American Academy of Arts and Letters
The American Academy of Arts and Letters is a 250-member honor society. Located in the Washington Heights neighborhood of Manhattan in New York City, it shares Audubon Terrace, a complex on Broadway between West 155th and 156th Streets, with the Hispanic Society of America and Boricua College; the academy's galleries are open to the public on a published schedule. Exhibits include an annual exhibition of paintings, sculptures and works on paper from contemporary artists nominated by its members, an annual exhibition of works by newly elected members and recipients of honors and awards. A permanent exhibit of the recreated studio of composer Charles Ives was opened in 2014; the auditorium is sought out by musicians and engineers wishing to record live because the acoustics are considered among the city's finest. Hundreds of commercial recordings have been made there; the American Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters was formed from three parent organizations. The first, the American Social Science Association, was founded at Boston.
The second was the National Institute of Arts and Letters, which ASSA's membership created in 1898. The qualification for membership in the NIAL was notable achievement in music, or literature; the number of NIAL members was at first limited to 150. The third organization was the American Academy of Arts, which NIAL's membership created in 1904, as a preeminent national arts institution, styling itself after the French Academy; the AAA's first seven academicians were elected from ballots cast by the entire NIAL membership. They were William Dean Howells, Samuel L. Clemens, Edmund Clarence Stedman, John Hay, representing literature; the number of NIAL members was increased in 1904, by the introduction of a two-tiered structure: 50 academicians and 200 regular members. Academicians were elected over the next several years; the elite group were called the "Academy," and the larger group was called the "Institute." This strict two-tiered system persisted for 72 years. In 1908, poet Julia Ward Howe was elected to the AAA.
In 1976, the NIAL and AAA merged, under Institute of Arts and Letters. The combined Academy/Institute structure had a maximum of 250 living United States citizens as members, plus up to 75 foreign composers and writers as honorary members, it established the annual Witter Bynner Poetry Prize in 1980 to support the work of young poets. The election of foreign honorary members persisted until 1993; the Academy holds a Congressional charter under Title 36 of the United States Code, which means that it is one of the comparatively rare "Title 36" corporations in the United States. The 1916 statute of incorporation established this institution amongst a small number of other patriotic and national organizations which are chartered; the federal incorporation was construed as an honor. The special recognition neither implies nor accords Congress any special control over the Academy, which remains free to function independently. Active sponsors of Congressional action were Senator Henry Cabot Lodge of Massachusetts and former-President Theodore Roosevelt.
The process which led to the creation of this federal charter was accompanied by controversy. Sen. Lodge re-introduced legislation which passed the Senate in 1913; the Academy was incorporated under the laws of the State of New York in 1914, which factors in decision-making which resulted in Congressional approval in 1916. The Academy occupies three buildings on the west end of the Audubon Terrace complex created by Archer M. Huntington, the heir to the Southern Pacific Railroad fortune and a noted philanthropist. To help convince the American Academy of Arts and Letters and the National Institute of Arts and Letters, which were separate but related organizations at the time, to move to the complex, Huntington established building funds and endowments for both; the first building, on the south side of the complex, along West 155th Street, was designed by William M. Kendall of the firm of McKim, Mead & White; this Anglo-Italian Renaissance administration building was designed in 1921 and opened in 1923.
On the north side, another building housing an auditorium and gallery was designed by Cass Gilbert an Academy member, was built from 1928-30. These additions to the complex necessitated considerable alterations to the Audubon Terrace plaza, which were designed by McKim, Mead & White. In 2007, the American Numismatic Society, which had occupied a Charles P. Huntington-designed building to the east of the Academy's original building, vacated that space to move to smaller quarters downtown; this building, which incorporates a 1929 addition designed by H. Brooks Price, has become the Academy's Annex and houses additional gallery space. In 2009, the space between the Annex and the administration building was turned into a new entrance link, designed by Vincent Czajka with Pei Cobb Freed & Partners. Members of the Academy are chosen for life and have included some of the leading figures in the American art scene, they are organized into committees. Although the names of some of the members of this organization may not be well known today, each of these men were well known in their own time.
