The Tell Monument is a memorial to William Tell in the market place of Altdorf, Canton of Uri, Switzerland. The bronze statue by sculptor Richard Kissling was inaugurated on August 28,1895 at the foot of an old tower and it shows the Swiss national hero with his crossbow and accompanied by his son. At the base is the date of Rütlischwur of 1307. Behind the statue is a big bronze plate with the following inscription and this translates to, It will be talked about the marksman Tell as long as the mountains stand on their base
Sculpture is the branch of the visual arts that operates in three dimensions. It is one of the plastic arts, a wide variety of materials may be worked by removal such as carving, assembled by welding or modelling, or molded, or cast. However, most ancient sculpture was painted, and this has been lost. Those cultures whose sculptures have survived in quantities include the cultures of the ancient Mediterranean and China, the Western tradition of sculpture began in ancient Greece, and Greece is widely seen as producing great masterpieces in the classical period. During the Middle Ages, Gothic sculpture represented the agonies and passions of the Christian faith, the revival of classical models in the Renaissance produced famous sculptures such as Michelangelos David. Relief is often classified by the degree of projection from the wall into low or bas-relief, high relief, sunk-relief is a technique restricted to ancient Egypt. Relief sculpture may decorate steles, upright slabs, usually of stone, techniques such as casting and moulding use an intermediate matrix containing the design to produce the work, many of these allow the production of several copies.
The term sculpture is used mainly to describe large works. The very large or colossal statue has had an enduring appeal since antiquity, another grand form of portrait sculpture is the equestrian statue of a rider on horse, which has become rare in recent decades. The smallest forms of life-size portrait sculpture are the head, showing just that, or the bust, small forms of sculpture include the figurine, normally a statue that is no more than 18 inches tall, and for reliefs the plaquette, medal or coin. Sculpture is an important form of public art, a collection of sculpture in a garden setting can be called a sculpture garden. One of the most common purposes of sculpture is in form of association with religion. Cult images are common in cultures, though they are often not the colossal statues of deities which characterized ancient Greek art. The actual cult images in the innermost sanctuaries of Egyptian temples, of which none have survived, were rather small. The same is true in Hinduism, where the very simple.
Some undoubtedly advanced cultures, such as the Indus Valley civilization, appear to have had no monumental sculpture at all, though producing very sophisticated figurines, the Mississippian culture seems to have been progressing towards its use, with small stone figures, when it collapsed. Other cultures, such as ancient Egypt and the Easter Island culture, from the 20th century the relatively restricted range of subjects found in large sculpture expanded greatly, with abstract subjects and the use or representation of any type of subject now common. Today much sculpture is made for intermittent display in galleries and museums, small sculpted fittings for furniture and other objects go well back into antiquity, as in the Nimrud ivories, Begram ivories and finds from the tomb of Tutankhamun
Rizal Park, known as Luneta National Park or simply Luneta, is a historical urban park in the Philippines. Located along Roxas Boulevard, adjacent to the old walled city of Intramuros and it has been a favorite leisure spot, and is frequented on Sundays and national holidays. Rizal Park is one of the major tourist attractions of Manila, situated by the Manila Bay, it is an important site in Philippine history. The execution of national hero José Rizal on December 30,1896 fanned the flames of the 1896 Philippine Revolution against the Kingdom of Spain, the area was officially renamed Rizal Park in his honor, and the monument enshrining his remains serves as the parks symbolic focal point. Luneta is situated at the terminus of Roxas Boulevard. To the east of the boulevard, the park is bounded by Taft Avenue, Padre Burgos Avenue, to the west is the reclaimed area of the park bounded by Katigbak Drive, South Drive, and the shore of Manila Bay. Rizal Parks history began in 1820 when the Paseo de Luneta was completed just south of the walls of Manila on a patch of land next to the beach during the Spanish rule.
Prior to the park, the land was the location of a small town called Nuevo Barrio that dates back to 1601. The town and its churches, being close to the city, were strategically used as cover by the British during their attack. Because of the part they played during the British Invasion, they were cleared after the rule of the British from 1762 to 1764. The church of Bagumbayan originally enshrined the Black Nazarene, because of the order to destroy the village and its church, the image was transferred first to San Nicolas de Tolentino to Quiapo Church. This has since been commemorated by the Traslación of the relic every January 9 and this is why the procession always start at Rizal Park. West of Bagumbayan Field was the Paseo de la Luneta named after the fortification and it was named Paseo de Alfonso XII, after Alfonso XII, King of Spain during his reign from 1874 to 1885. Paseo de la Luneta was the center of activity for the people of Manila in the early evening hours. This plaza was arranged with paths and lawns and surrounded by a wide driveway called La Calzada where carriages circulate, during the Spanish period from 1823 to 1897 most especially in the latter part, the place became notorious for public executions.
