James F. Wilson
James Falconer "Jefferson Jim" Wilson was a lawyer, Republican U. S. Congressman from Iowa's 1st congressional district during the American Civil War, a two-term U. S. Senator from Iowa, he was a pioneer in the advancement of federal protection for civil rights. In the last half of the nineteenth century, two unrelated Iowans named James Wilson achieved high office, necessitating an early form of disambiguation. Representative and Senator James F. Wilson became known as "Jefferson Jim" Wilson, while Representative and Secretary of Agriculture James Wilson became known as "Tama Jim" Wilson. Wilson was born in Ohio. After his father died when James was eleven, James needed to work from an early age, attended school when work permitted. After serving as a harnessmaker's apprentice, he studied law in Newark alongside future U. S. Supreme Court Justice William Burnham Woods, he was admitted to the bar in 1851 and practiced in Newark from until 1853. In 1853, he moved to Fairfield, where he resumed the practice of law.
Wilson played an important role in the formation of the Iowa Republican Party, antebellum Iowa government. In 1857, he was a delegate to Iowa's constitutional convention, served as a Republican in the Iowa House of Representatives that year and in 1859. Elected next to the Iowa Senate, he served in that house until 1861. In 1860, Wilson and three others, including incumbent Samuel R. Curtis, vied for the Republican nomination to represent Iowa's 1st congressional district in the U. S. House of Representatives. Curtis won the nomination the general election. After the outbreak of the Civil War, Curtis resigned to accept appointment as an officer of the Union Army. At the convention called to choose the Republican nominee to succeed Curtis, "it was a foregone conclusion that James F. Wilson would be the unanimous choice." In October 1861 Wilson was elected to fill the vacancy defeating Democrat Jairus E. Neal. After completing Curtis's term in the Thirty-seventh Congress, he was re-elected three times, serving in the Thirty-eighth, Thirty-ninth, Fortieth Congresses.
He was chairman of the House Committee on the Judiciary during the tumultuous periods during the War and Reconstruction. Wilson was aligned with the faction of his Party known at the time as the "Radical Republicans." He supported civil rights moves and objected to President Andrew Johnson's attempts to veto the Civil Rights Act of 1866 and the Reconstruction Acts. Despite his initial misgivings, he voted to impeach President Johnson and was one of the House managers in his impeachment trial in 1868, he supported the first bill in Congress to provide voting rights to black citizens of the District of Columbia. He was not a candidate for renomination in 1868, explaining prior to the district convention that with the election of an acceptable Republican president guaranteed and a change in administration inevitable, a change in representation of the First District was timely. In all, Wilson served in the House from October 8, 1861, to March 4, 1869. President Ulysses S. Grant offered Wilson the post of Secretary of State, but Wilson declined it, serving instead as government director of the Pacific Railroad for eight years.
In 1882, the Iowa General Assembly elected Wilson to the U. S. Senate, his first initiative as a U. S. Senator was to propose an unsuccessful constitutional amendment to more explicitly authorize the federal government to adopt laws that protect civil rights from violations by private citizens, to nullify the Supreme Court's ruling two months earlier in the Civil Rights Cases, 109 U. S. 3. The General Assembly re-elected him in 1888 to a second six-year term. In the Senate, Wilson served as chairman of the Committee of Mines and Mining Committee on Expenditures of Public Money, Committee on Revision of the Laws of the United States, the Committee on Education and Labor. In 1890, Wilson was one of three Senators mentioned as potential nominees to fill the vacancy on the U. S. Supreme Court created by the death of Justice Samuel F. Miller of Iowa. President Benjamin Harrison instead picked Michigan judge Henry Billings Brown, who would write the Supreme Court's opinion upholding "separate but equal" racial segregation in Plessy v. Ferguson, 163 U.
