American philosophy is the activity and tradition of philosophers affiliated with the United States. The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy notes that while it lacks a "core of defining features, American Philosophy can be seen as both reflecting and shaping collective American identity over the history of the nation." The American philosophical tradition began at the time of the European colonization of the New World. The Puritans arrival in New England set the earliest American philosophy into the religious tradition, there was an emphasis on the relationship between the individual and the community; this is evident by the early colonial documents such as the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut and the Massachusetts Body of Liberties. Thinkers such as John Winthrop emphasized the public life over the private. Holding that the former takes precedence over the latter, while other writers, such as Roger Williams held that religious tolerance was more integral than trying to achieve religious homogeneity in a community.
18th-century American philosophy may be broken into two halves, the first half being marked by the theology of Reformed Puritan Calvinism influenced by the Great Awakening as well as Enlightenment natural philosophy, the second by the native moral philosophy of the American Enlightenment taught in American colleges. They were used "in the tumultuous years of the 1750s and 1770s" to "forge a new intellectual culture for the United states", which led to the American incarnation of the European Enlightenment, associated with the political thought of the Founding Fathers; the 18th century saw the introduction of Francis Bacon and the Enlightenment philosophers Descartes, Locke and Berkeley to Colonial British America. Two native-born Americans, Samuel Johnson and Jonathan Edwards, were first influenced by these philosophers. Both were ordained Puritan Congregationalist ministers who embraced much of the new learning of the Enlightenment. Both were Yale educated and Berkeley influenced idealists who became influential college presidents.
Both were influential in the development of American political philosophy and the works of the Founding Fathers. But Edwards based his reformed Puritan theology on Calvinist doctrine, while Johnson converted to the Anglican episcopal religion based his new American moral philosophy on William Wollaston's Natural Religion. Late in the century, Scottish Innate or Common Sense Realism replaced the native schools of these two rivals in the college philosophy curricula of American colleges; the first 100 years or so of college education in the American Colonies were dominated in New England by the Puritan theology of William Ames and "the sixteenth-century logical methods of Petrus Ramus." In 1714, a donation of 800 books from England, collected by Colonial Agent Jeremiah Dummer, arrived at Yale. They contained what became known as "The New Learning", including "the works of Locke, Newton and Shakespeare", other Enlightenment era authors not known to the tutors and graduates of Puritan Yale and Harvard colleges.
They were first opened and studied by an eighteen-year-old graduate student from Guilford, the young American Samuel Johnson, who had just found and read Lord Francis Bacon's Advancement of Learning. Johnson wrote in his Autobiography, "All this was like a flood of day to his low state of mind" and that "he found himself like one at once emerging out of the glimmer of twilight into the full sunshine of open day." He now considered what he had learned at Yale "nothing but the scholastic cobwebs of a few little English and Dutch systems that would hardly now be taken up in the street."Johnson was appointed tutor at Yale in 1716. He began to teach the Enlightenment curriculum there, thus began the American Enlightenment. One of his students for a brief time was a fifteen-year-old Jonathan Edwards. "These two brilliant Yale students of those years, each of whom was to become a noted thinker and college president, exposed the fundamental nature of the problem" of the "incongruities between the old learning and the new."
But each had a quite different view on the issues of predestination versus freewill, original sin versus the pursuit of happiness though practicing virtue, the education of children. Jonathan Edwards is considered to be "America's most important and original philosophical theologian." Noted for his energetic sermons, such as "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God", Edwards emphasized "the absolute sovereignty of God and the beauty of God's holiness." Working to unite Christian Platonism with an empiricist epistemology, with the aid of Newtonian physics, Edwards was influenced by George Berkeley, himself an empiricist, Edwards derived his importance of the immaterial for the creation of human experience from Bishop Berkeley. The non-material mind consists of understanding and will, it is understanding, interpreted in a Newtonian framework, that leads to Edwards' fundamental metaphysical category of Resistance. Whatever features an object may have, it has these properties because the object resists.
