The Korean War was a war between North Korea and South Korea. The war began on 25 June 1950 when North Korea invaded South Korea following a series of clashes along the border; as a product of the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, Korea had been split into two sovereign states in 1948. A socialist state was established in the north under the communist leadership of Kim Il-sung and a capitalist state in the south under the anti-communist leadership of Syngman Rhee. Both governments of the two new Korean states claimed to be the sole legitimate government of all of Korea, neither accepted the border as permanent; the conflict escalated into warfare when North Korean military forces—supported by the Soviet Union and China—crossed the border and advanced south into South Korea on 25 June 1950. The United Nations Security Council authorized the formation and dispatch of UN forces to Korea to repel what was recognized as a North Korean invasion. Twenty-one countries of the United Nations contributed to the UN force, with the United States providing around 90% of the military personnel.
After the first two months of war, South Korean and U. S. forces dispatched to Korea were on the point of defeat, forced back to a small area in the south known as the Pusan Perimeter. In September 1950, an amphibious UN counter-offensive was launched at Incheon, cut off many North Korean troops; those who escaped envelopment and capture were forced back north. UN forces approached the Yalu River—the border with China—but in October 1950, mass Chinese forces crossed the Yalu and entered the war; the surprise Chinese intervention triggered a retreat of UN forces which continued until mid-1951. In these reversals of fortune, Seoul changed hands four times, the last two years of fighting became a war of attrition, with the front line close to the 38th parallel; the war in the air, was never a stalemate. North Korea was subject to a massive bombing campaign. Jet fighters confronted each other in air-to-air combat for the first time in history, Soviet pilots covertly flew in defense of their communist allies.
The fighting ended on 27 July 1953. The agreement created the Korean Demilitarized Zone to separate North and South Korea, allowed the return of prisoners. However, no peace treaty was signed, according to some sources the two Koreas are technically still at war, engaged in a frozen conflict. In April 2018, the leaders of North and South Korea met at the demilitarized zone and agreed to work towards a treaty to formally end the Korean War. In South Korea, the war is referred to as "625" or the "6–2–5 Upheaval", reflecting the date of its commencement on June 25. In North Korea, the war is referred to as the "Fatherland Liberation War" or alternatively the "Chosǒn War". In China, the war is called the "War to Resist America and Aid Korea", although the term "Chaoxian War" is used in unofficial contexts, along with the term "Hán War" more used in regions such as Hong Kong and Macau. In the U. S. the war was described by President Harry S. Truman as a "police action" as the United States never formally declared war on its opponents and the operation was conducted under the auspices of the United Nations.
It has been referred to in the English-speaking world as "The Forgotten War" or "The Unknown War" because of the lack of public attention it received both during and after the war, in relation to the global scale of World War II, which preceded it, the subsequent angst of the Vietnam War, which succeeded it. Imperial Japan destroyed the influence of China over Korea in the First Sino-Japanese War, ushering in the short-lived Korean Empire. A decade after defeating Imperial Russia in the Russo-Japanese War, Japan made Korea its protectorate with the Eulsa Treaty in 1905 annexed it with the Japan–Korea Annexation Treaty in 1910. Many Korean nationalists fled the country; the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea was founded in 1919 in Nationalist China. It failed to achieve international recognition, failed to unite nationalist groups, had a fractious relationship with its U. S.-based founding president, Syngman Rhee. From 1919 to 1925 and beyond, Korean communists led internal and external warfare against the Japanese.
In China, the Nationalist National Revolutionary Army and the communist People's Liberation Army helped organize Korean refugees against the Japanese military, which had occupied parts of China. The Nationalist-backed Koreans, led by Yi Pom-Sok, fought in the Burma Campaign; the communists, led by Kim Il-sung among others, fought the Japanese in Manchuria. At the Cairo Conference in November 1943, the United Kingdom, the United States all decided that "in due course Korea shall become free and independent". At the Tehran Conference in November 1943 and the Yalta Conference in February 1945, the Soviet Union promised to join its allies in the Pacific War within three months of the victory in Europe. Accordingly, it declared war o
Maritime history is the study of human interaction with and activity at sea. It covers a broad thematic element of history that uses a global approach, although national and regional histories remain predominant; as an academic subject, it crosses the boundaries of standard disciplines, focusing on understanding humankind's various relationships to the oceans and major waterways of the globe. Nautical history records and interprets past events involving ships, shipping and seafarers. Maritime history is the broad overarching subject that includes fishing, international maritime law, naval history, the history of ships, ship design, the history of navigation, the history of the various maritime-related sciences, sea exploration, maritime economics and trade, yachting, seaside resorts, the history of lighthouses and aids to navigation, maritime themes in literature, maritime themes in art, the social history of sailors and passengers and sea-related communities. There are a number of approaches to the field, sometimes divided into two broad categories: Traditionalists, who seek to engage a small audience of other academics, Utilitarians, who seek to influence policy makers and a wider audience.