S. 537. Wilson died in Fairfield shortly. In its obituary, the New York Times attributed his death to "paralysis of the brain", stated that his death had been expected, he was interred in Fairfield-Evergreen Cemetery. US Senator James F. Wilson House in Fairfield is listed on the National Register of Historic Places United States Congress. "James F. Wilson". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. James F. Wilson at The Political Graveyard James F. Wilson at Find a Grave
George Wallace Jones
George Wallace Jones, a frontiersman, entrepreneur and judge, was among the first two United States Senators to represent the state of Iowa after it was admitted to the Union in 1846. A Democrat, elected before the birth of the Republican Party, Jones served over ten years in the Senate, from December 7, 1848 to March 3, 1859. During the American Civil War, he was arrested by Federal authorities and jailed on suspicion of having pro-Confederate sympathies. Jones was born in Indiana, he was the son of John Rice Jones, who became active in efforts directed toward the introduction of slavery to the country north of the Ohio River. When George was six years old, his father moved the family to Missouri Territory acquired from France as part of the Louisiana Purchase; as a child he served as a drummer for a volunteer company in the War of 1812. He moved to Kentucky where he attended Transylvania University in 1825, returned to Missouri to study law with his brother. After he was admitted to the bar and had practiced law for a short time, he went to work at Sinsinawa Mound in Michigan Territory, where he mined lead and worked and a storekeeper.
He returned to Missouri, where he courted and married seventeen-year-old Josephine Gregiore in 1829. In 1831 Jones returned to Sinsinawa with his wife, seven slaves and several French laborers, to resume lead mining. In 1832, Jones fought the Sauk and Fox Indians in the Black Hawk War, in which his brother-in-law Felix St. Vrain was killed. Jones was a judge in the local county court. Jones represented the Michigan Territory's At-large congressional district as a delegate in the 24th Congress from March 4, 1835 until January 26, 1837 when Michigan was admitted to the Union, his constituency included all of what is now the states of Michigan, Wisconsin and Iowa. After Michigan became a state, Jones redistricted and became the first Congressional delegate from the Territory of Wisconsin, formed from a portion of the Michigan Territory, representing the territory's At-large congressional district as a non-voting member. In that position he persuaded voting members to support the designation of areas of Wisconsin Territory west of the Mississippi River as Iowa Territory.
He continued to represent the Wisconsin Territory until January 3, 1839, when he was succeeded by James D. Doty. President Martin Van Buren appointed him as Surveyor-General of the Wisconsin and Iowa Territories, where he served from early 1840 until the end of the Van Buren administration in 1841. In 1845, following the election of another Democrat, James K. Polk, as president, he was reappointed Surveyor-General of Iowa Territory, one year before the southeastern eastern area of Iowa Territory became the State of Iowa. Jones represented Iowa in the United States Senate from December 7, 1848 to March 3, 1859. For its first two years, the Iowa General Assembly failed to choose Iowa's first U. S. Senators, due to a three-way split that prevented any candidate from earning the required number of 30 legislators' votes. However, after the 1848 elections gave the Democratic Party a greater share of Iowa legislators, Jones became a candidate for one of the two seats, after four ballots won the Democratic caucuses' nomination for one of the two seats.
He won the election and by drawing lots, received the seat with the longer term. He won re-election after winning renomination by the Democratic Party by a single vote. Jones was Chairman of the Committee on Engrossed Bills, the Committee on Pensions, the Committee on Enrolled Bills, he served two terms before failing to be renominated. Jones had become unpopular in Iowa among those in his own party, because he voted with southern Senators on slavery-related issues; as a senator, Jones was described by his biographer as a "Democrat in politics and a southerner by instinct." He claimed to oppose slavery but insisted that Congress had no right to forbid it or criticize it where states chose to allow it. Thus, he supported the Kansas–Nebraska Act; that stance, while unremarkable at the time rendered him incapable of re-election in a state whose antislavery, anticompromise faction became dominant midway in Jones' second term, as the new Republican Party. After his term ended, no Iowa Democrat would win election to the U.
