Newport Pagnell is a town in Buckinghamshire, England. In the Borough of Milton Keynes, it is separated from Milton Keynes itself by the M1 motorway, on, Newport Pagnell services; the Office for National Statistics records Newport Pagnell as part of the Milton Keynes urban area. The town was first mentioned in the Domesday Book of 1086 as Neuport, Old English for "New Market Town", but by that time the old Anglo-Saxon town was dominated by the Norman invaders; the suffix "Pagnell" came when the manor passed into the hands of the Pagnell family. It was the principal town of the Three Hundreds of Newport, a district that had the same boundary as the modern Borough. At one time, Newport Pagnell was one of the largest towns in the County of Buckinghamshire though today, despite its own substantial expansion, it has been dwarfed by the growth of Milton Keynes. There were at one time two hospitals in Newport Pagnell and six fairs were held for the townsfolk throughout the year. Newport Pagnell became the headquarters of Newport Pagnell Rural District under the Local Government Act 1894.
In 1897, Newport Pagnell became the sole civil parish comprising the newly created Newport Pagnell Urban District. For a hundred years, Newport Pagnell was served by Newport Pagnell railway station, the terminus on the Wolverton to Newport Pagnell branch line. Tickford Bridge, over the River Ouzel, was built in 1810 and is the only iron bridge in Britain that still carries main road traffic and is the oldest iron bridge in the world, still in constant use. There is a plaque near the footbridge at the side that gives details of its history and construction placed there by Newport Pagnell Historical Society. Between 1817 and 1864, the town was linked to the Grand Junction Canal at Great Linford via the Newport Pagnell Canal. From 1954, until Tickford Street in the town was the home to the prestigious sports car manufacturer Aston Martin; the Newport Pagnell factory was considered outdated and a new production facility was built near Gaydon, in Warwickshire. There is still a service facility in Newport Pagnell, but the factory on the north side of Tickford St has since been demolished apart from the engine shop, board room and offices that are listed buildings.
The land behind these has been purchased by Tesco and the supermarket giant had planned to build an outlet on the site, preserving the original remaining buildings for use by the townspeople. In 2012 the service facility was modernised and now houses a bespoke sales department; the town is home to the only remaining vellum manufacturer in the United Kingdom, William Cowley, located at Parchment Works, 97 Caldecote Street. The modern civil parish of Newport Pagnell stops at the M1, but the ecclesiastical parish extends to include Broughton and Caldecote; the parish church is dedicated to St Paul. The alternative rock band, The Smiths mentions the town's name in their song "Is it Really So Strange" from the album Louder Than Bombs. Although Newport Pagnell is outside the designated area of Milton Keynes, its growth has been at a similar level to that of the constituent towns of the latter; the Office for National Statistics regards Newport Pagnell as part of the Milton Keynes Urban Area. Its population in 1971 was 6,000: by 2001 it had reached 15,020.
The Borough Council projects. However, in its comments on the expansion plans for Milton Keynes, Buckinghamshire County Council challenges this assumption, calling for any further expansion to be to the east of the M1 rather than south across the border into Aylesbury Vale. Newport Pagnell has a Non-League football team Newport Pagnell Town F. C. nicknamed the Swans. An ITF Taekwon-Do club Kicks Taekwon-Do Academy, who train out of Cedars Primary School, Bury Street, a swimming pool. Nigel Benson, the author, was born in Newport Pagnell. Steve Brooker, was born in Newport Pagnell. William Bull was minister to the Independent Church, now United Reformed Church. Oliver Cromwell is rumoured to have died in Newport Pagnell in the spring of 1644. Letitia Dean went to Cedars School in the town. Kelly George and star of BBC children's television series Grange Hill and was educated in the town. Richard Hopkins, the television producer, was born in Newport Pagnell. Lawrence Humphrey, DD English theologian, President of Magdalen College and Dean successively of Gloucester and Winchester.
