Indian Rebellion of 1857
The Indian Rebellion of 1857 was a major, but unsuccessful, uprising in India in 1857–58 against the rule of the British East India Company, which functioned as a sovereign power on behalf of the British Crown. The rebellion began on 10 May 1857 in the form of a mutiny of sepoys of the Company's army in the garrison town of Meerut, 40 miles northeast of Delhi, it erupted into other mutinies and civilian rebellions chiefly in the upper Gangetic plain and central India, though incidents of revolt occurred farther north and east. The rebellion posed a considerable threat to British power in that region, was contained only with the rebels' defeat in Gwalior on 20 June 1858. On 1 November 1858, the British granted amnesty to all rebels not involved in murder, though they did not declare the hostilities formally to have ended until 8 July 1859; the rebellion is known by many names, including the Sepoy Mutiny, the Indian Mutiny, the Great Rebellion, the Revolt of 1857, the Indian Insurrection, the First War of Independence.
The Indian rebellion was fed by resentments born of diverse perceptions, including invasive British-style social reforms, harsh land taxes, summary treatment of some rich landowners and princes, as well as skepticism about the improvements brought about by British rule. Many Indians rose against the British. Violence, which sometimes betrayed exceptional cruelty, was inflicted on both sides, on British officers, civilians, including women and children, by the rebels, on the rebels, their supporters, including sometimes entire villages, by British reprisals. After the outbreak of the mutiny in Meerut, the rebels quickly reached Delhi, whose 81-year-old Mughal ruler, Bahadur Shah Zafar, they declared the Emperor of Hindustan. Soon, the rebels had captured large tracts of the North-Western Provinces and Awadh; the East India Company's response came as well. With help from reinforcements, Kanpur was retaken by mid-July 1857, Delhi by the end of September. However, it took the remainder of 1857 and the better part of 1858 for the rebellion to be suppressed in Jhansi and the Awadh countryside.
Other regions of Company controlled India—Bengal province, the Bombay Presidency, the Madras Presidency—remained calm. In the Punjab, the Sikh princes crucially helped the British by providing support; the large princely states, Mysore and Kashmir, as well as the smaller ones of Rajputana, did not join the rebellion, serving the British, in the Governor-General Lord Canning's words, as "breakwaters in a storm."In some regions, most notably in Awadh, the rebellion took on the attributes of a patriotic revolt against European presence. However, the rebel leaders proclaimed no articles of faith. So, the rebellion proved to be an important watershed in Indian- and British Empire history, it led to the dissolution of the East India Company, forced the British to reorganize the army, the financial system, the administration in India, through passage of the Government of India Act 1858. India was thereafter administered directly by the British government in the new British Raj. On 1 November 1858, Queen Victoria issued a proclamation to Indians, which while lacking the authority of a constitutional provision, promised rights similar to those of other British subjects.
In the following decades, when admission to these rights was not always forthcoming, Indians were to pointedly refer to the Queen's proclamation in growing avowals of a new nationalism. Although the British East India Company had established a presence in India as far back as 1612, earlier administered the factory areas established for trading purposes, its victory in the Battle of Plassey in 1757 marked the beginning of its firm foothold in eastern India; the victory was consolidated in 1764 at the Battle of Buxar, when the East India Company army defeated Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II. After his defeat, the emperor granted the Company the right to the "collection of Revenue" in the provinces of Bengal, known as "Diwani" to the Company; the Company soon expanded its territories around its bases in Madras. In 1806, the Vellore Mutiny was sparked by new uniform regulations that created resentment amongst both Hindu and Muslim sepoys. After the turn of the 19th century, Governor-General Wellesley began what became two decades of accelerated expansion of Company territories.