Greatness and pettiness are demonstrable among the Academy members during
History of Europe
The history of Europe covers the peoples inhabiting Europe from prehistory to the present. During the Neolithic era and the time of the Indo-European migrations Europe saw human inflows from east and southeast and subsequent important cultural and material exchange; the period known as classical antiquity began with the emergence of the city-states of ancient Greece. The Roman Empire came to dominate the Mediterranean Basin and Northwest Europe; the fall of the Roman Empire in AD 476 traditionally marks the start of the Middle Ages. Beginning in the 14th century a Renaissance of knowledge challenged traditional doctrines in science and theology; the Protestant Reformation set up Protestant churches in Germany and England. After 1800, the Industrial Revolution brought prosperity to Western Europe; the main powers set up colonies in most of the Americas and Africa, parts of Asia. In the 20th century, World War I and World War II resulted in massive numbers of deaths; the Cold War dominated European geo-politics from 1947 to 1989.
During the Neolithic era and the time of the Indo-European migrations Europe saw massive migrations from east and southeast which brought agriculture, new technologies, the Indo-European languages through the areas of the Balkan peninsula and the Black sea region. Some of the best-known civilizations of the late prehistoric Europe were the Minoan and the Mycenaean, which flourished during the Bronze Age until they collapsed in a short period of time around 1200 BC; the period known as classical antiquity began with the emergence of the city-states of Ancient Greece. After checking the Persian advance in Europe through the Greco-Persian Wars in the 5th century BC, Greek influence reached its zenith under the expansive empire of Alexander the Great, spreading throughout Asia and other parts of Europe; the Thracians and their kingdoms and culture were long present in Southeast Europe. In 500 BC, Rome was a small city-state on the Italian peninsula. By 200 BC, Rome had conquered Italy, over the following two centuries it conquered Greece and Hispania, the North African coast, much of the Middle East and Britannia.
By 300 AD the Roman Empire was divided into the Eastern empires. During the 4th and 5th centuries, the Germanic peoples of Northern Europe, pressed by the Huns, grew in strength, repeated attacks led to the Fall of the Western Roman Empire. AD 476 traditionally marks the start of the Middle Ages. In Western Europe, Germanic peoples became more powerful in the remnants of the former Western Roman Empire and established kingdoms and empires of their own. Of all of the Germanic peoples, the Franks would rise to a position of hegemony over Western Europe, the Frankish Empire reaching its peak under Charlemagne around 800; this empire was divided into several parts. The British Isles were the site of several large-scale migrations; the Byzantine Empire – the eastern part of the Roman Empire, with its capital Constantinople, survived for the next 1000 years as the most dominant empire in Southeast Europe. The powerful and long lived. Both empires were major powers in that part of Europe for centuries, both creating important cultural, political and religious legacy through the Middle Ages to this day.
The Viking Age, a period of migrations of Scandinavian peoples, occurred from the late 8th century to the middle 11th century. The Normans, descendants of the Vikings who settled in Northern France, had a significant impact on many parts of Europe, from the Norman conquest of England to Sicily; the Rus' people founded Kievan Rus'. After 1000 the Crusades were a series of religiously motivated military expeditions intended to bring the Levant back under Christian rule; the Crusaders opened trade routes which enabled the merchant republics of Genoa and Venice to become major economic powers. The Reconquista, a related movement, worked to reconquer Iberia for Christendom. Eastern Europe in the High Middle Ages was dominated by the fall of the Mongol Empire. Led by Genghis Khan, the Mongols were a group of steppe nomads who established a decentralized empire which, at its height, extended from China in the east to the Black and Baltic Seas in Europe; as Mongol power waned towards the Late Middle Ages, the Grand Duchy of Moscow rose to become the strongest of the numerous Russian principalities and republics and would grow into the Tsardom of Russia in 1547.