Richard Meredith, lives in Newport Pagnell. Gordon Moakes, bassist of Indie band Bloc Party, was educated in Newport Pagnell, as were the members of the ska punk band Capdown. James Nash, World Touring Car Championship driver, lives in Newport Pagnell. David Oldfield who played for Leicester City, Stoke City and Oxford United, lived in Newport Pagnell. Samuel Pepys stayed at The Swan Revived Hotel. Charles Sanford Terry, the historian and authority on J. S. Bach, was born in Newport Pagnell in 1864. George Walters, born 15 September 1829 in Newport Pagnell, won the Victoria Cross at the Battle of Inkermann on 5 November 1854, by saving the life of Brigadier-General Adams; the unofficial Newport Pagnell Town website with historical pictures, pictures of the town carnival and a message board for locals and ex pats to keep in touch. Newport Pagnell Town Council "Newport Pagnell". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1911
Lincolnshire is a county in eastern England, with a long coastline on the North Sea to the east. It borders Norfolk to the south east, Cambridgeshire to the south, Rutland to the south west and Nottinghamshire to the west, South Yorkshire to the north west, the East Riding of Yorkshire to the north, it borders Northamptonshire in the south for just 20 yards, England's shortest county boundary. The county town is the city of Lincoln; the ceremonial county of Lincolnshire is composed of the non-metropolitan county of Lincolnshire and the area covered by the unitary authorities of North Lincolnshire and North East Lincolnshire. Part of the ceremonial county is in the Yorkshire and the Humber region of England, most is in the East Midlands region; the county is the second-largest of the English ceremonial counties and one, predominantly agricultural in land use. The county is fourth-largest of the two-tier counties, as the unitary authorities of North Lincolnshire and North East Lincolnshire are not included.
The county has several geographical sub-regions, including the rolling chalk hills of the Lincolnshire Wolds. In the southeast are the Lincolnshire Fens, the Carrs, the industrial Humber Estuary and North Sea coast around Grimsby and Scunthorpe, in the southwest of the county, the Kesteven Uplands, comprising rolling limestone hills in the district of South Kesteven. During the Pre-Roman times most of Lincolnshire was inhabited by the Brythonic Corieltauvi people; the Iceni covered the area around modern day Grimsby. The language of the area at that time would have been the precursor to modern Welsh; the name Lincoln derives from the old Welsh ‘Lindo’ meaning Lake. Modern-day Lincolnshire is derived from the merging of the territory of the Brythonic Kingdom of Lindsey with that controlled by the Danelaw borough of Stamford. For some time the entire county was called "Lindsey", it is recorded as such in the 11th-century Domesday Book; the name Lindsey was applied to the northern core, around Lincoln.
This emerged as one of the three Parts of Lincolnshire, along with the Parts of Holland in the south east, the Parts of Kesteven in the south west, which each had separate Quarter Sessions as their county administrations. In 1888 when county councils were set up, Lindsey and Kesteven each received separate ones; these survived until 1974, when Holland and most of Lindsey were unified into Lincolnshire. The northern part of Lindsey, including Scunthorpe Municipal Borough and Grimsby County Borough, was incorporated into the newly formed non-metropolitan county of Humberside, along with most of the East Riding of Yorkshire. A local government reform in 1996 abolished Humberside; the land south of the Humber Estuary was allocated to the unitary authorities of North Lincolnshire and North East Lincolnshire. These two areas became part of Lincolnshire for ceremonial purposes, such as the Lord-Lieutenancy, but are not covered by the Lincolnshire police; the remaining districts of Lincolnshire are Boston, East Lindsey, North Kesteven, South Holland, South Kesteven, West Lindsey.