This was achieved either by subsidiary alliances between the Company and local rulers or by direct military annexation. The subsidiary alliances created the princely states of the Muslim nawabs. Punjab, North-West Frontier Province, Kashmir were annexed after the Second Anglo-Sikh War in 1849; the border dispute between Nepal and British India, which sharpened after 1801, had caused the Anglo-Nepalese War of 1814–16 and brought the defeated Gurkhas under British influence. In 1854, Berar was annexed, the state of Oudh was added two years later. For practical purposes, the Company was the government of much of India; the Indian Rebellion of 1857 occurred as the result of an accumulation of factors over time, rather than any single event. The sepoys were Indian soldiers who were recruited into the Company's army
Hyderabad is the capital of the Indian state of Telangana and de jure capital of Andhra Pradesh. Occupying 650 square kilometres along the banks of the Musi River, Hyderabad City has a population of about 6.9 million and about 9.7 million in Hyderabad Metropolitan Region, making it the fourth most populous city and sixth most populous urban agglomeration in India. At an average altitude of 542 metres, much of Hyderabad is situated on hilly terrain around artificial lakes, including Hussain Sagar—predating the city's founding—north of the city centre. Established in 1591 by Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah, Hyderabad remained under the rule of the Qutb Shahi dynasty for nearly a century before the Mughals captured the region. In 1724, Mughal viceroy Asif Jah I declared his sovereignty and created his own dynasty, known as the Nizams of Hyderabad; the Nizam's dominions became a princely state during the British Raj, remained so for 150 years, with the city serving as its capital. The city continued as the capital of Hyderabad State after it was brought into the Indian Union in 1948, became the capital of Andhra Pradesh after the States Reorganisation Act, 1956.
Since 1956, Rashtrapati Nilayam in the city has been the winter office of the President of India. In 2014, the newly formed state of Telangana split from Andhra Pradesh and the city became the joint capital of the two states, a transitional arrangement scheduled to end by 2025. Relics of Qutb Shahi and Nizam rule remain visible. Golconda fort is another major landmark; the influence of Mughlai culture is evident in the region's distinctive cuisine, which includes Hyderabadi biryani and Hyderabadi haleem. The Qutb Shahis and Nizams established Hyderabad as a cultural hub, attracting men of letters from different parts of the world. Hyderabad emerged as the foremost centre of culture in India with the decline of the Mughal Empire in the mid-19th century, with artists migrating to the city from the rest of the Indian subcontinent; the Telugu film industry based in the city is the country's second-largest producer of motion pictures. Hyderabad was known as a pearl and diamond trading centre, it continues to be known as the "City of Pearls".
Many of the city's traditional bazaars remain open, including Laad Bazaar, Begum Bazaar and Sultan Bazaar. Industrialisation throughout the 20th century attracted major Indian research and financial institutions, including Defence Research and Development Organization, Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, the National Geophysical Research Institute and the Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology. Special economic zones dedicated to information technology have encouraged companies from India and around the world to set up operations in Hyderabad; the emergence of pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries in the 1990s led to the area's naming as India's "Genome Valley". With an output of US$74 billion, Hyderabad is the fifth-largest contributor to India's overall gross domestic product. According to John Everett-Heath, the author of Oxford Concise Dictionary of World Place Names, Hyderabad means "Haydar's city" or "lion city", from haydar and ābād, was named to honour the Caliph Ali Ibn Abi Talib, known as Haydar because of his lion-like valour in battles.
Andrew Petersen, a scholar of Islamic architecture, says the city was called Baghnagar. One popular theory suggests that the founder of the city, Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah of the Golconda Sultanate, named it after Bhagmati, a local nautch girl with whom he had fallen in love, she adopted the title Hyder Mahal. The city was named as Hyderabad in her honour. According to German traveller Heinrich von Poser, whose travelogue of the Deccan was translated by Gita Dharampal-Frick of Heidelberg University, there were two names for the city: "On 3 December 1622, we reached the city of Bagneger or Hederabat, the seat of the king Sultan Mehemet Culi Cuttub Shah and the capital of the kingdom". French traveller Jean de Thévenot visited the Deccan region in 1666–1667 refers to the city in his book Travels in India as "Bagnagar and Aiderabad". Archaeologists excavating near the city have unearthed Iron Age sites that may date from 500 BCE; the region comprising modern Hyderabad and its surroundings was known as Golkonda, was ruled by the Chalukya dynasty from 624 CE to 1075 CE.