Resistance itself is the exertion of God's power, it can be seen in Newton's laws of motion, where an object is "unwilling" to change its current state of motion. Though Edwards reformed Puritan theology using Enlightenment ideas from natural philosophy, Locke, Newto
A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy. The term "philosopher" comes from the Ancient Greek, φιλόσοφος, meaning "lover of wisdom"; the coining of the term has been attributed to the Greek thinker Pythagoras. In the classical sense, a philosopher was someone who lived according to a certain way of life, focusing on resolving existential questions about the human condition, not someone who discourses upon theories or comments upon authors; these particular brands of philosophy are Hellenistic ones and those who most arduously commit themselves to this lifestyle may be considered philosophers. A philosopher is one who challenges what is thought to be common sense, doesn’t know when to stop asking questions, reexamines the old ways of thought. In a modern sense, a philosopher is an intellectual who has contributed in one or more branches of philosophy, such as aesthetics, epistemology, metaphysics, social theory, political philosophy. A philosopher may be one who worked in the humanities or other sciences which have since split from philosophy proper over the centuries, such as the arts, economics, psychology, anthropology and politics.
The separation of philosophy and science from theology began in Greece during the 6th century BC. Thales, an astronomer and mathematician, was considered by Aristotle to be the first philosopher of the Greek tradition. While Pythagoras coined the word, the first known elaboration on the topic was conducted by Plato. In his Symposium, he concludes. Therefore, the philosopher is one. Therefore, the philosopher in antiquity was one who lives in the constant pursuit of wisdom, living in accordance to that wisdom. Disagreements arose as to what living philosophically entailed; these disagreements gave rise to different Hellenistic schools of philosophy. In consequence, the ancient philosopher thought in a tradition; as the ancient world became schism by philosophical debate, the competition lay in living in a manner that would transform his whole way of living in the world. Among the last of these philosophers was Marcus Aurelius, regarded as a philosopher in the modern sense, but refused to call himself by such a title, since he had a duty to live as an emperor.
According to the Classicist Pierre Hadot, the modern conception of a philosopher and philosophy developed predominately through three changes: The first is the natural inclination of the philosophical mind. Philosophy is a tempting discipline which can carry away the individual in analyzing the universe and abstract theory; the second is the historical change through the Medieval era. With the rise of Christianity, the philosophical way of life was adopted by its theology. Thus, philosophy was divided between a way of life and the conceptual, logical and metaphysical materials to justify that way of life. Philosophy was the servant to theology; the third is the sociological need with the development of the university. The modern university requires professionals to teach. Maintaining itself requires teaching future professionals to replace the current faculty. Therefore, the discipline degrades into a technical language reserved for specialists eschewing its original conception as a way of life.
In the fourth century, the word philosopher began to designate a man or woman who led a monastic life. Gregory of Nyssa, for example, describes how his sister Macrina persuaded their mother to forsake "the distractions of material life" for a life of philosophy. During the Middle Ages, persons who engaged with alchemy was called a philosopher – thus, the Philosopher's Stone. Many philosophers still emerged from the Classical tradition, as saw their philosophy as a way of life. Among the most notable are René Descartes, Baruch Spinoza, Nicolas Malebranche, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. With the rise of the university, the modern conception of philosophy became more prominent. Many of the esteemed philosophers of the eighteenth century and onward have attended and developed their works in university. Early examples include: Immanuel Kant, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. After these individuals, the Classical conception had all but died with the exceptions of Arthur Schopenhauer, Søren Kierkegaard, Friedrich Nietzsche.
The last considerable figure in philosophy to not have followed a strict and orthodox academic regime was Ludwig Wittgenstein. In the modern era, those attaining advanced degrees in philosophy choose to stay in careers within the educational system as part of the wider professionalisation process of the discipline in the 20th century. According to a 1993 study by the National Research Council, 77.1% of the 7,900 holders of a PhD in philosophy who responded were employed in educational institutions. Outside academia, philosophers may employ their writing and reasoning skills in other careers, such as medicine, business, free-lance writing and law; some known French social thinkers are Claude Henri Saint-Simon, Auguste Comte, Émile Durkheim. British social thought, with thinkers such as Herbert Spencer, addressed questions and ideas relating to political economy and social evolution; the political ideals of John Ruskin were a precursor of social economy. Important German philosophers and social thinkers included Immanuel Kant, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Karl Marx, Max Weber, Georg Simmel, Martin Heidegger.