They are part of the East Midlands region. The area was shaken by the 27 February 2008 Lincolnshire earthquake, reaching between 4.7 and 5.3 on the Richter magnitude scale. Lincolnshire is home to Woolsthorpe Manor and home of Sir Isaac Newton, he attended Grantham. Its library has preserved his signature, carved into a window sill. Bedrock in Lincolnshire features Cretaceous chalk. For much of prehistory, Lincolnshire was under tropical seas, most fossils found in the county are marine invertebrates. Marine vertebrates have been found including ichthyosaurus and plesiosaur; the highest point in Lincolnshire is Wolds Top, at Normanby le Wold. Some parts of the Fens may be below sea level; the nearest mountains are in Derbyshire. The biggest rivers in Lincolnshire are the Trent, running northwards from Staffordshire up the western edge of the county to the Humber estuary, the Witham, which begins in Lincolnshire at South Witham and runs for 132 kilometres through the middle of the county emptying into the North Sea at The Wash.
The Humber estuary, on Lincolnshire's northern border, is fed by the River Ouse. The Wash is the mouth of the Welland, the Nene and the Great Ouse. Lincolnshire's geography is varied, but consists of several distinct areas: Lincolnshire Wolds - area of rolling hills in the north east of the county designated an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty The Fens - dominating the south east quarter of the county The Marshes - running along the coast of the county The Lincoln Edge/Cliff - limestone escarpment running north-south along the western half of the countyLincolnshire's most well-known nature reserves include Gibraltar Point National Nature Reserve, Whisby Nature Park Local Nature Reserve, Donna Nook National Nature Reserve, RSPB Frampton Marsh and the Humberhead Peatlands National Nature Reserve. Although the Lincolnshire countryside is intensively farmed, there are many biodiverse wetland areas, as well as rare limewood forests. Much of the county was once wet. From bones, we can tell that animal species found in Lincolnshire include wooly mammoth, wooly rhinoceros, wild horse, wild boar and beaver.
Species which have returned to Lincolnshire after extirpation include little egret, Eurasian spoonbill, European otter and red kite. This is a chart
A lighthouse is a tower, building, or other type of structure designed to emit light from a system of lamps and lenses and to serve as a navigational aid for maritime pilots at sea or on inland waterways. Lighthouses mark dangerous coastlines, hazardous shoals, reefs and safe entries to harbors. Once used, the number of operational lighthouses has declined due to the expense of maintenance and use of electronic navigational systems. Before the development of defined ports, mariners were guided by fires built on hilltops. Since raising the fire would improve the visibility, placing the fire on a platform became a practice that led to the development of the lighthouse. In antiquity, the lighthouse functioned more as an entrance marker to ports than as a warning signal for reefs and promontories, unlike many modern lighthouses; the most famous lighthouse structure from antiquity was the Pharos of Alexandria, which collapsed following a series of earthquakes between 956 and 1323. The intact Tower of Hercules at A Coruña, Spain gives insight into ancient lighthouse construction.
Coins from Alexandria and Laodicea in Syria exist. The modern era of lighthouses began at the turn of the 18th century, as lighthouse construction boomed in lockstep with burgeoning levels of transatlantic commerce. Advances in structural engineering and new and efficient lighting equipment allowed for the creation of larger and more powerful lighthouses, including ones exposed to the sea; the function of lighthouses shifted toward the provision of a visible warning against shipping hazards, such as rocks or reefs. The Eddystone Rocks were a major shipwreck hazard for mariners sailing through the English Channel; the first lighthouse built there was an octagonal wooden structure, anchored by 12 iron stanchions secured in the rock, was built by Henry Winstanley from 1696 to 1698. His lighthouse was the first tower in the world to have been exposed to the open sea; the civil engineer, John Smeaton, rebuilt the lighthouse from 1756–59. He modelled the shape of his lighthouse on that of an oak tree.
He rediscovered and used "hydraulic lime," a form of concrete that will set under water used by the Romans, developed a technique of securing the granite blocks together using dovetail joints and marble dowels. The dovetailing feature served to improve the structural stability, although Smeaton had to taper the thickness of the tower towards the top, for which he curved the tower inwards on a gentle gradient; this profile had the added advantage of allowing some of the energy of the waves to dissipate on impact with the walls. His lighthouse influenced all subsequent engineers. One such influence was Robert Stevenson, himself a seminal figure in the development of lighthouse design and construction, his greatest achievement was the construction of the Bell Rock Lighthouse in 1810, one of the most impressive feats of engineering of the age. This structure was based upon Smeaton's design, but with several improved features, such as the incorporation of rotating lights, alternating between red and white.