Historians from many lands have published monographs and scholarly articles, collections of archival resources. A leading journal is International Journal of Maritime History, a refereed scholarly journal published twice a year by the International Maritime Economic History Association. Based in Canada with an international editorial board, it explores the maritime dimensions of economic, social and environmental history. For a broad overview, see the four-volume encyclopedia edited by John B. Hattendorf, Oxford Encyclopedia of Maritime History, it runs 2900 pages. Other major reference resources are Spencer Tucker, ed. Naval Warfare: An International Encyclopedia with 1500 articles in 1231, I. C. B. Dear and Peter Kemp, eds. Oxford Companion to Ships and the Sea with 2600 articles in 688 pages. Studies of merchant shipping and of defensive navies are seen as separate fields. Inland waterways are included within'maritime history,' inland seas such as the Great Lakes of North America, major navigable rivers and canals worldwide.
One approach to maritime history writing has been nicknamed'rivet counting' because of a focus on the minutiae of the vessel. But revisionist scholars are creating new turns in the study of maritime history; this includes a post-1980s turn towards the study of human users of ships. This move is sometimes associated with Marcus Rediker and Black Atlantic studies, but most has emerged from the International Association for the History of Transport and Mobilities See also: Historiography related articles below Throughout history sailing has been instrumental in the development of civilization, affording humanity greater mobility than travel over land, whether for trade, transport or warfare, the capacity for fishing; the earliest representation of a ship under sail appears on a painted disc found in Kuwait dating to the late 5th millennium BC. In the time before ancient maritime history, the first boats are presumed to have been dugout canoes, developed independently by various stone age populations, used for coastal fishing and travel.
The Indigenous of the Pacific Northwest are skilled at crafting wood. Best known for totem poles up to 80 feet tall, they construct dugout canoes over 60 feet long for everyday use and ceremonial purposes; the earliest seaworthy boats may have been developed as early as 45,000 years ago, according to one hypothesis explaining the habitation of Australia. The Ancient Egyptians had knowledge of sail construction; this is governed by the science of aerodynamics. According to the Greek historian Herodotus, Necho II sent out an expedition of Phoenicians, which in three years sailed from the Red Sea around Africa to the mouth of the Nile; some current historians believe Herodotus on this point though Herodotus himself was in disbelief that the Phoenicians had accomplished the act. China's multi-mast sailing junks were carrying over 200 people as early as 200 AD and by the medieval period were massive; the Southeast Asian Seafarers and Northern European Vikings concurrently developed oceangoing vessels and depended upon them for travel and population movements prior to 1000 AD.
In early modern India and Arabia the lateen-sail ship known as the dhow was used on the waters of the Red Sea, Indian Ocean, Persian Gulf. China's early trade exports included pepper and fine spices. There were two main trade routes during this time. Water was the cheapest and the only way to transport goods in bulk over long distances. In addition, it was the safest way to transport commodities; the long trade routes created. There were three popular Entrepôts; these super centers for trade were ethnically diverse, because ports served as a midpoint of voyages and trade instead of a destination. The Entrepôts helped link the coastal cities to the "hempispheric trade nexus"; the increase in sea trade initiated a cultural exchange among traders. From 1400
HMS Hermes (R12)
HMS Hermes was a conventional British aircraft carrier and the last of the Centaur class. Hermes was in service with the Royal Navy from 1959 until 1984, she served as the flagship of the British forces during the 1982 Falklands War. After being sold to India in 1986, the vessel was recommissioned and remained in service with the Indian Navy as INS Viraat until 2017. A crowdfunding campaign failed to preserve the ship as a museum piece; the ship was laid down by Vickers-Armstrong at Barrow-in-Furness during World War II as HMS Elephant. Construction was suspended in 1945 but work was resumed in 1952 to clear the slipway and the hull was launched on 16 February 1953; the vessel remained unfinished until 1957, when she entered service on 18 November 1959 as HMS Hermes after extensive modifications which included installation of a massive Type 984'searchlight' 3D radar, a angled deck with a deck-edge elevator, steam catapults. With these changes she more resembled the reconstructed aircraft carrier Victorious than the other three ships in the class.