Following the dissolution of the Chalukya empire into four parts in the 11th century, Golkonda came under the control of the Kakatiya dynasty from 1158, whose seat of power was at Warangal, 148 km northeast of modern Hyderabad. The Kakatiya dynasty was reduced to a vassal of the Khalji dynasty in 1310 after its defeat by Sultan Alauddin Khalji of the Delhi Sultanate; this lasted until 1321, when the Kakatiya dynasty was annexed by Malik Kafur, Allaudin Khalji's general. During this period, Alauddin Khalji took the Koh-i-Noor diamond, said to have been mined from the Kollur Mines of Golkonda, to Delhi. Muhammad bin Tughluq succeeded to the Delhi sultanate in 1325, bringing Warangal under the rule of the Tughlaq dynasty until 1347 when Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah, a governor under bin Tughluq, rebelled against Delhi and established the Bahmani Sultanate in the Deccan Plateau, with Gulbarga, 200 km west of Hyderabad, as its capital; the Hyderabad area was under the control of the Musunuri Nayaks at this time, however, were forced to cede it to the Bahmani Sultanate in 1364.
The Bahmani kings ruled the region until 1518 and were the first independent Muslim rulers of the Deccan. Sultan Quli, a governor of Golkonda, revolted against the Bah
Innishannon or Inishannon, is a large village on the main Cork–Bandon road in County Cork, Ireland. Situated on the River Bandon, the village has grown in recent years due to its proximity to Cork city, has now become a dormitory town for city workers; the village has two food stores, a Doctor's surgery, a dentist, a pharmacy, a butcher, a hairdresser, a café, a Credit Union, a fast food restaurant, a Chinese restaurant, a car sales garage and three public houses. It is home of the author Alice Taylor who wrote the bestselling To School Through the Fields, Quench the Lamp, as well as many other novels and collections of poetry. Home to double martial arts world champion Dwayne Crowley. Innishannon boasts a claim in GAA circles of the local Valley Rovers club providing the organisation with two Presidents, McCarthy & Murphy. Innishannon Steam and Vintage Rally is held in Innishannon annually in June; this event continues on from the old Upton Steam Rally, held on the old St. Patricks School grounds.
In 1998 the now ISVR was born the founding members wanted to ensure such an event was not lost to the vintage following of Ireland. Since its inception it has attracted over 1,000 entries yearly and has attracted over 60,000 visitors every year. ISVR has chosen Irish Cancer Society as its supported charity and since 1998 has raised one million euro for ICS. In 2016, Innishannon had a population of 907, increased from the 2011 census total of 767; the parish of Innishannon stretches from the nearby Dromkeen to close to Aherla and over to Kilmacsimon in the east. The Parish includes the village of Crossbarry, it includes John Coleman's house in togher upper. The Parish has 4 schools. Scoil Eoin in the village of Innishannon itself, Cork to the north of the parish opposite St. Patrick's Church - the second church of the parish, Gurrane National School near Crossbarry, Castleack National School near the parish's boundary with Bandon. Upton and Innishannon railway station opened on 1 August 1849 and closed on 1 April 1961.