Stevenson worked for the Northern Lighthouse Board for nearly fifty years during which time he designed and oversaw the construction and improvement of numerous lighthouses. He innovated in the choice of light sources, reflector design, the use of Fresnel lenses, in rotation and shuttering systems providing lighthouses with individual signatures allowing them to be identified by seafarers, he invented the movable jib and the balance crane as a necessary part for lighthouse construction. Alexander Mitchell designed the first screw-pile lighthouse – his lighthouse was built on piles that were screwed into the sandy or muddy seabed. Construction of his design began in 1838 at the mouth of the Thames and was known as the Maplin Sands lighthouse, first lit in 1841. Although its construction began the Wyre Light in Fleetwood, was the first to be lit; the source of illumination had been wood pyres or burning coal. The Argand lamp, invented in 1782 by the Swiss scientist, Aimé Argand, revolutionized lighthouse illumination with its steady smokeless flame.
Early models used ground glass, sometimes tinted around the wick. Models used a mantle of thorium dioxide suspended over the flame, creating a bright, steady light; the Argand lamp used whale oil, olive oil or other vegetable oil as fuel, supplied by a gravity feed from a reservoir mounted above the burner. The lamp was first produced by Matthew Boulton, in partnership with Argand, in 1784 and became the standard for lighthouses for over a century. South Foreland Lighthouse was the first tower to use an electric light in 1875; the lighthouse's carbon arc lamps were powered by a steam-driven magneto. John Richardson Wigham was the first to develop a system for gas illumination of lighthouses, his improved gas'crocus' burner at the Baily Lighthouse near Dublin was 13 times more powerful than the most brilliant light known. The vaporized oil burner was invented in 1901 by Arthur Kitson, improved by David Hood at Trinity House; the fuel was vaporized at high pressure and burned to heat the mantle, giving an output of over six times the luminosity of traditional oil lights.
The use of gas as illuminant became available with the invention of the Dalén light by Swedish engineer, Gustaf Dalén. He used Agamassan, a substrate, to absorb the gas allowing safe storage and hence
Grantham is a town in the South Kesteven district of Lincolnshire, England. It straddles the London–Edinburgh East Coast Main Line and the River Witham and is bounded to the west by the A1 north–south trunk road. Grantham lies about 23 miles south of the county town, the City of Lincoln and about 22 miles east of Nottingham; the population in 2016 was put at 44,580. Grantham was the birthplace of the UK Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher. Isaac Newton was educated at its King's School, while Thomas Paine worked there as an excise officer in the 1790s. Grantham-born Edith Smith became the United Kingdom's first female police officer in 1914; the town produced the first running diesel engine in 1892 and the UK's first tractor in 1896. Grantham lies close to an ancient Roman road, it was the scene in 1643 of Oliver Cromwell's first win over Royalists during the English Civil War, at Gonerby Moor. The origin of "Grantham" is uncertain, although the name is said to be Old English "Granta+ham", meaning "Granta's homestead".
It appeared as early as 1086 in the Domesday Book in its present form of Grantham, but was recorded variously as Grandham and Graham. The place name element grand could mean "gravel"; the name of the town is the origin of the Scottish surname, now used as a given name, Graham. Late neolithic vessels from a burial were found at Little Gonerby, in the north of the town, in 1875. A number of flint blades have been found, including from near Welham Street to the south-east of the town centre and from near Barrowby where a macehead has been found. At Little Gonerby a neolithic settlement site was discovered with finds of pottery and flints. There have been a number of finds of flint and stone tools including palaeolithic hand-axes, from the Cherry Orchard Estate, to the north-east of the town centre, from near North Lodge on the hill top south of Barrowby. Mesolithic flints have been recovered from the Cherry Orchard Estate as well as from sites to the west of Great Gonerby To the north-east of the town centre a Bronze Age bucket and urn cemetery, with cremation burials and ploughed-out barrows, has been recorded.