The Late Middle Ages represented a period of upheaval in Europe. The epidemic known as the Black Death and an associated famine caused demographic catastrophe in Europe as the population plummeted. Dynastic struggles and wars of conquest kept many of the states of Europe at war for much of the period. In Scandinavia, the Kalmar Union dominated the political landscape, while England fought with Scotland in the Wars of Scottish Independence and with France in the Hundred Years' War. In Central Europe, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth became a large territorial empire, while the Holy Roman Empire, an elective monarchy, came to be dominated for centuries by the House of Habsburg. Russia continued to expand eastward into former Mongol lands. In the Balkans, the Islamic Ottoman Empire overran Byzantine lands, culminating in the Fall of Constantinople in 1453, which historians mark as the end of the Middle Ages. Ottoman armies pressed into Central Europe, besieging
A journalist is a person who collects, writes, or distributes news or other current information to the public. A journalist's work is called journalism. A journalist can specialize in certain issues. However, most journalists tend to specialize, by cooperating with other journalists, produce journals that span many topics. For example, a sports journalist covers news within the world of sports, but this journalist may be a part of a newspaper that covers many different topics. A reporter is a type of journalist who researches and reports on information in order to present in sources, conduct interviews, engage in research, make reports; the information-gathering part of a journalist's job is sometimes called reporting, in contrast to the production part of the job such as writing articles. Reporters may split their time between working in a newsroom and going out to witness events or interviewing people. Reporters may be assigned a specific area of coverage. Depending on the context, the term journalist may include various types of editors, editorial writers and visual journalists, such as photojournalists.
Journalism has developed a variety of standards. While objectivity and a lack of bias are of primary concern and importance, more liberal types of journalism, such as advocacy journalism and activism, intentionally adopt a non-objective viewpoint; this has become more prevalent with the advent of social media and blogs, as well as other platforms that are used to manipulate or sway social and political opinions and policies. These platforms project extreme bias, as "sources" are not always held accountable or considered necessary in order to produce a written, televised, or otherwise "published" end product. Matthew C. Nisbet, who has written on science communication, has defined a "knowledge journalist" as a public intellectual who, like Walter Lippmann, David Brooks, Fareed Zakaria, Naomi Klein, Michael Pollan, Thomas Friedman, Andrew Revkin, sees their role as researching complicated issues of fact or science which most laymen would not have the time or access to information to research themselves communicating an accurate and understandable version to the public as a teacher and policy advisor.
In his best-known books, Public Opinion and The Phantom Public, Lippmann argued that most individuals lacked the capacity and motivation to follow and analyze news of the many complex policy questions that troubled society. Nor did they directly experience most social problems, or have direct access to expert insights; these limitations were made worse by a news media that tended to over-simplify issues and to reinforce stereotypes, partisan viewpoints, prejudices. As a consequence, Lippmann believed that the public needed journalists like himself who could serve as expert analysts, guiding “citizens to a deeper understanding of what was important.” In 2018, the United States Department of Labor's Occupational Outlook Handbook reported that employment for the category, "reporters and broadcast news analysts," will decline 9 percent between 2016 and 2026. Journalists sometimes expose themselves to danger when reporting in areas of armed conflict or in states that do not respect the freedom of the press.
Organizations such as the Committee to Protect Journalists and Reporters Without Borders publish reports on press freedom and advocate for journalistic freedom. As of November 2011, the Committee to Protect Journalists reports that 887 journalists have been killed worldwide since 1992 by murder, crossfire or combat, or on dangerous assignment; the "ten deadliest countries" for journalists since 1992 have been Iraq, Russia, Mexico, Pakistan, Somalia and Sri Lanka. The Committee to Protect Journalists reports that as of December 1, 2010, 145 journalists were jailed worldwide for journalistic activities. Current numbers are higher; the ten countries with the largest number of currently-imprisoned journalists are Turkey, Iran, Burma, Vietnam, Cuba and Sudan. Apart from the physical harm, journalists are harmed psychologically; this applies to war reporters, but their editorial offices at home do not know how to deal appropriately with the reporters they expose to danger. Hence, a systematic and sustainable way of psychological support for traumatized journalists is needed.