Important Chinese philosophers and social thinke
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
University of Notre Dame
The University of Notre Dame du Lac is a private Catholic research university in Notre Dame, Indiana. The main campus covers 1,261 acres in a suburban setting and it contains a number of recognizable landmarks, such as the Golden Dome, the Word of Life mural, the Notre Dame Stadium, the Basilica; the school was founded on November 26, 1842, by Edward Sorin, its first president. Notre Dame is recognized as one of the top universities in the United States, in particular for its undergraduate education. Undergraduate students are organized into six colleges and Letters, Engineering, Business and Global Affairs; the School of Architecture is known for teaching New Classical Architecture and for awarding the globally renowned annual Driehaus Architecture Prize. The university offers over 15 summer programs. Notre Dame's graduate program has more than 50 master and professional degree programs offered by the five schools, with the addition of the Notre Dame Law School and an MD–PhD program offered in combination with the Indiana University School of Medicine.
It maintains a system of libraries, cultural venues and scientific museums, including the Hesburgh Library and the Snite Museum of Art. The majority of the university's 8,000 undergraduates live on campus in one of 31 residence halls, each with its own traditions, legacies and intramural sports teams; the university counts 134,000 alumni, considered among the strongest alumni networks among U. S. colleges. The university's athletic teams are members of the NCAA Division I and are known collectively as the Fighting Irish. Notre Dame is known for its football team, which contributed to its rise to prominence on the national stage in the early 20th century. Other ND sport teams, chiefly in the Atlantic Coast Conference, have accumulated 17 national championships; the Notre Dame Victory March is regarded as one of the most famous and recognizable collegiate fight songs. Started as a small all-male institution in 1842 and chartered in 1844, Notre Dame reached international fame at the beginning of the 20th century, aided by the success of its football team under the guidance of coach Knute Rockne.
Major improvements to the university occurred during the administration of Theodore Hesburgh between 1952 and 1987 as Hesburgh's administration increased the university's resources, academic programs, reputation and first enrolled women undergraduates in 1972. Since, the university has seen steady growth, under the leadership of the next two presidents, Edward Malloy and John I. Jenkins, many infrastructure and research expansions have been completed. Notre Dame's growth has continued in the 21st century, it possesses one of the largest endowments of any U. S. university, at $13.1 billion. In 1842, the Bishop of Vincennes, Célestine Guynemer de la Hailandière, offered land to Edward Sorin of the Congregation of Holy Cross, on the condition that he build a college in two years. Sorin arrived on the site with eight Holy Cross brothers from France and Ireland on November 26, 1842, began the school using Stephen Badin's old log chapel, he soon erected additional buildings, including the Old College, the first church, the first main building.
They acquired two students and set about building additions to the campus. Notre Dame began as a primary and secondary school, but soon received its official college charter from the Indiana General Assembly on January 15, 1844. Under the charter the school is named the University of Notre Dame du Lac; because the university was only for male students, the female-only Saint Mary's College was founded by the Sisters of the Holy Cross near Notre Dame in 1844. The first degrees from the college were awarded in 1849; the university was expanded with new buildings to accommodate more students and faculty. With each new president, new academic programs were offered and new buildings built to accommodate them; the original Main Building built by Sorin just after he arrived was replaced by a larger "Main Building" in 1865, which housed the university's administration and dormitories. Under William Corby's first administration, enrollment at Notre Dame increased to more than 500 students. In 1869 he opened the law school, which offered a two-year course of study, in 1871 he began construction of Sacred Heart Church, today the Basilica of the Sacred Heart, Notre Dame.