Hermes operated Supermarine Scimitar, de Havilland Sea Vixen, Fairey Gannet fixed-wing aircraft, together with Westland Whirlwind helicopters. Hermes cost £18 million, with another £1 million for electronic equipment and £10 million for aircraft in 1959. On 16 November 1961, Hermes was off Pembrokeshire in Wales when one of Hermes's helicopters carrying two Members of Parliament, Lord Windlesham and the MP for Loughborough, John Cronin, back from Hermes, which they had been visiting, to RNAS Brawdy, crashed off St David's Head. While Cronin and the helicopter's two man crew were saved by another helicopter from Hermes, Lord Windlesham and an RAF officer being carried as a passenger were killed. Civil Lord of the Admiralty John Hay said in Parliament on 2 March 1964 that "Phantoms will be operated from "Hermes", "Eagle" and the new carrier when it is built.... Our present information and advice is that the aircraft should be able to operate from "Hermes" after she has undergone her refit." This seemed optimistic, as most sources believed Victorious was the smallest carrier in commission that the modified RN F-4K versions of the Phantom could realistically have operated from.
The British spey engines replacing the USJ79 were a political necessity given they replacing the British local industry equipped P1154 while, the RR Spey, F-4 superior fuel efficiency was overshadowed by the larger engine size and inflexibility. From the smaller Hermes takeoff would be at 25k rather than 28k from Eagle And a F-4 would have to be catapulted from Hermes at much lower weight than from Eagle and combat air patrols possible would be 25 to 50 percent less duration than from Eagle, reduced from 2.00 to 2.30 hours to 1.00 to 1.30 hrs, only compensated by refueling when airborne. It was optimistically believed Hermes could replace its Vixens with F-4 speys on a one to one basis, ie 11-12 + 7-8 Buccaneers. While the Phantoms built for the RN were modified in ways similar to F-8 Crusaders for the French Navy - improving deceleration on landing - the modifications were not successful. Hermes's flight deck was too short, her arresting gear as well as her catapults were not powerful enough to recover or launch the F-4Ks though they were lighter, more economical and higher performing than their US Navy counterparts.
The Phantom trials held on Hermes in 1969–1970 proved this, though in the views of Minister of Defence, Denis Healey, the carrier could operate the most modern aircraft, but in too small numbers to be effective. While it is clear that McNamara claims that the F-4 was not safe off the USN Essex class, or 31,000-ton carriers, was rightly rejected by the civil lord of admiralty lord Hay, HCDefence Estimates debate, 64-5, it is clear that Hermes was not a viable substitute for CVA02. Lord Twiss, Lord Hill & D. K Brown History of RN constructors. Norman Friedman nbs the programme was politically and financially impossible, a case of the best being the enemy of the good. A 1966 review indicated that Hermes was surplus to operational requirements and she was offered to the Royal Australian Navy as a replacement for HMAS Melbourne. In 1968, Hermes took part in a combined exercise with the RAN, during which the carrier was visited by senior RAN officers and Australian government officials, while RAN A-4G Skyhawks and Grumman S-2 Trackers practised landings on the larger carrier.
The offer was turned down due to operating and manpower costs. Hermes served as one of four Royal Navy strike carriers in the Indian Ocean and in the Mediterranean Sea until decommissioned in 1970, she could have seen action against the Egyptians when Egypt closed off the Straits of Tiran to Israeli shipping in May 1967 when the UK and US contemplated forming an international fleet to open the straits with force if necessary, but the idea never materialised. When the decision was made in the mid-1960s to phase out fixed wing carrier operations Hermes was slated to become a "Commando Carrier" for Royal Marine operations. Therefore, Hermes was docked down in number 10 Dock in Devonport Dockyard between 1971 and 1973, undergoing a conversion in which her arresting cables, steam catapults, 3-D radar were removed. Landing craft and berthing for 800 troops were added and her airwing became 20 Sea King helicopters. By 1976, with the Soviet submarine threat becoming apparent and through NATO pressure, a further mild conversion was performed for Hermes to become an anti-submarine warfare carrier to patrol the North Atlantic.