However, only little and fragmented support programs exist so far. The Newseum in Washington, D. C. is home to the Journalists Memorial, which lists the names of over 2,100 journalists from around the world who were killed in the line of duty. The relationship between a professional journalist and a source can be rather complex, a source can sometimes impact the direction of the article written by the journalist; the article'A Compromised Fourth Estate' uses Herbert Gans' metaphor to capture their relationship. He uses a dance metaphor'The Tango' to illustrate the co-operative nature of their interactions "It takes two to tango". Herbert suggests that the source leads but journalists object to this notion for two reasons: It signals source supremacy in news making, it offends journalists' professional culture, which emphasizes editorial autonomy. This dance metaphor helps showcase consensus within the relationship but the article describe the common relation between the two "A relationship with sources, too cozy is compromising of journalists’ integrity and risks becoming collusive.
Journalists have favored a
Castle House, Laugharne
Castle House in Laugharne, Wales, is a Grade II*–listed Georgian mansion. Described by Dylan Thomas as “the best of houses in the best of places”, it is one of many buildings of note in the medieval township; the house was built around 1730, although remodelled out in the Regency period. It features a five-bay facade, with the central three bays projecting slightly; the central doorway is surmounted by a pediment. A broad cornice on the facade conceals the slate roof. Several wings, lower than the main body of the house, project to the rear, one of which dates to the original 18th-century construction; the interiors are of the Regency period and but include the only example in Carmarthenshire of a Chinese Chippendale staircase. There were a number of outbuildings to the rear of the house, as can be seen in the first-edition Ordnance Survey County Series map, the grounds of Laugharne Castle were landscaped to serve as the house's garden. Two of the surviving outbuildings have been converted to a restaurant.
Although the castle is now in the guardianship of Cadw, its title is still with the house. Until Castle House was in the ownership of the Starke family, who had held it since the early 19th century, although it is now the private residence of David Thomas and Abi Thomas, daughter of the local artist David Petersen; the house has long had artistic links, as Dylan Thomas wrote Portrait of the Artist as a Young Dog whilst staying at the house and Richard Hughes wrote In Hazard whilst living there
Dylan Marlais Thomas was a Welsh poet and writer whose works include the poems "Do not go gentle into that good night" and "And death shall have no dominion". He became popular in his lifetime and remained so after his premature death at the age of 39 in New York City. By he had acquired a reputation, which he had encouraged, as a "roistering and doomed poet". Thomas was born in Swansea, Wales, in 1914. An undistinguished pupil, he became a journalist for a short time. Many of his works appeared in print while he was still a teenager, the publication in 1934 of "Light breaks where no sun shines" caught the attention of the literary world. While living in London, Thomas met Caitlin Macnamara, whom he married in 1937. In 1938 they moved to the Welsh fishing village of Laugharne where from 1949 they settled permanently and brought up their three children. Thomas came to be appreciated as a popular poet during his lifetime, though he found earning a living as a writer difficult, he began augmenting his income with reading tours and radio broadcasts.
His radio recordings for the BBC during the late 1940s brought him to the public's attention, he was used by the BBC as a populist voice of the literary scene. Thomas first travelled to the United States in the 1950s, his readings there brought him a degree of fame, while drinking worsened. His time in America cemented his legend, he went on to record to vinyl such works as A Child's Christmas in Wales. During his fourth trip to New York in 1953, Thomas became gravely ill and fell into a coma, from which he never recovered, he died on 9 November 1953. His body was returned to Wales, where he was interred at the churchyard of St Martin's in Laugharne on 25 November 1953. Although Thomas wrote in the English language, he has been acknowledged as one of the most important Welsh poets of the 20th century, he is noted for his original and ingenious use of words and imagery. His position as one of the great modern poets has been much discussed, he remains popular with the public. Dylan Thomas was born on 27 October 1914 in Swansea, the son of Florence Hannah, a seamstress, David John Thomas, a teacher.