Beginning in 1873, a library collection was started by Auguste Lemonnier, housed in the Main Building, by 1879 it had grown to ten thousand volumes. This Main Building, the library collection, was destroyed by a fire in April 1879; the university founder and the president at the time, William Corby planned for the rebuilding of the structure that had housed the entire University. Construction was started on May 17, by the incredible zeal of administrator and workers the building was completed before the fall semester of 1879; the library collection was rebuilt and stayed housed in the new Main Building for years afterwards. Around the time of the fire, a music hall was opened. Known as Washington Hall, it hosted musical acts put on by the school. By 1880, a science program was established at the university, a Science Hall (today LaFortu
Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts, descriptions, or skills, acquired through experience or education by perceiving, discovering, or learning. Knowledge can refer to a practical understanding of a subject, it can be explicit. In philosophy, the study of knowledge is called epistemology. However, several definitions of knowledge and theories to explain it exist. Knowledge acquisition involves complex cognitive processes: perception and reasoning; the eventual demarcation of philosophy from science was made possible by the notion that philosophy's core was "theory of knowledge," a theory distinct from the sciences because it was their foundation... Without this idea of a "theory of knowledge," it is hard to imagine what "philosophy" could have been in the age of modern science; the definition of knowledge is a matter of ongoing debate among philosophers in the field of epistemology. The classical definition, described but not endorsed by Plato, specifies that a statement must meet three criteria in order to be considered knowledge: it must be justified and believed.
Some claim that these conditions are not sufficient, as Gettier case examples demonstrate. There are a number of alternatives proposed, including Robert Nozick's arguments for a requirement that knowledge'tracks the truth' and Simon Blackburn's additional requirement that we do not want to say that those who meet any of these conditions'through a defect, flaw, or failure' have knowledge. Richard Kirkham suggests that our definition of knowledge requires that the evidence for the belief necessitates its truth. In contrast to this approach, Ludwig Wittgenstein observed, following Moore's paradox, that one can say "He believes it, but it isn't so," but not "He knows it, but it isn't so." He goes on to argue that these do not correspond to distinct mental states, but rather to distinct ways of talking about conviction. What is different here is not the mental state of the speaker, but the activity in which they are engaged. For example, on this account, to know that the kettle is boiling is not to be in a particular state of mind, but to perform a particular task with the statement that the kettle is boiling.
Wittgenstein sought to bypass the difficulty of definition by looking to the way "knowledge" is used in natural languages. He saw knowledge as a case of a family resemblance. Following this idea, "knowledge" has been reconstructed as a cluster concept that points out relevant features but, not adequately captured by any definition. Symbolic representations can be thought of as a dynamic process. Hence the transfer of the symbolic representation can be viewed as one ascription process whereby knowledge can be transferred. Other forms of communication include observation and imitation, verbal exchange, audio and video recordings. Philosophers of language and semioticians construct and analyze theories of knowledge transfer or communication. While many would agree that one of the most universal and significant tools for the transfer of knowledge is writing and reading, argument over the usefulness of the written word exists nonetheless, with some scholars skeptical of its impact on societies. In his collection of essays Technopoly, Neil Postman demonstrates the argument against the use of writing through an excerpt from Plato's work Phaedrus.
In this excerpt, the scholar Socrates recounts the story of Thamus, the Egyptian king and Theuth the inventor of the written word. In this story, Theuth presents his new invention "writing" to King Thamus, telling Thamus that his new invention "will improve both the wisdom and memory of the Egyptians". King Thamus is skeptical of this new invention and rejects it as a tool of recollection rather than retained knowledge, he argues that the written word will infect the Egyptian people with fake knowledge as they will be able to attain facts and stories from an external source and will no longer be forced to mentally retain large quantities of knowledge themselves. Classical early modern theories of knowledge those advancing the influential empiricism of the philosopher John Locke, were based implicitly or explicitly on a model of the mind which likened ideas to words; this analogy between language and thought laid the foundation for a graphic conception of knowledge in which the mind was treated as a table, a container of content, that had to be stocked with facts reduced to letters, numbers or symbols.