Innishannon's Gaelic Athletic Association pitch is flooded because of its proximity to the river, but the local club Valley Rovers is successful. The village is home to Innishvilla AFC, who play soccer. There is a Driving range to the north of the village. Innishannon Steam and Vintage Rally List of towns and villages in Ireland Market Houses in Ireland
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Bengal Native Infantry
The regiments of Bengal Native Infantry, alongside the regiments of Bengal European Infantry, were the regular infantry components of the East India Company's Bengal Army from the raising of the first Native battalion in 1757 to the passing into law of the Government of India Act 1858. At this latter point control of the East India Company's Bengal Presidency passed to the British Government; the first locally recruited battalion was raised by the East India Company in 1757 and by the start of 1857 there were 74 regiments of Bengal Native Infantry in the Bengal Army. Following the Mutiny the Presidency armies came under the direct control of the United Kingdom Government and there was a widespread reorganisation of the Bengal Army that saw the Bengal Native Infantry regiments reduced to 45; the title "Bengal Native Infantry" fell out of use in 1885 and the Bengal Infantry regiments ceased to exist when the three separate Presidency armies were absorbed into the British Indian Army in 1903.
There are units serving in the armies of India and the United Kingdom who can trace their lineage directly to units of the Bengal Native Infantry, for example the Jat Regiment in the Indian Army, the Royal Gurkha Rifles in the British Army and 6th Battalion, The Punjab Regiment in the Army of Pakistan. The first locally recruited unit of the East India Company's forces in Bengal, raised in 1757 and present at the Battle of Plassey, was known as the Galliez Battalion and called the Lal Pultan by its locally recruited members; the Bengal Native Infantry regiments underwent frequent changes of numbering during their existence, with the numbers assigned following a reorganisation bearing little or no connection to the regiments that held the pre-existing numbers. The traditional formation of British and Presidency armies' regiments was by a hierarchy in which the "1st Regiment" was the oldest and the highest number was given to the youngest. In 1764 however, the Bengal Native Infantry regiments were renumbered in the order of the individual seniority of their commanding officers.
The regiments were reorganised and renumbered twice in 1861, in 1864, again in 1885 and in 1903 the Bengal Army was absorbed into the British Indian Army and the Bengal Infantry ceased to exist. The inclusion of the word "Native" in the titles of the Bengal Native Infantry regiments and throughout the Bengal and Madras Armies indicated that the troops were locally recruited in India, in contrast with the Bengal European Infantry which recruited personnel in the United Kingdom. In 1885, the word "Native" was dropped from the titles of all military units in the Bengal Army. Bengal Native Infantry regiments consisted of 800 privates, 120 non-commissioned officers, 20 native commissioned officers, 2 British sergeants and 26 British commissioned officers. Regiments were commanded by a lieutenant-colonel and were divided into 10 companies, each assigned 2 British officers and 2 native officers; each regiment was assigned an interpreter and a quartermaster. The majority of recruits for the Bengal Native Infantry in the years leading up to the Mutiny were from the districts of Oude and the surrounding areas – around three quarters of the total numbers.
Mutinying regiments ceased to exist following the Mutiny and in 1861 the twelve surviving Bengal Native Infantry regiments were joined by a mix of hastily raised units or newly created units from the Punjab. In addition, soldiers who did not mutiny when the rest of their regiment did so joined units such as The Lucknow Regiment or The Loyal Purbiah Regiment. During the Indian Mutiny all but twelve of the seventy-four regular Bengal Native Infantry regiments either mutinied, were disarmed, or disbanded peacefully and returned to their homes; those that mutinied engaged in armed conflict with their officers, other East India Company forces or British Army units. The men of the Bengal Native Infantry were professional soldiers and "Mutiny" was a specific criminal offence under the Articles of War and the Mutiny Acts, carrying the death penalty following a conviction after trial by court-martial; the executions were carried out either by blowing from a gun. Mutinying regiments ceased to exist and their place in the Order of precedence of the Bengal Army was taken by another unit.