His father had a first-class honours degree in English from University College and ambitions to rise above his position teaching English literature at the local grammar school. Thomas had one sibling, Nancy Marles, eight years his senior; the children spoke only English, though their parents were bilingual in English and Welsh, David Thomas gave Welsh lessons at home. Thomas's father chose the name Dylan, which could be translated as "son of the sea", after Dylan ail Don, a character in The Mabinogion, his middle name, was given in honour of his great-uncle, William Thomas, a Unitarian minister and poet whose bardic name was Gwilym Marles. Dylan, pronounced ˈ in Welsh, caused his mother to worry that he might be teased as the "dull one"; when he broadcast on Welsh BBC, early in his career, he was introduced using this pronunciation. Thomas gave instructions that it should be Dillan; the red-brick semi-detached house at 5 Cwmdonkin Drive, in which Thomas was born and lived until he was 23, had been bought by his parents a few months before his birth.
His childhood featured regular summer trips to Llanstephan where his maternal relatives were the sixth generation to farm there. His mother's family, the Williamses, lived in such farms as Waunfwlchan, Llwyngwyn and Penycoed; the memory of Fernhill, a dairy farm owned by his maternal aunt, Ann Jones, is evoked in the 1945 lyrical poem "Fern Hill". Thomas struggled with these throughout his life. Thomas was indulged by his mother and enjoyed being mollycoddled, a trait he carried into adulthood, he was skilful in gaining attention and sympathy. Thomas' formal education began at Mrs Hole's dame school, a private school on Mirador Crescent, a few streets away from his home, he described his experience there in Quite Early One Morning: Never was there such a dame school as ours, so firm and kind and smelling of galoshes, with the sweet and fumbled music of the piano lessons drifting down from upstairs to the lonely schoolroom, where only the sometimes tearful wicked sat over undone sums, or to repent a little crime – the pulling of a girl's hair during geography, the sly shin kick under the table during English literature.
In October 1925, Thomas enrolled at Swansea Grammar School for boys, in Mount Pleasant, where his father taught English. He was an undistinguished pupil. In his first year one of his poems was published in the school's magazine, before he left he became its editor. During his final school years he began writing poetry in notebooks. In June 1928 Thomas won the school's mile race, held at St. Helen's Ground. In 1931, when he was 16, Thomas left school to become a reporter for the South Wales Daily Post, only to leave under pressure 18 months later. Thomas continued to work as a freelance journalist for several years, during which time he remained at Cwmdonkin Drive and continued to add to his notebooks, amassing 200 poems in four books between 1930 and 1934. Of the 90 poems he published, half were written during these years. In his free time, he join
Llanfihangel-y-traethau was a parish in Ardudwy, north-west Wales centred on a church of the same name in the village of Ynys. The original parish church was built in the 12th century on a tidal island; the land rose and connected the island to the mainland. Today it is part of the Bro Ardudwy ministry area, which includes Harlech, a few kilometres to the southwest, Barmouth; the church has a window depicting Saint Tecwyn and is the start of the Saint Tecwyn's Way, a pilgrimage route ending at Saint Tecwyn's church in Llandecwyn. The name means "St. Michael's on the Beaches", the church was one of several "St. Michael's Mounts" along the shores of the ancient Celtic world, including the famous St Michael's Mount in Cornwall and Mont Saint-Michel in Normandy; the village name, means "island". The church of Llanfihangel-y-traethau is on the coast 3.25 miles north by east of Harlech. When the church was built it was on a rocky, tidal island, reached across the sands at low tide or by boat at high tide.
