education at the Inns of Court was a mix of moot court-like practice and lecture, as well as court proceedings observation. By the fifteenth century, the Inns functioned like a university akin to the University of Oxford and the University of Cambridge, though specialized in purpose. With the frequent absence of parties to suits during the Crusades, the importance of the lawyer role grew tremendously, the demand for lawyers grew. Traditionally Oxford and Cambridge did not see common law as worthy of study, included coursework in law only in the context of canon and civil law and for the purpose of the study of philosophy or history only.
The apprenticeship program for solicitors thus emerged and governed by the same rules as the apprenti
Faculty of Human, Social, and Political Science, University of Cambridge
The Faculty of Human and Political Science at the University of Cambridge was created in 2011 out of a merger of the Faculty of Archaeology and Anthropology and the Faculty of Politics, Psychology and International Studies. According to the Cambridge HSPS website: graduates pursue careers in "research, the Civil Service, management consultancy, museums and heritage management and international NGOs and development agencies, the Law, publishing, health management, public relations."The Faculty houses 3 departments: Department of Archaeology and Anthropology, Department of Politics and International Studies and Department of Sociology. Each of these departments has a worldwide reputation for teaching and research, the undergraduate curriculum is designed to serve both students who have a clear disciplinary commitment at the time of application as well as those who want a broader multidisciplinary degree. Students with a passion for politics can take advantage of links with such departments as Economics and History, those with interests in Sociology can draw on Anthropology and Geography, while those dedicated to pursuing an archaeology career can specialise from the first year or combine this with Biological and Social Anthropology.
Undergraduate students study several disciplines in their first year and specialise in one or two disciplines in their second and third years. Specified tracks ensure that students graduate with appropriate intellectual and professional skills. Assyriology and Egyptology are possible specialisations, within the Archaeology track. At the postgraduate level, there are established one-year M. Phils in Archaeology, Biological Anthropology, International Studies, Social Anthropology and Sociology; the sociology M. Phil allows for specialisation in one of four areas: reproduction. A new M. Phil in Politics was launched in 2008. For further post graduate study, Ph. D students conduct research within a wide range of subjects within Archaeology, Egyptology and Social Anthropology, Politics & International Studies and Sociology; the Faculty is spread across several sites. The SPS Library and the Department of Sociology are on Free School Lane at the New Museums Site; the Department of Politics & International Studies is located at the Alison Richard Building on the Sidgwick Site.
The Department of Archaeology & Anthropology is spread across the Downing Site, New Museums Site, Henry Wellcome Building. Graeme Barker, Disney Professor of Archaeology Henrietta Moore, William Wyse Professor of Anthropology John Thompson, sociology Patrick Baert, sociology Andrew Gamble, politics & political economy Christopher Hill, international studies Juliet Mitchell, gender studies David Runciman, politics Glen Rangwala, specialising in Middle East politics John Dunn, political theory Göran Therborn, social theory Sylvana Tomaseli Ruth Scurr Colin Renfrew, McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research Gareth Stedman Jones, History Alan Macfarlane, Anthropology Quentin Skinner, Christ's College William Brown, Economics Marilyn Strathern, Anthropology Lord Runciman, Trinity College Simon Baron-Cohen, Experimental Psychology Sandra Dawson, Management Studies Tripos An Archaeology and Anthropology Tripos has been taught at Cambridge for more than a century. A Politics and Sociology Tripos has been running at Cambridge University, in some form, since 1970.
From 2013, the PPS and A&A Triposes will be replaced by the Human and Political Sciences Tripos, which will offer students the opportunity to explore a wide range of multi-disciplinary options before specialising in one or two subjects, or to specialise from the first year, according to their interests. Postgraduate The Faculty teaches seven masters programmes in Politics, International Studies, Social Anthropology and Developmental Psychology, Biological Anthropology; the Faculty has around 200 students studying for doctorates at any one time. According to the Cambridge HSPS website: graduates pursue careers in "research, the Civil Service, management consultancy, museums and heritage management and international NGOs and development agencies, the Law, publishing, health management, public relations." The number of applicants per place for Politics and Sociology has traditionally been one of the highest in Cambridge. On average, there are six applications per offered place, though this ratio is better at some colleges such as Murray Edwards.