Bronze Age flint scatters have been found in several places on the higher ground near Barrowby. At Saltersford a Bronze Age ingot and a rapier were found. There are several ring ditches on the higher ground above Saltersford. According to the Chronicles of Raphael Holinshed, Gorbonianus, a legendary King of the Britons built Grantham between 292 and 282 BC; the Domesday account notes Queen Edith having 12 carucates to the geld, with no arable land outside the village. She had a hall, two carucates and land for three ploughs without geld, 111 burgesses. Ivo had one church and four mills rendering 12 shillings, eight acres of meadow without geld; the lands of Bishop Osmond were described: "In Londonthorpe... is land for two ploughs. This land belongs to the church of Grantham. In Spittlegate, St Wulfram of Grantham has half a carucate of land to the geld. In Great Gonerby, St Wulfram of Grantham has 1 carucate of land. There is land for twelve oxen."On 4 December 1290, the funeral cortège of Eleanor of Castile, accompanied by her husband King Edward I, stopped at Grantham on its way from Lincoln to Westminster Abbey.
An'Eleanor Cross' was erected in the town, although its precise location has not been identified. In 1363 "The Castles and towns of Stamford and Grantham" were granted to Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York, fifth son of Edward III of England; the question has been raised as to whether Grantham House was the site of a castle, however, no such site has been reliably identified. The street name "Castlegate" cannot be traced further back than the 17th century. There are references to a Hospital in Grantham as early as the 1330s. Grantham received its Charter of Incorporation in 1463; the town developed. The Nottingham Line arrived first in 1850 the London line – the Towns Line from Peterborough to Retford – arrived in 1852; the Boston and Midland Counties Railway arrived in 1857. The town received gas lighting in 1833; the corporation became a borough council in 1835. Little Gonerby and Spittlegate were added to the borough in 1879; the town had been in the wapentake of Loveden, the town included three townships of Manthorpe with Little Gonerby and Spittlegate with Houghton and Walton.
Grantham Golf Club was founded in 1894. The club continued until the onset of the Second World War; until the 1970s the housing estates west of the town centre were green fields. Green Hill, on the A52, was a green hill. In July 1975 the National Association of Ratepayers' Action Groups was formed in Grantham by John Wilks, its Chairman, being a forerunner of the TaxPayers' Alliance; the town has a long military history dating back to the completion of the Old Barracks in 1858. During the Dambuster Raids Royal Air Force missions in May 1943, the RAF Bomber Command's No. 5 Group and the operation HQ was in St Vincents, a building, owned by Aveling-Barford and housed a district council planning department. It was built by Richard Hornsby in 1865, lived in by Richard Hornsby's son, is now a private house. In 1944, this was the headquarters for the USAAF's Ninth Air Force's IX Troop Carrier Command, being known as Grantham Lodge. During the early part of the war Sir Arthur Harris, 1st Baronet lived in the town.
RAF Spitalgate trained pilots during both world wars as a Royal Flying Corps establishment. It was the first military airfield in Lincolnshire, it has never been an operational bomber base.
In an internal combustion engine, the cylinder head sits above the cylinders on top of the cylinder block. It closes in the top of the cylinder; this joint is sealed by a head gasket. In most engines, the head provides space for the passages that feed air and fuel to the cylinder, that allow the exhaust to escape; the head can be a place to mount the valves, spark plugs, fuel injectors. In a flathead or sidevalve engine, the mechanical parts of the valve train are all contained within the block, a'poultice head' may be used, a simple metal plate bolted to the top of the block. Keeping all moving parts within the block has an advantage for physically large engines in that the camshaft drive gear is small and so suffers less from the effects of thermal expansion in the cylinder block. With a chain drive to an overhead camshaft, the extra length of chain needed for an overhead cam design could give trouble from wear and slop in the chain without frequent maintenance. Early sidevalve engines were in use at a time of simple fuel chemistry, low octane ratings and so required low compression ratios.