A total of 158 political enemies of Spain were executed in the park, the bronze-and-granite Rizal monument is among the most famous sculptural landmarks in the country. It is almost protocol for visiting dignitaries to lay a wreath at the monument, located on the monument is not merely the statue of the national hero, but his remains. On September 28,1901, the United States Philippine Commission approved Act No,243, which would erect a monument in Luneta to commemorate the memory of José Rizal, Philippine patriot and poet
Historical Dictionary of Switzerland
The encyclopedia is published by a foundation under the patronage of the Swiss Academy of Humanities and Social Sciences and the Swiss Historical Society and is financed by national research grants. Besides a staff of 35 at the offices, the contributors include 100 academic advisors,2500 historians and 100 translators. The encyclopedia is being edited simultaneously in three languages of Switzerland, German and Italian. The first of 13 volumes was published in 2002, the last volume was published in 2014. The 36,000 headings are grouped in, Biographies Articles on families and it makes accessible, for free, all articles ready for publication in print, but no illustrations. It lists all 36,000 topics that are to be covered, lexicon Istoric Retic is a two volume version with a selection of articles published in Romansh. It includes articles not available in the other languages, the first volume was published in 2010, the second in 2012. An on-line version is available
Wolfwil is a municipality in the district of Gäu in the canton of Solothurn in Switzerland. Wolfwil is first mentioned in 1266 as Wolfwiler, Wolfwil has an area, as of 2009, of 6.88 square kilometers. Of this area,3.73 km2 or 54. 2% is used for agricultural purposes, while 1.95 km2 or 28. 3% is forested. Of the rest of the land,0.92 km2 or 13. 4% is settled,0.27 km2 or 3. 9% is either rivers or lakes and 0.01 km2 or 0. 1% is unproductive land. Of the built up area, industrial buildings made up 1. 5% of the area while housing and buildings made up 7. 4%. Out of the land,27. 0% of the total land area is heavily forested and 1. 3% is covered with orchards or small clusters of trees. Of the agricultural land,44. 8% is used for growing crops and 8. 7% is pastures, all the water in the municipality is flowing water. The municipality is located in the Gäu district, in the Aaregäu region and it consists of the linear village of Wolfwil and the settlements of Far and Oberer Schweissacher. The blazon of the coat of arms is Argent a Wolf Gules passant over a Base of the same inscribed WW of the first.
Wolfwil has a population of 2,081, as of 2008,5. 7% of the population are resident foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has changed at a rate of 0. 6%, most of the population speaks German, with Albanian being second most common and Italian being third. There are 3 people who speak French, as of 2008, the gender distribution of the population was 48. 1% male and 51. 9% female. The population was made up of 911 Swiss men and 63 non-Swiss men, There were 978 Swiss women and 72 non-Swiss women. Of the population in the municipality 980 or about 50. 5% were born in Wolfwil and lived there in 2000. There were 356 or 18. 4% who were born in the canton, while 433 or 22. 3% were born somewhere else in Switzerland. In 2008 there were 18 live births to Swiss citizens and 1 birth to non-Swiss citizens, ignoring immigration and emigration, the population of Swiss citizens decreased by 5 while the foreign population increased by 1. There were 4 Swiss women who immigrated back to Switzerland, at the same time, there were 7 non-Swiss men and 7 non-Swiss women who immigrated from another country to Switzerland.
The total Swiss population change in 2008 was a decrease of 7 and this represents a population growth rate of 0. 2%
William Tell is a folk hero of Switzerland. His legend is recorded in a late 15th-century Swiss illustrated chronicle and it is set in the time of the original foundation of the Old Swiss Confederacy in the early 14th century. According to the legend, Tell—an expert marksman with the crossbow—assassinated Gessler, along with Arnold von Winkelried, Tell is a central figure in Swiss patriotism as it was constructed during the Restoration of the Confederacy after the Napoleonic era. Several accounts of the Tell legend exist, the earliest sources give an account of the apple shot, Tells escape, and the ensuing rebellion. The assassination of Gessler is not mentioned in the Tellenlied but is present in the White Book of Sarnen account. William Tell was known as a man, a mountain climber. In his time, the Habsburg emperors of Austria were seeking to dominate Uri, the newly appointed Austrian Vogt of Altdorf, raised a pole under the village lindentree, hung his hat on top of it, and demanded that all the townsfolk bow before the hat.