Colleges with particular teaching strength in Human and Political Science include Selwyn and Caius, Queens', King's, Sidney Sussex, Corpus Christi and Trinity. Numbers of applications for the new HSPS BA course remain high across all colleges. Typical offers for the course are A*AA at A Level, or 40–42 points out of 45 with 776 or 777 at Higher Level in the International Baccalaureate; as of 2008-2009 the MPhil in Social and Developmental Psychology received 66 applications, with 7 starting the course in October 2008. The MPhil in Modern Society and Global Transformations saw 99 applicants, with
Charing Cross Hospital
Charing Cross Hospital is an acute general teaching hospital located in Hammersmith, United Kingdom. The present hospital was opened in 1973, although it was established in 1818 five miles east, in central London, it is part of Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust and is a teaching hospital of the Imperial College School of Medicine. It is a tertiary referral centre for neurosurgery, is a national centre of excellence for gestational trophoblastic disease, it houses the serious injuries centre for West London. In recent times, the hospital has pioneered the clinical use of CT scanning; the hospital is host to the West London Neuroscience Centre. In addition, a day surgery unit, the Riverside Wing, was added; the West London Mental Health NHS Trust has buildings on site. The hospital hosts the largest and oldest gender identity clinic in the country, with 150 operations performed annually. In 1818, Dr. Benjamin Golding established the'West London Infirmary and Dispensary' at 16 Suffolk Street, behind the Haymarket Theatre.
The infirmary had been the dream of Dr. Golding, who wanted to establish a place of healing for the poor; the Duke of York and Albany was asked to become patron. Following this, the then-Duchess of York and Albany and Duke of Cambridge became patrons. In 1821, the infirmary was reaching capacity, treating nearly 10,000 patients a year, so a new site was found, at 28 Villiers Street, near Charing Cross in the heart of the metropolis; the infirmary had room for twelve beds. Shortly afterwards, a plan was put in place to establish a medical school alongside the infirmary. In 1829, the Charing Cross Hospital Medical School was recognised by the newly founded University of London though the school had been training doctors since 1822. Over the years, the list of benefactors and patrons grew, including many from the Royal Family. In 1827, the name of the Royal West London Infirmary was changed to the more appropriate'Charing Cross Hospital'. Plans were drawn up by architect Decimus Burton in 1830 and a site was found, just off the Strand.
On 15 September 1831 the foundation stone was laid by the Duke of Sussex. The first completed ward was named after the daughter of the Duchess of Kent, Princess Victoria, who became Queen Victoria; the principal ward for men was named Golding Ward, after the founder. The hospital itself was completed in January 1834, at a total cost of £20,000, in October of that year, the 22 medical students were transferred from Villiers Street to the new building; the hospital and medical school continued to expand. When King's College London opened, it needed a medical school and offered Charing Cross a substantial amount of money to train their students. Dr Golding was opposed to the idea and in 1839, after several years of negotiation, King's College decided to set up their own medical school. During those years, the school saw difficult times, the number of students enrolling plummeted. By 1840, faith in the school had been restored and the number of students increased dramatically. By 1854 the hospital was flourishing and the top floor, left as an empty shell, was completed.
In 1856 Dr. Golding retired as Director of Charing Cross Hospital Medical School; the hospital encountered hard times after several new hospitals, with larger medical schools, were established in central London. However, Charing Cross Hospital weathered the storm: in 1866 it had professional nursing staff, the hospital was enlarged several times over the next few years – in fact, after a major rebuild in 1877 the hospital had doubled in size; the hospital was further extended in 1902. In 1926, the Royal Westminster Ophthalmic Hospital was merged with Charing Cross Hospital. With the advent of the Blitz in 1940, the hospital staff, students and patients were moved to Chaulden House, Hertfordshire. In 1947, the hospital moved back to Charing Cross. After the Second World War it was decided to relocate the hospital away from central London. Several sites were considered including a large site at Northwick Park in Harrow. However, the University of London deemed that they would not be able to remain affiliated with the hospital should it move there, the site was handed over to the Ministry of Health, who developed it into the present Northwick Park Hospital.
In 1957 a link was proposed with West London Hospitals. The proposal was controversial, as the residents of Fulham wanted their existing hospital to be redeveloped not taken over. A public meeting was set up with the Mayor of Fulham, the Chairman of the hospital, Lord Inman, explained that the decision was made by the Ministry of Health, that a new hospital would be well equipped and provide a full service; this allayed most people's fears, the new Charing Cross Hospital, located on the site of the former Fulham Hospital, on Fulham Palace Road, was inaugurated by the Queen on 22 May 1973. The cost of building the new hospital was £15m—a staggering amount at the time. Designed by Ralph Tubbs, it consisted of a fifteen-storey building in the shape of a cross, along with several lower-level buildings; the design was notable for the lack of lifts to meet the capacity required to move patients around in their beds. Porters waited 1–2 hours trying to get patients from wards to X-ray and back. Three high-rise residential blocks were built to house medical staff and medical students—called Golding and Cliff houses, respectively.