S. Senate until the 1920s, his ten years in the Senate were not matched by any Iowa Democrat until 1950, after Guy M. Gillette was elected a third time. In 1858, the Democratic Party in Iowa, like those in other northern states, was bitterly divided over the support that its own president, James Buchanan, gave for the adoption by Kansas Territory and Congress of the pro-slavery Lecompton Constitution. Jones had voted to approve the Lecompton Constitution in the Senate; when anti-slavery Iowa Democrats passed a resolution at their 1858 state convention repudiating the party's previous support for the Lecompton Constitution and others in the party's "old guard" walked out. In 1859, President Buchanan appointed Jones as Minister Resident of the United States to New Granada, requiring his relocation to Bogotá, his service in Bogotá ended just as the Civil War broke out, as the Abraham Lincoln administration succeeded the Buchanan administration. Jones' two sons joined the Confederate Army. Upon returning to the United States in 1861, Jones was arrested by order of Secretary of State William H. Seward on the charge of disloyalty, based upon correspondence with his friend, Confederate President Jefferson Davis.
He was never placed on trial. Jones was held for 34 days, u
James W. McDill
James Wilson McDill was an American lawyer, state-court judge, Republican United States Representative and Senator from Iowa, state railroad commissioner, member of the Interstate Commerce Commission. Born in Monroe, Ohio, he attended the common schools, Hanover College, South Salem Academy, he graduated from Miami University in 1853. He studied law in Columbus and was admitted to the bar in 1856. McDill moved to Afton, Iowa in southwestern Iowa, commenced practice, he was elected superintendent of Union County, Iowa, in 1859 and was elected county judge in 1860. He was a clerk in the office of the Third Auditor of the Treasury in Washington, D. C. from 1862 to 1865, when he resigned and returned to Iowa. He was elected circuit judge in 1868, district judge of the third judicial circuit of Iowa. In 1872, he was elected as a Republican to represent Iowa's 8th congressional district in the U. S. House, he served in the Forty-third Congress. He was re-elected two years to the Forty-fourth Congress, he declined to be a candidate for renomination in 1876.
In all, he served in the House from March 4, 1873 to March 3, 1877. McDill resumed the practice of law in Afton, he was a member of the Board of Railroad Commissioners of the State of Iowa from 1878 to 1881. In March 1881, he was appointed by Governor John H. Gear to fill the U. S. Senate vacancy caused by the resignation of Samuel J. Kirkwood, whom President James A. Garfield had appointed Secretary of the Interior. McDill was required to stand for election in the next session of the Iowa General Assembly, in 1882. James F. Wilson was elected to the "long term" Senate seat, which McDill did not seek, but McDill was elected to continue holding the seat in the short run. In all, he served in the Senate from March 8, 1881, until March 3, 1883. After his term ended, he was again appointed Railroad Commissioner for three years beginning in April 1884. In 1892, he was appointed by President Benjamin Harrison a member of the Interstate Commerce Commission and served until his death in Creston, Iowa in 1894.
He was interred in Graceland Cemetery. United States Congress. "James W. McDill". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress
Herbert Clark Hoover was an American engineer and politician who served as the 31st president of the United States from 1929 to 1933. A member of the Republican Party, he held office during the onset of the Great Depression. Prior to serving as president, Hoover led the Commission for Relief in Belgium, served as the director of the U. S. Food Administration, served as the 3rd U. S. Secretary of Commerce. Born to a Quaker family in West Branch, Hoover took a position with a London-based mining company after graduating from Stanford University in 1895. After the outbreak of World War I, he became the head of the Commission for Relief in Belgium, an international relief organization that provided food to occupied Belgium; when the U. S. entered the war, President Woodrow Wilson appointed Hoover to lead the Food Administration, Hoover became known as the country's "food czar". After the war, Hoover led the American Relief Administration, which provided food to the inhabitants of Central Europe and Eastern Europe.
Hoover's war-time service made him a favorite of many progressives, he unsuccessfully sought the Republican nomination in the 1920 presidential election. After the 1920 election, newly-elected Republican President Warren G. Harding appointed Hoover as Secretary of Commerce. Hoover was an unusually active and visible cabinet member, becoming known as "Secretary of Commerce and Under-Secretary of all other departments", he was influential in the development of radio and air travel and led the federal response to the Great Mississippi Flood of 1927. Hoover won the Republican nomination in the 1928 presidential election, decisively defeated the Democratic candidate, Al Smith; the stock market crashed shortly after Hoover took office, the Great Depression became the central issue of his presidency. Hoover pursued a variety of policies in an attempt to lift the economy, but opposed directly involving the federal government in relief efforts. In the midst of an ongoing economic crisis, Hoover was decisively defeated by Democratic nominee Franklin D. Roosevelt in the 1932 presidential election.