Those BNI units that were disbanded without violence, were disarmed either by their officers, other East India Company forces or by British Army units using threat of force and kept prisoner or allowed to disperse. For example, the 33rd and 35th regiments of Bengal Native Infantry were disarmed at Phillour on the morning of 25 June 1857 by the 52nd Regiment of Foot under the command of Brigadier General John Nicholson with the support of the 17th Light Field Battery, Bengal Horse Artillery; the 33rd and 35th BNI, around 1500 men, were part of the Punjab Moveable Column, a brigade, formed to quash outbreaks of mutiny in the Punjab and, ordered to Delhi to join the Delhi Field Force. Brigadier General Nicholson was doubtful of their loyalty and was therefore unwilling to take these regiments to Delhi; as the Moveable Column made its way to Phillour the 52nd Regiment of Foot and the artillery were ordered to press on ahead, arrivi
New Cross is an area of south east London, England, 4.5 miles south-east of Charing Cross in the London Borough of Lewisham and the SE14 postcode district. New Cross is near St Johns, Telegraph Hill, Peckham, Brockley and Greenwich, home to Goldsmiths, University of London, Haberdashers' Aske's Hatcham College and Addey and Stanhope School. New Cross Gate, on the west of New Cross, is named after the New Cross tollgate, established in 1718 by the New Cross Turnpike Trust, it is the location of New Cross Gate station. New Cross Gate corresponds to the manor and district known as Hatcham; the area was known as Hatcham. The earliest reference to Hatcham is the Domesday Book of 1086 as Hacheham, it was held by the Bishop of Lisieux from the Bishop of Bayeux. According to the entry in the Domesday Book Hatcham's assets were: 3 hides. Hatcham tithes were paid to Bermondsey Abbey from 1173 until the dissolution of the monasteries. A series of individuals held land locally before the manor was bought in the 17th century by the Haberdashers' Company, a wealthy livery company, instrumental in the area's development in the 19th century.
Telegraph Hill was for many years covered by market gardens owned by the Worshipful Company of Haberdashers. Until the creation of the London County Council in 1889, the area was a part of the counties of Kent and Surrey. New Cross is believed to have taken its name from a coaching house known as the Golden Cross, which stood close to the current New Cross House pub; the diarist John Evelyn, who lived in Deptford, wrote in 1675 that he met a friend at'New Crosse' in his coach before travelling down through Kent and on to France. In the 19th century, the area became known as the New Cross Tangle on account of its numerous railway lines and two stations — both called New Cross. Hatcham Iron Works in Pomeroy Street was an important steam locomotive factory, the scene of a bitter confrontation in 1865 between its manager, George England, the workers; the Strike Committee met at the Crown and Anchor pub in New Cross Road, now the site of Hong Kong City Chinese restaurant. George England’s house, Hatcham Lodge, is now 56 Kender Street.
New Cross bus garage was the largest tram depot in London, opening in 1906. During the 1926 General Strike in support of the miners, strikebreakers were brought in to drive trams from the depot. On 7 May, police baton charges were launched to clear a crowd of 2-3,000 pickets blockading the entrance; the last London tram, in July 1952, ran from Woolwich to New Cross. It was driven through enormous crowds arriving at its destination in the early hours of 6 July. On 25 November 1944 a V-2 rocket exploded at the Woolworths store in New Cross Road, 168 people were killed, 121 were injured, it was London's most devastating V-bombing of the entire war. On Wednesday 25 November 2009 a new commemorative plaque was unveiled on the site by the Mayor of Lewisham, marking the 65th anniversary of the explosion. In August 1977 the area saw the so-called Battle of Lewisham, during which the far right British National Front were beaten back by militant anti-fascists and local people. On 18 January 1981 13 young black people were killed in the New Cross Fire at a party at 439 New Cross Road.