This created a situation in which the spatial alignment of words on the page carried great cognitive weight, so much so that educators paid close attention to the visual structure of information on the page and in notebooks. Major libraries today can have millions of books of knowledge, it is only that audio and video technology for recording knowledge have become available and the use of these still requires replay equipment and electricity. Verbal teaching and handing down of knowledge is limited to those who would have contact with the transmitter or someone who could interpret wr
Truth is most used to mean being in accord with fact or reality, or fidelity to an original or standard. Truth is sometimes defined in modern contexts as an idea of "truth to self", or authenticity. Truth is held to be opposite to falsehood, correspondingly, can suggest a logical, factual, or ethical meaning; the concept of truth is discussed and debated in several contexts, including philosophy, art and science. Most human activities depend upon the concept, where its nature as a concept is assumed rather than being a subject of discussion; some philosophers view the concept of truth as basic, unable to be explained in any terms that are more understood than the concept of truth itself. To some, truth is viewed as the correspondence of language or thought to an independent reality, in what is sometimes called the correspondence theory of truth. Various theories and views of truth continue to be debated among scholars and theologians. Language is a means; the method used to determine whether something is a truth is termed a criterion of truth.
There are varying stances on such questions as what constitutes truth: what things are truthbearers capable of being true or false. The English word truth is derived from Old English tríewþ, tréowþ, trýwþ, Middle English trewþe, cognate to Old High German triuwida, Old Norse tryggð. Like troth, it is a -th nominalisation of the adjective true; the English word true is from Old English tríewe, tréowe, cognate to Old Saxon trûui, Old High German triuwu, Old Norse tryggr, Gothic triggws, all from a Proto-Germanic *trewwj- "having good faith" ultimately from PIE *dru- "tree", on the notion of "steadfast as an oak". Old Norse trú, "word of honour. Thus,'truth' involves both the quality of "faithfulness, loyalty, veracity", that of "agreement with fact or reality", in Anglo-Saxon expressed by sōþ. All Germanic languages besides English have introduced a terminological distinction between truth "fidelity" and truth "factuality". To express "factuality", North Germanic opted for nouns derived from sanna "to assert, affirm", while continental West Germanic opted for continuations of wâra "faith, pact".
Romance languages use terms following the Latin veritas, while the Greek aletheia, Russian pravda and South Slavic istina have separate etymological origins. The question of what is a proper basis for deciding how words, symbols and beliefs may properly be considered true, whether by a single person or an entire society, is dealt with by the five most prevalent substantive theories of truth listed below; each presents perspectives that are shared by published scholars. Theories other than the most prevalent substantive theories are discussed. More developed "deflationary" or "minimalist" theories of truth have emerged as possible alternatives to the most prevalent substantive theories. Minimalist reasoning centres around the notion that the application of a term like true to a statement does not assert anything significant about it, for instance, anything about its nature. Minimalist reasoning realises truth as a label utilised in general discourse to express agreement, to stress claims, or to form general assumptions.
Correspondence theories emphasise that true beliefs and true statements correspond to the actual state of affairs. This type of theory stresses a relationship between thoughts or statements on one hand, things or objects on the other, it is a traditional model tracing its origins to ancient Greek philosophers such as Socrates and Aristotle. This class of theories holds that the truth or the falsity of a representation is determined in principle by how it relates to "things", by whether it describes those "things." A classic example of correspondence theory is the statement by the thirteenth century philosopher and theologian Thomas Aquinas: "Veritas est adaequatio rei et intellectus", which Aquinas attributed to the ninth century Neoplatonist Isaac Israeli. Aquinas restated the theory as: "A judgment is said to be true when it conforms to the external reality". Correspondence theory centres around the assumption that truth is a matter of copying what is known as "objective reality" and representing it in thoughts and other symbols.