Hoover enjoyed one of the longest retirements of any former president, he authored numerous works. After leaving office, Hoover became conservative, he criticized Roosevelt's foreign policy and New Deal domestic agenda. In the 1940s and 1950s, Hoover's public reputation was rehabilitated as he served for Presidents Harry S. Truman and Dwight D. Eisenhower in various assignments, including as chairman of the Hoover Commission. Hoover is not ranked in historical rankings of presidents of the United States. Herbert Hoover was born on August 1874 in West Branch, Iowa, his father, Jesse Hoover, was a blacksmith and farm implement store owner of German and English ancestry. Hoover's mother, Hulda Randall Minthorn, was raised in Norwich, Canada, before moving to Iowa in 1859. Like most other citizens of West Branch and Hulda were Quakers; as a child, Hoover attended schools, but he did little reading on his own aside from the Bible. Hoover's father, noted by the local paper for his "pleasant, sunshiny disposition", died in 1880 at the age of 34.
Hoover's mother died in 1884, leaving Hoover, his older brother and his younger sister, May, as orphans. In 1885, Hoover was sent to Newberg, Oregon to live with his uncle John Minthorn, a Quaker physician and businessman whose own son had died the year before; the Minthorn household was considered cultured and educational, imparted a strong work ethic. Much like West Branch, Newberg was a frontier town settled by Midwestern Quakers. Minthorn ensured that Hoover received an education, but Hoover disliked the many chores assigned to him and resented Minthorn. One observer described Hoover as "an orphan seemed to be neglected in many ways." Hoover attended Friends Pacific Academy, but dropped out at the age of thirteen to become an office assistant for his uncle's real estate office in Salem, Oregon. Though he did not attend high school, Hoover learned bookkeeping and mathematics at a night school. Hoover entered Stanford University in 1891, its inaugural year, despite failing all the entrance exams except mathematics.
During his freshman year, he switched his major from mechanical engineering to geology after working for John Casper Branner, the chair of Stanford's geology department. Hoover was a mediocre student, he spent much of his time working in various part-time jobs or participating in campus activities. Though he was shy among fellow students, Hoover won election as student treasurer and became known for his distaste for fraternities and sororities, he served as student manager of both the baseball and football teams, helped organize the inaugural Big Game versus the University of California. During the summers before and after his senior year, Hoover interned under economic geologist Waldemar Lindgren of the United States Geological Survey; when Hoover graduated from Stanford in 1895, the country was in the midst of the Panic of 1893, he struggled to find a job. He worked in various low-level mining jobs in the Sierra Nevada mountain range until he convinced prominent mining engineer Louis Janin to hire him.
After working as a mine scout for a year, Hoover was hired by Bewick, Moreing & Co. a London-based company that operated gold mines in Western Australia. Hoover first went to Coolgardie the center of the Eastern Goldfields. Though Hoover received a $5,000 salary, conditions were h
Lafayette Young was a newspaper reporter and editor, a Republican Senator from Iowa. Young was born in Iowa, his early education was acquired in the public schools and in printing offices at Albia and Des Moines, Iowa. His first business establishment was a newspaper in Atlantic, which he named the Telegraph. In 1873, he was elected as a Republican to a seat in the Iowa State Senate representing Adair, Cass and Union counties, was re-elected in 1877, in 1885. In all, he served in the Iowa Senate from 1874 to 1880, 1886 to 1888. In 1890 Young moved to Des Moines and purchased a daily newspaper known as the Daily Iowa Capital or the Des Moines Capital. In 1893, Young was an unsuccessful candidate for the Republican nomination for Governor of Iowa, losing to Frank D. Jackson, he served as a war correspondent during the Spanish–American War. When Iowa Senator Jonathan P. Dolliver died in October 1910, Young was appointed by Iowa Governor Beryl F. Carroll as Dolliver's immediate replacement. Soon after his appointment, his position was up for election in the 1911 Iowa General Assembly, where the Republicans held a large majority but were divided among a long list of candidates for Young's seat.