On 18 November 1307, Tell visited Altdorf with his son and passed by the hat, publicly refusing to bow to it. Gessler—intrigued by Tells famed marksmanship but resentful of his defiance—devised a cruel punishment and his son were to be executed. However, he could redeem his life by shooting an apple off the head of his son Robert in a single attempt, Tell split the apple with a bolt from his crossbow. Gessler noticed that Tell had removed two crossbow bolts from his quiver, before releasing him, he asked why. Tell was reluctant to answer, but after Gessler promised he would not kill him, he replied that had he killed his son, he would have killed Gessler with the second bolt. Gessler was furious and ordered Tell to be bound, saying that he had promised to spare his life, Tell was brought to Gesslers boat to be taken to the dungeon in the castle at Küssnacht. A storm broke on Lake Lucerne, and the guards were afraid that their boat would sink and they begged Gessler to remove Tells shackles so he could take the helm and save them.
Gessler gave in, but once freed, Tell led the boat to a rocky place, the site is already known in the White Book as the Tellsplatte. Since the 16th century the site has been marked by a memorial chapel, as Gessler arrived, Tell assassinated him, using the second crossbow bolt, along a stretch of the road cut through the rock between Immensee and Küssnacht, now known as the Hohle Gasse. Tells blow for liberty sparked a rebellion in which he played a leading part, according to Tschudi, Tell fought again against Austria in the 1315 Battle of Morgarten. Tschudi has an account of Tells death in 1354, according to which he was killed trying to save a child from drowning in the Schächenbach River in Uri, the first reference to William Tell appears in the White Book of Sarnen
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library, the National Library of France joined the project on October 5,2007. The project transitions to a service of the OCLC on April 4,2012, the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together, a VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary see and see records from the original records, and refers to the original authority records. The data are available online and are available for research and data exchange. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol, the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAFs clustering algorithm is run every month, as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records
The Rizal Monument is a memorial in Rizal Park in Manila, Philippines built to commemorate the executed Filipino nationalist, José Rizal. The monument consists of a bronze sculpture of the Rizal, with an obelisk. A plaque on the front reads, To the memory of José Rizal and martyr. This monument is dedicated by the people of the Philippine Islands, the perimeter of the monument is guarded continuously by the Philippine Marine Corps’ Marine Security and Escort Group, the changing of the guard having become a daily ritual. About 100 m north-northwest of the monument is the location where Rizal was executed, marked by life-size dioramas depicting his final moments. An exact replica of the Rizal Monument can be found in Madrid, Spain at the junction of Avenida de Las Islas Filipinas, there is no official explanation of the meaning of the monument’s details. The monument depicts Rizal in overcoat holding a book, that represent his novels Noli Me Tángere, the obelisk is usually taken to mean Rizal’s masonic background while the three stars are said to stand for Luzon, the Visayas and Mindanao.
The figures at the back of the monument, such as leaves, the consensus is that the figures beside Rizal—a mother rearing her child and two young boys reading—signify family and education. The Rizal Monument was planned and constructed during the American colonial period of the Philippines in the early 20th century, on September 28,1901, the United States Philippine Commission approved Act No. 243, that granted the right to use public land upon the Luneta in the city of Manila, where the monument was erected to commemorate the memory of José Rizal, Philippine patriot and poet. The act stated that the monument would not only bear a statue of the hero, the members were tasked, among others, with raising funds through popular subscriptions. The estimated cost of the monument was ₱100,000, the insular government donated ₱30,000 for the fund. By January 1905, that goal had been oversubscribed, when the campaign closed in August 1912, the amount collected had reached ₱135,195.61. On January 8,1908, the judging committee composed of Governor-General James F.