Hermes underwent one more conversion and new capabilities were added when she was refitted at Portsmouth from 1980 to June 1981, during which a 12° ski-jump and facilities for operating Sea Harriers were incorporated. Afte
Merchant Navy (United Kingdom)
The Merchant Navy is the maritime register of the United Kingdom, comprises the seagoing commercial interests of UK-registered ships and their crews. Merchant Navy vessels are regulated by the Maritime and Coastguard Agency. King George V bestowed the title of "Merchant Navy" on the British merchant shipping fleets following their service in the First World War; the Merchant Navy has been in existence for a significant period in British history, owing much of its growth to British imperial expansion. It can be dated back to the 17th century, where an attempt was made to register all seafarers as a source of labour for the Royal Navy in times of conflict; that registration of merchant seafarers failed, it was not implemented until 1835. The merchant fleet grew over successive years to become the world's foremost merchant fleet, benefiting from trade with British possessions in India and the Far East; the lucrative trade in sugar, contraband and tea helped to solidify this dominance in the 19th century.
In the First and Second World Wars, the merchant service suffered heavy losses from German U-boat attacks. A policy of unrestricted warfare meant that merchant seafarers were at risk of attack from enemy ships; the tonnage lost to U-boats in the First World War was around 7,759,090 tons, around 14,661 merchant seafarers were killed. In honour of the sacrifice made by merchant seafarers in the First World War, George V granted the title "Merchant Navy" to the companies. In 1928 George V made Edward, Prince of Wales "Master of the Merchant Navy and Fishing Fleets". Since Edward VIII the title has automatically been held by the sovereigns George VI and Elizabeth II; when the UK entered the Second World War in September 1939 George VI issued this message: In these anxious days I would like to express to all Officers and Men and in The British Merchant Navy and The British Fishing Fleets my confidence in their unfailing determination to play their vital part in defence. To each one I would say: Yours is a task no less essential to my people's experience than that allotted to the Navy and Air Force.
Upon you the Nation depends for much of its foodstuffs and raw materials and for the transport of its troops overseas. You have a long and glorious history, I am proud to bear the title "Master of the Merchant Navy and Fishing Fleets". I know that you will carry out your duties with resolution and with fortitude, that high chivalrous traditions of your calling are safe in your hands. God prosper you in your great task. In the Second World War, German U-boats sank nearly 14.7 million tons of Allied shipping, which amounted to 2,828 ships. The United Kingdom alone suffered the loss of 11.7 million tons, 54% of the total Merchant Navy fleet at the outbreak of the Second World War. 32,000 merchant seafarers were killed aboard convoy vessels in the war, but along with the Royal Navy, the convoys imported enough supplies to allow an Allied victory. In honour of the sacrifices made in the two World Wars, the Merchant Navy lays wreaths of remembrance alongside the armed forces in the annual Remembrance Day service on 11 November.
Following many years of lobbying to bring about official recognition of the sacrifices made by merchant seafarers in two world wars and since, Merchant Navy Day became an official day of remembrance on 3 September 2000. Ensigns are displayed on the gaff, on a yardarm. Red Ensigns can be defaced, those can only be flown with a warrant onboard the vessel. House Flags are personal and designed by a company, it is displayed on a port halyard of a Yardarm Despite maintaining its dominant position for many decades, the decline of the British Empire, the rise of the use of the flag of convenience, foreign competition led to the decline of the merchant fleet. For example, in 1939 the Merchant Navy was the largest in the world with 33% of total tonnage. By 2012, the Merchant Navy — yet still remaining one of the largest in the world — held only 3% of total tonnage. In 2010 the Merchant Navy consisted of 504 UK registered ships of over. In addition, UK merchant marine interests possessed a further 308 ships registered in other countries and 271 foreign-owned ships were registered in the UK.