Many modern theorists have stated that this ideal cannot be achieved without analysing additional factors. For example, language plays a role in that all languages have words to represent concepts that are undefined in other languages; the German word Zeitgeist is one such example: one who speaks or understands the language may "know" what it means, but any translation of the word fails to capture its full meaning. Thus, some words add an additional parameter to the construction of an accurate truth predicate. Among the philosophers who grappled with this problem is Alfred Tarski, whose semantic theory is summarized further below in this article. Proponents of several of the theories below have gone further to a
Cornell College is a private liberal arts college in Mount Vernon, Iowa. Called the Iowa Conference Seminary, the school was founded in 1853 by George Bryant Bowman. Four years in 1857, the name was changed to Cornell College, in honor of iron tycoon William Wesley Cornell, a distant relative of Ezra Cornell. Cornell students study one course at a time. Since 1978, school years have been divided into "blocks" of three-and-a-half weeks each, during which students are enrolled in a single class. While schedules vary from class to class, most courses consist of around 30 hours of lecture, along with additional time spent in the laboratory, studying audio-visual media, or other activities. Colorado College in Colorado Springs, Colorado. Cornell operated on a calendar of 9 blocks per year, but switched to 8 blocks per year beginning in the fall of 2012. From its inception, Cornell has accepted women into all degree programs. In 1858, Cornell was host to Iowa's first female recipient of a baccalaureate degree, Mary Fellows, a member of the first graduating class from Cornell College.
She received a bachelor's degree in mathematics. In 1871, Harriette J. Cooke became the first female college professor in the United States to become a full professor with a salary equal to that of her male colleagues; the most recognizable building on Cornell's campus is King Chapel. The chapel is the site of the annual convocation at the commencement of the school year as well as the baccalaureate service in the spring for graduating students; the chapel contains a large organ and is the site of musical performances. Religious services are held in the nearby Allee Chapel. Old Sem, for a short while, was the only building of the original college and now houses administrative offices of the college. Cornell contains 9 academic buildings. College Hall, the second-oldest building of the college, houses classrooms and offices of several social science and humanities departments. South Hall a male dormitory, houses the Politics and Creative Writing Departments. Prall House contains classrooms of the Philosophy and Religion Departments.
The Merle West Science Center houses the Physics and Chemistry Departments. West Science contains one of the school's two stadium seating lecture-style classrooms, with a capacity around 100; the Norton Geology Center contains both an extensive museum and classrooms for geological sciences. Law Hall includes the Math, Computer Science, Psychology Departments, is the computing hub of the campus. McWethy Hall a gymnasium, was remodeled and now contains the studios and offices of the Art Department. Armstrong Hall and Youngker Hall are adjoining fine arts buildings. Armstrong Hall is the location of the Music Department, while Youngker Hall contains the Theatre Department, including Kimmel Theatre. In addition, the Small Sports Center and the Lytle House contain classrooms of the Kinesiology Department. Cole Library serves both the Mount Vernon community. Cornell has several residence halls. Pfeiffer Hall, Tarr Hall, Dows Hall together form the "Tri-Hall" area. Tarr now houses both males and females.
Dows, once an all-female residence hall, joins Pfeiffer and Tarr in providing co-ed for all years. Pfeiffer was extensively renovated in 2008. Bowman-Carter Hall is an all-female hall for upperclassmen. Pauley-Rorem Hall is a combination of two residence halls that are joined in the middle by a common set of stairs. Female first-years resided in Pauley, male first-years resided in Rorem until 2012-2013 when both residence halls became co-ed by floor. Pauley Hall was once home to the Pauley Academic Program, a community of male and female students with strong academic backgrounds; as early as 1986, Pauley Hall was co-ed by floor, in 1987-89, second floor Pauley was home to the Academic Program and was co-ed by room. Olin and Merner Hall are co-ed upper-class residence halls. New and Russell Hall were opened in 2005 and 2007 and offer suite-style living. Students may choose more independent living options in apartments at Wilch Apartments, 10th Avenue, Armstrong House, Harlan House, at the Sleep Inn.
Nearly all Cornell students are required to live on-campus or in campus apartments, so most students do not rent non-college housing. The Cornell campus is centered on a modest hill, the feature noted in the moniker "Hilltop Campus." Several campus buildings are grouped on the hilltop, while the athletic facilities and some residential buildings are located farther downhill on the campus's northwest side. Cornell College fields 19 intercollegiate athletic teams, all of which compete in NCAA Division III sports. A member of the Iowa Intercollegiate Athletic Conference, Cornell joined the Midwest Conference in the fall of 2012. Cornell has achieved its greatest success in wrestling. Cornell wrestlers have won eight individual national titles, in 1947, the wrestling team won the NCAA Division I and AAU national championships. Sixty-Two Cornell wrestlers have been named NCAA All-Americans