Smith, John T. MacLeod, the first-prize winner was Carlo Nicoli of Carrara, Italy for his scaled plaster model titled “Al Mártir de Bagumbayan” besting 40 other accepted entries. Nicoli won the ₱5,000.00 first prize for his design depicting a monument rising 18 metres high with a base of 12 metres, the base was to be rendered in two shades of gray marble while the pedestal, in two shades of white marble. Among his other plans were the use of marble from Italy, the contract was awarded to second-placer Swiss sculptor named Richard Kissling for his “Motto Stella”. Many accounts explained why the contract landed to Kissling, one is Nicoli’s inability to post the required bond of ₱20,000 for the duration of the monument’s construction. Some sources say that Nicoli failed to show up at the date for the signing of the job contract
Netherlands Institute for Art History
The Netherlands Institute for Art History or RKD is located in The Hague and is home to the largest art history center in the world. The center specializes in documentation and books on Western art from the late Middle Ages until modern times, all of this is open to the public, and much of it has been digitized and is available on their website. The main goal of the bureau is to collect, via the available databases, the visitor can gain insight into archival evidence on the lives of many artists of past centuries. The library owns approximately 450,000 titles, of which ca.150,000 are auction catalogs, there are ca.3,000 magazines, of which 600 are currently running subscriptions. Though most of the text is in Dutch, the record format includes a link to library entries and images of known works. The RKD manages the Dutch version of the Art and Architecture Thesaurus, the original version is an initiative of the Getty Research Institute in Los Angeles, California. Their bequest formed the basis for both the art collection and the library, which is now housed in the Koninklijke Bibliotheek.
Though not all of the holdings have been digitised, much of its metadata is accessible online. The website itself is available in both a Dutch and an English user interface, in the artist database RKDartists, each artist is assigned a record number. To reference an artist page directly, use the code listed at the bottom of the record, usually of the form, for example, the artist record number for Salvador Dalí is 19752, so his RKD artist page can be referenced. In the images database RKDimages, each artwork is assigned a record number, to reference an artwork page directly, use the code listed at the bottom of the record, usually of the form, https, //rkd. nl/en/explore/images/ followed by the artworks record number. For example, the record number for The Night Watch is 3063. The Art and Architecture Thesaurus assigns a record for each term, they are used in the databases and the databases can be searched for terms. For example, the painting called The Night Watch is a militia painting, the thesaurus is a set of general terms, but the RKD contains a database for an alternate form of describing artworks, that today is mostly filled with biblical references.
To see all images that depict Miriams dance, the associated iconclass code 71E1232 can be used as a search term. Official website Direct link to the databases The Dutch version of the Art and Architecture Thesaurus
Altdorf is a historic and statistic town and a municipality in the canton of Uri. It is the capital of Uri, the municipality covers an area of 10.21 square kilometres and is located just about 2 kilometres south of the mouth of the Reuss, which flows into the Lake Lucerne, here called the Urnersee. It is the junction towards to the two passes Saint Gotthard to the south, a major north-south axis through the Alps, and the Klausen Pass to the east. Altdorf sits on the Gotthard line and is the last railway station before the entrance into the new Gotthard Base Tunnel, the official language of Altdorf is German, but the main spoken language is the local variant of the Alemannic Swiss German dialect. Altdorf consists of the town proper on the alluvial plain by the Reuss. Halfway up the hamlets of Eggberge on a high terrace above the town belongs to the municipality. The municipality has an area, as of 2006, of 10.2 km2, of this area,35. 9% is used for agricultural purposes, while 39. 3% is forested.
Of the rest of the land, 23% is settled and the remainder is non-productive, in the 1993/97 land survey,37. 2% of the total land area was forested. Of the agricultural land,0. 7% is used for farming or pastures, while 35. 2% is used for orchards or vine crops. Of the settled areas,11. 3% is covered with buildings,2. 6% is industrial,0. 8% is classed as special developments,1. 5% is listed as parks and greenbelts and 6. 7% is transportation infrastructure. Of the unproductive areas,1. 1% is unproductive flowing water, there is 0. 6% that is too rocky for vegetation, the earliest evidence of a settlement in Altdorf are several La Tène era bronze ax-heads and iron tools from the 3rd century BC. The people that settled in this region settled in the forest. When the Reuss periodically flooded, the low lying settlements were destroyed and the inhabitants were driven back to the old town, following the collapse of the Roman Empire the local Gallo-Roman population of Altdorf began to mix with the Germanic Alamanni during the 7th century.
The earliest evidence of this is the grave of an armed horseman located in the local St Martins Church, the current town was first mentioned in 1223 as Alttorf. During the 16 to 19th centuries it was simply as Uri. Altdorf is best known as the place where, according to the legend and this act by tradition happened on the market-place, where in 1895, at the foot of an old tower, there was set up a fine bronze statue of Tell and his son. In 1899 a theatre was opened close to the center for the purpose of performing Schillers play of Wilhelm Tell. The same year a new carriage-road was opened from Altdorf through the Schächental and over the Klausen Pass to the village of Linthal, in 1906, the Altdorf–Flüelen tramway was constructed to connect the centre of Altdorf with Fluelen railway station