Suspicions that the fire was caused by a racist attack, apparent official indifference to the deaths, led to the largest political mobilisation of black people seen in Britain. During the 1980s, the Goldsmiths Tavern hosted alternative cabaret nights, organised by Nikky Smedley. Playing host to fledgling acts including The Cholmondeleys, Julian Clary and Vic Reeves. Goldsmiths' Students' Union had a reputation for putting on established and up and coming bands of the era including The B-52's, The Pogues, The Monochrome Set, Simply Red, Wet Wet Wet and Wild Willy Barrett.. The Irish owners of the Harp Club let; the Flim Flam, with their wide music interest, recruited two DJs from Goldsmiths to put on a punk and indie night on Saturdays A Million Rubber Bands. This venue became The Venue. In the 1990s New Cross club, The Venue was central to the Indie Rock and Brit Pop scenes and played host to gigs by many of their finest purveyors including Oasis, Pulp, Suede, Cast, Shed Seven, Cornershop, Bluetones, PJ Harvey, Catherine Wheel, Ocean Colour Scene, Chumbawamba, Ash and Hole.
Urban music magazine and The Platform Magazine, an Islamic Hip-Hop journal are based in New Cross. New Cross was noted as the birthplace of New Rave, is fast gaining ground with London's fashion and music journalists, some coming to regard it as South London's answer to Shoreditch in the wake of its commercialisation; the New Rave scene began with a connected movement of artists, DJ’s, bands and squatters called! WOWOW! who have staged parties since 2003 in New Cross. New Rave champions Klaxons spent their formative years in New Cross and released their début single, Gravity's Rainbow, in April 2006 on Angular Recording Corporation, a label set up by two ex-Goldsmiths students; the area supports a fledgling student opera company, Opera Gold, run by Goldsmiths, University of London. Millwall Football Club, founded by Scottish workers at J. T. Morton, a cannery and food processing p
Royal Naval School
The Royal Naval School was an English school, established in Camberwell, London, in 1833 and formally constituted by the Royal Naval College Act 1840. It was a charitable institution, established as a boarding school for the sons of officers in the Royal Navy and Royal Marines. Many of its pupils achieved prominence in diplomatic service; the school closed in 1910. A purpose-built school building was designed by the architect John Shaw Jr, opened in about 1844 at New Cross in south-east London. However, the school soon outgrew this building and relocated to Mottingham in 1889; the Royal Naval School remained at Mottingham until it closed in 1910. Author Ellen Thorneycroft Fowler was wife to one of the teachers at the Royal Naval School before it closed. At the same time as the boys' school was founded, in 1840, The Royal Female School for the Daughters of Naval and Marine Officers was founded'in a candle-lit, rented house on Richmond Green' which changed its name to The Royal Naval School or RNS - as it is still known today by its old girls.
RNS was due to the inspiration of Admiral Sir Thomas Williams, a Royal Navy officer of the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, who had served with distinction in numerous theatres during the American Revolutionary War, French Revolutionary Wars and Napoleonic Wars. As the dust jacket of the history of the school, published in 1975 states: realised that after the Napoleonic Wars there were hundreds of impecunious ex-Naval officers acutely in need of an economical means to educate their daughters to earn a living, and next:... from Richmond, moved on to the fine Kilmorey mansion beside the Thames, at St. Margaret's, where it grew and flourished until the building was destroyed by bombs in 1940. Difficult wartime moves first to Fernhurst and to Stoatley Hall were a triumph for the headmistress, Miss Oakley-Hill, paved the way for further expansion. In 1995, The Royal Naval School for girls at Haslemere was amalgamated with The Grove School founded in 1864 to form The Royal School, Haslemere.
Maj Gen Sir William Bridges Gen Richard John Meade Sir Charles Mitchell, governor of Fiji and the Straits Settlements Admiral Sir George Nares, British naval officer and Arctic explorer Admiral Stuart Nicholson Admiral Bedford Pim Sir James C Harris and Consul to Nice and Monaco Kivas Tully, architect William Hoste Webb, Quebec politician There are other schools by this name including Royal Naval School Tal-Handaq in Malta and the Royal Naval School in Colombo, Sri Lanka named Ceylon, which became the Overseas School of Colombo in 1957. List of Victoria Crosses by School