This made their combustion chamber design less critical and there was less need to design their ports and airflow carefully. One difficulty experienced at this time was that the low compression ratio implied a low expansion ratio during the power stroke. Exhaust gases were thus still hot, hotter than a contemporary engine, this led to frequent trouble with burnt exhaust valves. A major improvement to the sidevalve engine was the advent of Ricardo's turbulent head design; this reduced the space within the combustion chamber and the ports, but by careful thought about the airflow paths within them it allowed a more efficient flow in and out of the chamber. Most it used turbulence within the chamber to mix the fuel and air mixture. This, of itself, allowed the use of higher compression ratios and more efficient engine operation; the limit on sidevalve performance is not the gas flow through the valves, but rather the shape of the combustion chamber. With high speed engines and high compression, the limiting difficulty becomes that of achieving complete and efficient combustion, whilst avoiding the problems of unwanted pre-detonation.
The shape of a sidevalve combustion chamber, being wider than the cylinder to reach the valve ports, conflicts with achieving both an ideal shape for combustion and the small volume needed for high compression. Modern, efficient engines thus tend towards the pent roof or hemi designs, where the valves are brought close in to the centre of the space. Where fuel quality is low and octane rating is poor, compression ratios will be restricted. In these cases, the sidevalve engine still has much to offer. In the case of the developed IOE engine for a market with poor fuels, engines such as Rolls-Royce B series or the Land-Rover use a complicated arrangement of inclined valves, a cylinder head line at an angle to the bore and corresponding angled pistons to provide a compact combustion chamber approaching the near-hemispherical ideal; such engines remained in production into the 1990s, only being replaced when the fuels available'in the field' became more to be diesel than petrol. Internally, the cylinder head has passages called ports or tracts for the fuel/air mixture to travel to the inlet valves from the intake manifold, for exhaust gases to travel from the exhaust valves to the exhaust manifold.
In a water-cooled engine, the cylinder head contains integral ducts and passages for the engines' coolant—usually a mixture of water and antifreeze—to facilitate the transfer of excess heat away from the head, therefore the engine in general. In the overhead valve design, the cylinder head contains the poppet valves and the spark plugs, along with tracts or'ports' for the inlet and exhaust gases; the operation of the valves is initiated by the engine's camshaft, sited within the cylinder block, its moment of operation is transmitted to the valves' pushrods, rocker arms mounted on a rocker shaft—the rocker arms and shaft being located within the cylinder head. In the overhead camshaft design, the cylinder head contains the valves, spark plugs and inlet/exhaust tracts just like the OHV engine, but the camshaft is now contained within the cylinder head; the camshaft may be seated centrally between each offset row of inlet and exhaust valves, still utilizing rocker arms, or the camshaft may be seated directly above the valves eliminating the rocker arms and utilizing'bucket' tappets.
The number of cylinder heads in an engine is a function of the engine configuration. All inline engines today use a single cylinder head that serves all the cylinders. A V engine has two cylinder heads, one for each cylinder bank of the'V'. For a few compact'narrow angle' V engines, such as the Volkswagen VR6, the angle between the cylinder banks is so narrow that it uses a single head spanning the two banks. A flat engine has two heads. Most radial engines have one head for each cylinder, although this is of the monobloc form wherein the head is made as an integral part of the cylinder; this is common for motorcycles, such head/cylinder components are referred-to as barrels. Some engines medium- and large-capacity diesel engines built for industrial, power generation, heavy traction purposes have individual cylinder heads for each cylinder; this reduces repair costs as a single failed head on a
In its primitive form, a wheel is a circular block of a hard and durable material at whose center has been bored a circular hole through, placed an axle bearing about which the wheel rotates when a moment is applied by gravity or torque to the wheel about its axis, thereby making together one of the six simple machines. When placed vertically under a load-bearing platform or case, the wheel turning on the horizontal axle makes it possible to transport heavy loads; the English word wheel comes from the Old English word hweol, from Proto-Germanic *hwehwlan, *hwegwlan, from Proto-Indo-European *kwekwlo-, an extended form of the root *kwel- "to revolve, move around". Cognates within Indo-European include Icelandic hjól "wheel, tyre", Greek κύκλος kúklos, Sanskrit chakra, the latter two both meaning "circle" or "wheel"; the invention of the wheel falls into the late Neolithic, may be seen in conjunction with other technological advances that gave rise to the early Bronze Age. This implies the passage of several wheel-less millennia after the invention of agriculture and of pottery, during the Aceramic Neolithic.