The inability of any candidate to receive the required majority of 76 legislators forced the General Assembly to re-vote each morning of the session. Young was the principal Republican opponent of Fort Dodge attorney William S. Kenyon until the 23rd ballot, when Young lost most of his support to other candidates. Kenyon was elected on the final day of the session on the 67th ballot. In all, Young served in the U. S. Senate from November 1910 to April 1911. After his Senate service, Young returned to his newspaper, he again became a war correspondent, travelling to southeastern Europe in 1913 to cover the Second Balkan War. In 1915, he again returned to Europe, this time to assess the early stages of World War I. During that trip he was detained in Innsbruck by Austria-Hungary, but was released. After the United States declared war in 1917, he was appointed chairman of the Iowa State Council for Defense; as the Council's chairman, Young urged that "disloyal" persons should be impoverished and imprisoned, arguing that "ny man who has lived under the protection of our laws and has accumulated wealth and is now disloyal should be deprived of every dollar he possesses and he should be interned in a stockade until the end of the war and at that time his fate should be considered carefully."
He campaigned against the teaching of any foreign language in any public school or college, for the imposition of English literacy tests for voting. In recognition of his work in raising funds in Iowa for the children of Belgium, Young was made a Knight of the Order of Leopold II of Belgium, he continued to edit his newspaper until his death in Des Moines on November 15, 1926. He was interred there in Woodland Cemetery. United States Congress. "Lafayette Young". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Lafayette Young at Find a Grave Editorial Cartoons of J. N.'Ding' Darling - Cartoons referencing or depicting Lafayette Young
James W. Grimes
James Wilson Grimes was an American politician, serving as the third Governor of Iowa and a United States Senator from Iowa. Born in Deering, New Hampshire, Grimes graduated from Hampton Academy and attended Dartmouth College, he studied law, moved west and commenced practice in a settlement in'Black Hawk Purchase', Wisconsin Territory, incorporated as Burlington, Iowa. He farmed. Grimes served as a member of the Iowa Territorial House of Representatives for 1838 – 1839 and 1843 – 1844 terms, he served as Governor of Iowa from 1854 to 1858. While elected as a Whig in 1854, he was a guiding light in the Republican Party's establishment in Iowa in 1855 and 1856. Grimes was elected as a Republican to the U. S. Senate in 1859 and reelected in 1865, he served in the Senate from March 4, 1859, until December 6, 1869, when he resigned due to ill health. In the Senate, he served as chairman of the Committee on the District of Columbia, the Committee on Naval Affairs, he served on the Joint Committee on Reconstruction which drafted the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.
In 1861 Grimes was a member of the peace convention held in Washington, D. C. in an effort to devise means to prevent the impending Civil War. In December 1861, he introduced the senate bill. During President Andrew Johnson's impeachment trial, Grimes broke party ranks, along with six other Republican senators and voted for acquittal. Senators William Pitt Fessenden, Joseph S. Fowler, John B. Henderson, Lyman Trumbull, Peter G. Van Winkle, Edmund G. Ross of Kansas, who provided the decisive vote, defied their party and public opinion and voted against impeachment, they were disturbed by how the proceedings had been manipulated in order to give a one-sided presentation of the evidence. After the trial, Ben Butler conducted hearings on the widespread reports that Republican senators had been bribed to vote for Johnson's acquittal. In Butler's hearings, in subsequent inquiries, there was increasing evidence that some acquittal votes were acquired by promises of patronage jobs and cash cards. Grimes died in Burlington on February 7, 1872, aged 55.