The rivers Glaslyn and Dwyryd once met near Llanfihangel Church ran southwest to reach the sea at Harlech. The sea between Harlech and Ynys retreated in the late Middle Ages. In 1810 a sea wall was built from Ynys to the'mainland' near Glan-y-Wern, another from Glany-Wern to Bont Briwet a toll bridge. In 1856 plans were made to drain the marshland between Talsarnau and Harlech, to be followed by construction of the lower road from Talsarnau via Ynys to Harlech; the parish included the coast from the mouth of the Glaslyn to the parish of Llandanwg, which contained Harlech. The parish included the Penrhyndeudraeth–Portmeirion peninsula; as of 1870 the parish was a sub-district of Merioneth. The parish covered 7,567 acres; the land near the river Dwyryd was marshy. Penrhyndeudraeth became a separate parish in 1897. Saint Tecwyn, who lived in the early 6th century, came to Britain from Gaul in the time of Vortigern to renew Christianity in Britain, he founded the church in Llandecwyn to the northeast of the island.
In 1073 a battle was fought near the present village at Bron-yr-Erw between Trehaern ab Caradoc and Grufydd ab Cynan, two Welsh chieftains. The original church of Llanfihangel-y-traethau was established in the mid-12th century. Seagoing vessels were built at Tŷ Gwyn Gamlas near Ynys before the shipyards of Porthmadog were developed. A 1610 map shows a water inlet from Tŷ Gwyn all the way to Harlech Castle. Llanfihangel was a chapel of ease in the Llandecwyn parish in the 16th century. A 1623 report said that two or three services were held in Llandecwyn each year, only one in Llanfihangel. Ellis Wynne of Lasynys Fawr, Rector of Llandanwg and author of Gweledigaethu'r Bardd Cwsg, was married in Llanfihangel-y-traethau Church in 1698; the curate who ministered to the parishes of Llandecwyn and Llanfihangel lived in Tŷ Fry outside Penrhyndeudraeth in the 18th century. The population of the parish in 1801 was 669. In 1824 plans were published to build a turnpike road from Harlech to the embankment of Traethmawr in the parish.
A plan was made to build a railway from quarries owned by Lord Newborough and others in Ffestiniog parish to the south end of the Traethmawr embankment. Funds were raised in 1834 to build a house for the Rector of Llanfihangel-y-Traethau in Tyddyn Eglwys, near the church. An 1837 gazetteer gave the population as 1,026; the curacy had an annual value of ₤65. The parish population was 1,587 in 1851 and 1,687 in 1861, with 385 houses the property of a few landowners; as of 1861 the Ffestiniog workhouse in the parish had 32 inmates. On 7 May 1858 the Ecclesiastical Commissioners for England proposed to constitute "a separate district for spiritual purposes out of the parishes of Llanfihangel-y-Traethau and Llanfrothen, in the county of Merioneth and in the diocese of Bangor. A sum of £5000 in 3% annuities had been donated by Louisa Jane Oakley, widow, of Plas Tanybwlch, to support the minister of the new district of Penrhyn once it had a parish for ecclesiastical purposes; as of 1868 there was a district church at Penrhyn Deudraeth and two Methodist chapels.
The Barmouth and Carnarvon railway was completed about the end of 1866, with a station in the parish. In 1927 and again in 1936 the tide overflowed the sea wall and flooded the farmland around Talsarnau. Many animals were drowned and the railway and buildings were badly damaged; the writer and academic Richard Hughes was church warden, is buried in the churchyard. Today the parish is part of the Bro Ardudwy ministry area, which includes Harlech, a few kilometres to the southwest, Barmouth; the graveyard of the church of Llanfihangel-y-traethau has a carved stone about 6 feet high, with a square cross-section of about 0.15 to 0.2 metres across. It has a 12th century inscription reading in Latin, after expanding abbreviations, Hoc est sepulchrum Wleder matris Odeleu qui primus edificavit hanc ecclesiam in tempore vvini regisThis means, "Here is the grave of Wleder mother of Hoedliw who first built this church in the reign of King Owain". There was some controversy over the names on the stone, at first it was thought to be the sepulchre of Wledermat Odeleu, but it has come to be accepted that it is the grave of Wleder, mother of Odeleu.