4500–3300 BCE: Copper Age, invention of the potter's wheel. Precursors of wheels, known as "tournettes" or "slow wheels", were known in the Middle East by the 5th millennium BCE; these were made of stone or clay and secured to the ground with a peg in the center, but required significant effort to turn. True potter's wheels were in use in Mesopotamia by 3500 BCE and as early as 4000 BCE, the oldest surviving example, found in Ur, dates to 3100 BCE; the first evidence of wheeled vehicles appears in the second half of the 4th millennium BCE, near-simultaneously in Mesopotamia, the Northern and South Caucasus, Eastern Europe, so the question of which culture invented the wheeled vehicle is still unresolved. The earliest well-dated depiction of a wheeled vehicle is on the 3500–3350 BCE Bronocice clay pot excavated in a Funnelbeaker culture settlement in southern Poland. In nearby Olszanica 5000 BCE 2.2 m wide door were constructed for wagon entry. This barn was 40 m long with 3 doors; the oldest securely dated real wheel-axle combination, that from Stare Gmajne near Ljubljana in Slovenia is now dated within two standard deviations to 3340–3030 BCE, the axle to 3360–3045 BCE.
Two types of early Neolithic European wheel and axle are known. They both are dated to c. 3200–3000 BCE. In China, the wheel was present with the adoption of the chariot in c. 1200 BCE, although Barbieri-Low argues for earlier Chinese wheeled vehicles, c. 2000 BCE. In Britain, a large wooden wheel, measuring about 1 m in diameter, was uncovered at the Must Farm site in East Anglia in 2016; the specimen, dating from 1,100–800 BCE, represents the most complete and earliest of its type found in Britain. The wheel's hub is present. A horse's spine found; the wheel was found in a settlement built on stilts over wetland, indicating that the settlement had some sort of link to dry land. Although large-scale use of wheels did not occur in the Americas prior to European contact, numerous small wheeled artifacts, identified as children's toys, have been found in Mexican archeological sites, some dating to about 1500 BCE, it is thought that the primary obstacle to large-scale development of the wheel in the Americas was the absence of domesticated large animals which could be used to pull wheeled carriages.
The closest relative of cattle present in Americas in pre-Columbian times, the American Bison, is difficult to domesticate and was never domesticated by Native Americans. The only large animal, domesticated in the Western hemisphere, the llama, a pack animal but not physically suited to use as a draft animal to pull wheeled vehicles, did not spread far beyond the Andes by the time of the arrival of Columbus. Nubians from after about 400 BCE used wheels as water wheels, it is thought. It is known that Nubians used horse-drawn chariots imported from Egypt; the wheel was used, with the exception of the Horn of Africa, in Sub-Saharan Africa well into the 19th century but this changed with the arrival of the Europeans. Early wheels were simple wooden disks with a hole for the axle; some of the earliest wheels were made from horizontal slices of tree trunks
A steam engine is a heat engine that performs mechanical work using steam as its working fluid. The steam engine uses the force produced by steam pressure to push a piston back and forth inside a cylinder; this pushing force is transformed, into rotational force for work. The term "steam engine" is applied only to reciprocating engines as just described, not to the steam turbine. Steam engines are external combustion engines, where the working fluid is separated from the combustion products; the ideal thermodynamic cycle used to analyze this process is called the Rankine cycle. In general usage, the term steam engine can refer to either complete steam plants such as railway steam locomotives and portable engines, or may refer to the piston or turbine machinery alone, as in the beam engine and stationary steam engine. Steam-driven devices were known as early as the aeliopile in the first century AD, with a few other uses recorded in the 16th and 17th century. Thomas Savery's dewatering pump used steam pressure operating directly on water.