Despite the move, the hospital kept the name'Charing Cross'. The Charing Cro
Brooklyn is the most populous borough of New York City, with an estimated 2,648,771 residents in 2017. Named after the Dutch village of Breukelen, it borders the borough of Queens at the western end of Long Island. Brooklyn has several bridge and tunnel connections to the borough of Manhattan across the East River, the Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge connects Staten Island. Since 1896, Brooklyn has been coterminous with Kings County, the most populous county in the U. S. state of New York and the second-most densely populated county in the United States, after New York County. With a land area of 71 square miles and water area of 26 square miles, Kings County is New York state's fourth-smallest county by land area and third-smallest by total area, though it is the second-largest among the city's five boroughs. Today, if each borough were ranked as a city, Brooklyn would rank as the third-most populous in the U. S. after Los Angeles and Chicago. Brooklyn was an independent incorporated city until January 1, 1898, after a long political campaign and public relations battle during the 1890s, according to the new Municipal Charter of "Greater New York", Brooklyn was consolidated with the other cities and counties to form the modern City of New York, surrounding the Upper New York Bay with five constituent boroughs.
The borough continues, however. Many Brooklyn neighborhoods are ethnic enclaves. Brooklyn's official motto, displayed on the Borough seal and flag, is Eendraght Maeckt Maght, which translates from early modern Dutch as "Unity makes strength". In the first decades of the 21st century, Brooklyn has experienced a renaissance as an avant garde destination for hipsters, with concomitant gentrification, dramatic house price increases, a decrease in housing affordability. Since the 2010s, Brooklyn has evolved into a thriving hub of entrepreneurship and high technology startup firms, of postmodern art and design; the name Brooklyn is derived from the original Dutch colonial name Breuckelen, meaning marshland. Established in 1646, the name first appeared in print in 1663; the Dutch colonists named it after the scenic town of Netherlands. Over the past two millennia, the name of the ancient town in Holland has been Bracola, Brocckede, Brocklandia, Broikelen and Breukelen; the New Amsterdam settlement of Breuckelen went through many spelling variations, including Breucklyn, Brucklyn, Brookland, Brockland and Brookline/Brook-line.
There have been so many variations of the name. The final name of Brooklyn, however, is the most accurate to its meaning; the history of European settlement in Brooklyn spans more than 350 years. The settlement began in the 17th century as the small Dutch-founded town of "Breuckelen" on the East River shore of Long Island, grew to be a sizeable city in the 19th century, was consolidated in 1898 with New York City, the remaining rural areas of Kings County, the rural areas of Queens and Staten Island, to form the modern City of New York; the etymology of Breuckelen may be directly from the dialect word Breuckelen meaning buckle or from the Plattdeutsch Brücken meaning bridge. The Dutch were the first Europeans to settle Long Island's western edge, largely inhabited by the Lenape, an Algonquian-speaking American Indian tribe who are referred to in colonial documents by a variation of the place name "Canarsie". Bands were associated with place names, but the colonists thought their names represented different tribes.
The Breuckelen settlement was named after Breukelen in the Netherlands. The Dutch West India Company lost little time in chartering the six original parishes: Gravesend: in 1645, settled under Dutch patent by English followers of Anabaptist Lady Deborah Moody, named for's-Gravenzande, Netherlands, or Gravesend, England Brooklyn Heights: as Breuckelen in 1646, after the town now spelled Breukelen, Netherlands. Breuckelen was located along Fulton Street between Smith Street. Brooklyn Heights, or Clover Hill, is where the village Brooklyn was founded in 1816. Flatlands: as Nieuw Amersfoort in 1647 Flatbush: as Midwout in 1652 Nieuw Utrecht: in 1657, after the city of Utrecht, Netherlands Bushwick: as Boswijck in 1661 The colony's capital of New Amsterdam, across the East River, obtained its charter in 1653 than the village of Brooklyn; the neighborhood of Marine Park was home to North America's first tide mill. It was built by the Dutch, the foundation can be seen today, but the area was not formally settled as a town.
Many incidents and documents relating to this period are in Gabriel Furman's 1824 compilation. What is Brooklyn today left Dutch hands after the final English conquest of New Netherland in 1664, a prelude to the Second Anglo–Dutch War. New Netherland was taken in a naval action, the conquerors renamed their prize in honor of the overall English naval commander, Duke of York, brother of the monarch King Charles II of England and future king himself as King James II of England and James VII of Scotland; the English reorganized the six old Dutch towns on southwestern Long Island as Kings County on November 1, 1683, one of the "original twelve counties" established in New York Pro