Owain ap Gruffudd was king of Gwynedd from 1137 to 1170, so the stone gives an approximate date for the first church. Over the years the church was altered several times. At one time a small gallery was reserved for "gentlefolk". In 1871 the church was rebuilt, around 1883 the vestry was added. Mary Evans (Mari y
West End of London
The West End of London refers to a distinct region of Central London, west of the City of London and north of the River Thames, in which many of the city's major tourist attractions, businesses, government buildings and entertainment venues, including West End theatres, are concentrated. Use of the term began in the early 19th century to describe fashionable areas to the west of Charing Cross; the West End covers part of the boroughs of Camden. While the City of London, or the Square Mile, is the main business and financial district in London, the West End is the main commercial and entertainment centre of the city, it is the largest central business district in the United Kingdom, comparable to Midtown Manhattan in New York City, Causeway Bay in Hong Kong, Shibuya in Tokyo, or the 8th arrondissement in Paris. It is one of the most expensive locations in the world in. Medieval London comprised two adjacent cities – the City of London to the east, the City of Westminster to the west. Over time they came to form the centre of modern London, although each kept its own distinct character and its separate legal identity.
The City of London became a centre for the banking, financial and professional sectors, while Westminster became associated with the leisure, shopping and entertainment sectors, the government, home to universities and embassies. The modern West End is associated with this area of central London. Lying to the west of the historic Roman and medieval City of London, the West End was long favoured by the rich elite as a place of residence because it was upwind of the smoke drifting from the crowded City, it was close to the royal seat of power at the Palace of Westminster, is contained within the City of Westminster. Developed in the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries, it was built as a series of palaces, expensive town houses, fashionable shops and places of entertainment; the areas closest to the City around Holborn, Seven Dials, Covent Garden contained poorer communities that were cleared and redeveloped in the 19th century. As the West End is a term used colloquially by Londoners and is not an official geographical or municipal definition, its exact constituent parts are up for debate.
Westminster City Council's 2005 report Vision for the West End included the following areas in its definition: Covent Garden, Chinatown, Leicester Square, the shopping streets of Oxford Street, Regent Street and Bond Street, the area encompassing Trafalgar Square, the Strand and Aldwych, the district known as Theatreland. The Edgware Road to the north-west and the Victoria Embankment to the south-east were covered by the document but were treated as "adjacent areas" to the West End. According to Ed Glinert's West End Chronicles the districts falling within the West End are Mayfair, Covent Garden and Marylebone. By this definition, the West End borders Temple and Bloomsbury to the east, Regent's Park to the north, Hyde Park and Knightsbridge to the west, Victoria and Westminster to the south. Other definitions include Bloomsbury within the West End. One of the local government wards within the City of Westminster is called "West End"; this covers a similar area that defined by Glinert: Mayfair and parts of Fitzrovia and Marylebone.
The population of this ward at the 2011 Census was 10,575. Taking a broad definition of the West End, the area contains the main concentrations of most of London's metropolitan activities apart from financial and many types of legal services, which are concentrated in the City of London. There are major concentrations of the following buildings and activities in the West End: Art galleries and museums Company headquarters outside the financial services sector Educational institutions Embassies Government buildings Hotels Institutes, learned societies and think tanks Legal institutions Media establishments Places of entertainment: theatres, cinemas nightclubs, music venues and restaurants ShopsThe annual New Year's Day Parade takes place on the streets of the West End; the West End is laid out with many notable public squares and circuses, the latter being the original name for roundabouts in London. Berkeley Square Cambridge Circus Grosvenor Square Hyde Park Corner Leicester Square Manchester Square Marble Arch Oxford Circus Parliament Square Piccadilly Circus Russell Square Soho Square St Giles Circus Trafalgar Square London Underground stations in the West End include: London West End Things to do General overview of what to do in the West End