The first commercially-successful engine that could transmit continuous power to a machine was developed in 1712 by Thomas Newcomen. James Watt made a critical improvement by removing spent steam to a separate vessel for condensation improving the amount of work obtained per unit of fuel consumed. By the 19th century, stationary steam engines powered the factories of the Industrial Revolution. Steam engines replaced sail for ships, steam locomotives operated on the railways. Reciprocating piston type steam engines were the dominant source of power until the early 20th century, when advances in the design of electric motors and internal combustion engines resulted in the replacement of reciprocating steam engines in commercial usage. Steam turbines replaced reciprocating engines in power generation, due to lower cost, higher operating speed, higher efficiency; the first recorded rudimentary steam-powered "engine" was the aeolipile described by Hero of Alexandria, a mathematician and engineer in Roman Egypt in the first century AD.
In the following centuries, the few steam-powered "engines" known were, like the aeolipile experimental devices used by inventors to demonstrate the properties of steam. A rudimentary steam turbine device was described by Taqi al-Din in Ottoman Egypt in 1551 and by Giovanni Branca in Italy in 1629. Jerónimo de Ayanz y Beaumont received patents in 1606 for 50 steam powered inventions, including a water pump for draining inundated mines. Denis Papin, a Huguenot refugee, did some useful work on the steam digester in 1679, first used a piston to raise weights in 1690; the first commercial steam-powered device was a water pump, developed in 1698 by Thomas Savery. It used condensing steam to create a vacuum which raised water from below and used steam pressure to raise it higher. Small engines were effective, they were prone to boiler explosions. Savery's engine was used in mines, pumping stations and supplying water to water wheels that powered textile machinery. Savery engine was of low cost. Bento de Moura Portugal introduced an improvement of Savery's construction "to render it capable of working itself", as described by John Smeaton in the Philosophical Transactions published in 1751.
It continued to be manufactured until the late 18th century. One engine was still known to be operating in 1820; the first commercially-successful engine that could transmit continuous power to a machine, was the atmospheric engine, invented by Thomas Newcomen around 1712. It improved on Savery's steam pump. Newcomen's engine was inefficient, used for pumping water, it worked by creating a partial vacuum by condensing steam under a piston within a cylinder. It was employed for draining mine workings at depths hitherto impossible, for providing reusable water for driving waterwheels at factories sited away from a suitable "head". Water that passed over the wheel was pumped up into a storage reservoir above the wheel. In 1720 Jacob Leupold described a two-cylinder high-pressure steam engine; the invention was published in his major work "Theatri Machinarum Hydraulicarum". The engine used two heavy pistons to provide motion to a water pump; each piston was returned to its original position by gravity.
The two pistons shared a common four way rotary valve connected directly to a steam boiler. The next major step occurred when James Watt developed an improved version of Newcomen's engine, with a separate condenser. Boulton and Watt's early engines used half as much coal as John Smeaton's improved version of Newcomen's. Newcomen's and Watt's early engines were "atmospheric", they were powered by air pressure pushing a piston into the partial vacuum generated by condensing steam, instead of the pressure of expanding steam. The engine cylinders had to be large because the only usable force acting on them was atmospheric pressure. Watt developed his engine further, modifying it to provide a rotary motion suitable for driving machinery; this enabled factories to be sited away from rivers, accelerated the pace of the Industrial Revolution. The meaning of high pressure, together with an actual value above ambient, depends on the era in which the term was used. For early use of the term Van Reimsdijk refers to steam being at a sufficiently high pressure that it could be exhausted to atmosphere without reliance on a vacuum to enable it to perform useful work.
Ewing states that Watt's condensing engines were known, at the time, as low pressure compared to high pressure, non-condensing engines of the same period. Watt's patent prevented others from making high pres