He is buried in Burlington. The plot of land that his home was once located on is now home to an elementary school that bears his name; the town of Grimes, IA is named for James W. Grimes. James W. Grimes State Office Building, Des Moines, IA United States Congress. "James W. Grimes". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress.. Includes Guide to Research Collections. Brief bio of James Grimes from Spartacus Educational
Galena is the largest city in and the county seat of Jo Daviess County, with a population of 3,429 at the 2010 census. A 581-acre section of the city is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as the Galena Historic District; the city is named for the mineral galena, mined by Native Americans in the area for over a thousand years. Owing to these deposits, Galena was the site of the first major mineral rush in the United States. By 1828, the population was estimated at 10,000; the city emerged as the largest steamboat hub on the Mississippi River north of Missouri. Galena was the home of eight other Civil War generals. Today, the city is a tourist destination known for its history and resorts; the city is named for the natural form of lead sulfide and the most important lead ore. Native Americans mined the ore for use in burial rituals; the Havana Hopewell first traded galena in the area during the Middle Woodland period. However, the use of galena in the Havana territory is uncertain. During the Mississippian period, galena saw use as body paint.
The French via contact with the Sioux, first noted lead deposits in the Upper Mississippi Valley in 1658. A 1703 French map identified the northwestern Illinois area as mines de plumb. Northwestern Illinois was inhabited by Fox when the French arrived. In the 1690s, French trappers began mining the lead. However, conflicts with the Sioux prevented large-scale mining until Julien Dubuque's Mines opened across the river in 1788; the French called Galena La Pointe and early Americans adopted this name as "The Point". Early documentation records the name as "Fever River", an early name for the Galena River, though it does not appear that this name was used. George Davenport, a retired colonel in the United States Army shipped Galena's first boatload of lead ore down the Mississippi River in 1816. Three years Jesse W. Shull built a trading post; the Thomas H. January family, who arrived in 1821 from Maysville, are considered the first permanent American settlers; the next year, the US Department of War leased the lands out.
A large group of colonists led by Dr. Moses Meeker and James Harris arrived in 1823. Steamboat trade began in 1824; the first official lease of the mines on behalf of the US government was to James Johnson, brother of US Senator Richard Mentor Johnson, on September 30, 1822. Martin Thomas, appointed by the government in 1824 to oversee mine leases, was commissioned to survey the mines in 1826; the name "Galena" was purportedly given during a town meeting that year. Thomas platted the town and, starting in June 1827, settlers could lease plots from the government; the land remained in government possession until the leasing system was eased out in 1836–37. When Jo Daviess County was founded in 1827, Galena was named its county seat; this established the first courts in Galena. 21 million pounds of lead were mined in Galena from 1825 to 1828 and the population exploded in that time from 200 to 10,000. Local native tribes, now Winnebago, permitted settlers to mine in established areas in Galena. However, the growth of the city led settlers to encroach on native land claims, seeking new veins of lead.
Following a murder of a pioneer family near Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin, by the Winnebago, Galena closed its mines for safety and prepared for war. Citizens established forts at nearby Apple River; the ensuing Winnebago War was little more than a skirmish, but the lands near the city were annexed by the US in the resulting 1829 Treaty of Prairie du Chien. A meeting on February 1, 1830, established the first fire department. At a town meeting at the county courthouse on September 7, 1835, sixty-five residents approved a motion for incorporation as a town. Eight days five individuals were elected as the first trustees. Incorporation was approved by the county board of trustees on October 2, the first meeting of trustees occurred the next day; the 15th Illinois General Assembly codified the trustee election process. A steamboat was selected as the town seal on May 22, 1837. A state law resulted in the first elections for mayor and aldermen on May 24, 1841, replacing the board of trustees; the first census was held that year, finding 1,900 inhabitants.
By 1845 Galena was producing nearly 27,000 tons of lead ore and Jo Daviess County was producing 80 percent of the lead in the United States. Once one of the most important cities in the state, Galena was a hub on the Mississippi River between St. Louis and St. Paul. Due to erosion, the Galena River is now inaccessible to steamboats. Galena received national attention in the 1860s as home of General Ulysses S. Grant. Following a sharp decline in the demand for lead, Galena's population dropped from 14,000 in the mid-19th century, to 3,396 in the early 21st century. Galena's official flag was adopted in 1976 to symbolize mining, agriculture and the nine American Civil War generals who lived in the city; until the late 1980s, Galena remained a small rural farming community. In 1990, local industries included a Kraft Foods cheese plant, Lemfco Foundry, John Westwick's foundry, Microswitch, I