In 2012 British merchant marine interests consisted over. This included ships either parent-owned or managed by a British company; this amounted to: 59,413,000 GT or alternatively 75,265,000 DWT. This is according to the annual maritime shipping statistics provided by the British Government and the Department for Transport; as a signatory to the STCW Convention UK ships are commanded by Deck Officers and Engineering Officers. Officers undergo 3 years of training, known as a cadetship at one of the approved maritime colleges in the United Kingdom; these include Warsash Maritime Academy, South Tyneside College, Plymouth University and City of Glasgow College. Cadets have a choice of two academic routes. Successful completion of this results in a qualification in marine operations or marine engineering; the costs of a cadetship will be met by sponsorship from a UK shipping company. During the three years of training, cadets go to sea, for a period of a year or more spread across the cadetship; this affords a practical education, that along with the academic time in college prepares a candidate for a separate
The Royal Navy is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force. Although warships were used by the English kings from the early medieval period, the first major maritime engagements were fought in the Hundred Years War against the Kingdom of France; the modern Royal Navy traces its origins to the early 16th century. From the middle decades of the 17th century, through the 18th century, the Royal Navy vied with the Dutch Navy and with the French Navy for maritime supremacy. From the mid 18th century, it was the world's most powerful navy until surpassed by the United States Navy during the Second World War; the Royal Navy played a key part in establishing the British Empire as the unmatched world power during the 19th and first part of the 20th centuries. Due to this historical prominence, it is common among non-Britons, to refer to it as "the Royal Navy" without qualification. Following World War I, the Royal Navy was reduced in size, although at the onset of World War II it was still the world's largest.
By the end of the war, the United States Navy had emerged as the world's largest. During the Cold War, the Royal Navy transformed into a anti-submarine force, hunting for Soviet submarines and active in the GIUK gap. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, its focus has returned to expeditionary operations around the world and remains one of the world's foremost blue-water navies. However, 21st century reductions in naval spending have led to a personnel shortage and a reduction in the number of warships; the Royal Navy maintains a fleet of technologically sophisticated ships and submarines including two aircraft carriers, two amphibious transport docks, four ballistic missile submarines, six nuclear fleet submarines, six guided missile destroyers, 13 frigates, 13 mine-countermeasure vessels and 22 patrol vessels. As of November 2018, there are 74 commissioned ships in the Royal Navy, plus 12 ships of the Royal Fleet Auxiliary; the RFA replenishes Royal Navy warships at sea, augments the Royal Navy's amphibious warfare capabilities through its three Bay-class landing ship vessels.
It works as a force multiplier for the Royal Navy doing patrols that frigates used to do. The total displacement of the Royal Navy is 408,750 tonnes; the Royal Navy is part of Her Majesty's Naval Service, which includes the Royal Marines. The professional head of the Naval Service is the First Sea Lord, an admiral and member of the Defence Council of the United Kingdom; the Defence Council delegates management of the Naval Service to the Admiralty Board, chaired by the Secretary of State for Defence. The Royal Navy operates three bases in the United Kingdom; as the seaborne branch of HM Armed Forces, the RN has various roles. As it stands today, the RN has stated its 6 major roles as detailed below in umbrella terms. Preventing Conflict – On a global and regional level Providing Security At Sea – To ensure the stability of international trade at sea International Partnerships – To help cement the relationship with the United Kingdom's allies Maintaining a Readiness To Fight – To protect the United Kingdom's interests across the globe Protecting the Economy – To safe guard vital trade routes to guarantee the United Kingdom's and its allies' economic prosperity at sea Providing Humanitarian Aid – To deliver a fast and effective response to global catastrophes The strength of the fleet of the Kingdom of England was an important element in the kingdom's power in the 10th century.
At one point Aethelred II had an large fleet built by a national levy of one ship for every 310 hides of land, but it is uncertain whether this was a standard or exceptional model for raising fleets. During the period of Danish rule in the 11th century, the authorities maintained a standing fleet by taxation, this continued for a time under the restored English regime of Edward the Confessor, who commanded fleets in person. English naval power declined as a result of the Norman conquest. Following the Battle of Hastings, the Norman navy that brought over William the Conqueror disappeared from records due to William receiving all of those ships from feudal obligations or because of some sort of leasing agreement which lasted only for the duration of the enterprise. More troubling, is the fact that there is no evidence that William adopted or kept the Anglo-Saxon ship mustering system, known as the scipfryd. Hardly noted after 1066, it appears that the Normans let the scipfryd languish so that by 1086, when the Doomsday Book was completed, it had ceased to exist.
According to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, in 1068, Harold Godwinson's sons Godwine and Edmund conducted a ‘raiding-ship army’ which came from Ireland, raiding across the region and to the townships of Bristol and Somerset. In the following year of 1069, they returned with a bigger fleet which they sailed up the River Taw before being beaten back by a local earl near Devon. However, this made explicitly clear that the newly conquered England under Norman rule, in effect, ceded the Irish Sea to the Irish, the Vikings of Dublin, other Norwegians. Besides ceding away the Irish Sea, the Normans ceded the North Sea, a major area where Nordic peoples traveled. In 1069, this lack of naval presence in the North Sea allowed for the invasion an
HMS Bulwark (R08)
The sixth HMS Bulwark of the Royal Navy was a 22,000 tonne Centaur-class light fleet aircraft carrier. Commissioned as a light aircraft carrier in 1954, the ship was converted into a commando carrier in 1958 and recommissioned as such in 1960. Bulwark remained in this capacity until 1979 when following failed efforts to sell the ship, Bulwark re-entered service as an anti-submarine warfare carrier and remained as such until being decommissioned in 1981; the ship was scrapped in 1984. Bulwark was laid down by the Harland & Wolff shipyard in Belfast on 10 May 1945, she was launched on 22 June 1948, but was not commissioned into the Royal Navy until 4 November 1954. In 1956, Bulwark took part in her first operation, during the Suez Crisis, when she launched up to 600 sorties in what was known as Operation Musketeer. In 1958 she assisted two tankers, she towed one of SS Melika, to Muscat, winning the Boyd Trophy for her actions. The final fixed wing complement, as embarked in 1957, was as follows: In 1958 she paid off at Portsmouth for conversion into a commando carrier.
Her sister ship, did in 1961. In 1960, Bulwark was recommissioned with 42 Commando Royal Marines and 848 Squadron attached to the carrier. In 1961, due to an increasing threat of invasion of Kuwait by Iraq, Bulwark landed 42 Commando in Kuwait. In the same year, she became the first Royal Navy warship since the Second World War to commission outside the UK, commissioning instead in Singapore, she took part in the campaign against Indonesia, during the Indonesian Confrontation. In June 1966 she carried out sea trials with the Kestrel: the forerunner of the Harrier fighter aircraft made famous during the Falklands War. In 1967, she again commissioned in Singapore Naval Dockyard, following her work up, proceeded to Aden to cover the withdrawal and relieve Albion. By this time, Bulwark's nickname "The Rusty B" had become established. In 1968, after service in the Arctic with 45 Commando embarked for Exercise Polar Express, the ship spent some time in dry dock in Portsmouth Dockyard for a refit. For the duration of the refit, the ship's company was accommodated in Centaur.
In Spring 1969, with commanding officer Captain J. A. Templeton-Cotill, Bulwark left for the Mediterranean Sea and Exercise Olympic Express in the Aegean, with visits to Gibraltar, Cyprus, Venice and Toulon. For the part of this voyage, a TV crew embarked to shoot a documentary'Captain R. N.'. She returned to Devonport Dockyard to decommission in August 1969 for a four-month refit. In January 1970, Bulwark recommissioned and sailed to Singapore via Gibraltar, Cape Town and Brunei. After a minor refit in Singapore Naval Dockyard, the ship sailed for Kobe, Hong Kong and Perth Australia before returning to Plymouth; the ship visited Liverpool from 1 July to 7 July 1971. In September 1971 Bulwark took part in exercises in the eastern Mediterranean with 845 Squadron embarked. While close to the coast of Yugoslavia in December, she suffered a boiler room fire, in'B' boiler room, limped home on one set of boilers; the repairs were started in Plymouth by the dockyard but were completed in Malta by the ships own company while involved in Operation Exit between January and end of March 1972.
In 1972, like her sister ship Albion, was involved in withdrawals across the declining empire. In 1972 she was headquarters ship for Operation Exit, the withdrawal from Malta, an emotional withdrawal for the Royal Navy. Bulwark flew more than 1,000 missions. In 1972 she took part in exercises in the Caribbean Sea and visited Florida with 845 Squadron embarked. On the return journey, Bulwark had to discharge all remaining aviation fuel and transfer on to accompanying Royal Fleet Auxiliaries all ammunition to prepare to move in to dry dock after entering Plymouth; the spell in dry dock was extended due to dock yard strikes and she did not sail again until October. In the January 1973 Bulwark sailed for exercises in the Caribbean Sea and suffered damage due to heavy storms during the 10-day crossing of the Atlantic; the first port of call was a 10-day visit to Charleston, South Carolina, which meant sailing under the Cooper Bridge. Bulwark became the largest warship to have sailed under that bridge.
The following day brought a snow storm, the worst in this area for more than 80 years, which did not stop for about eight days. After the visit came the exercises in the Caribbean, with visits in between to Viaques and Puerto Rico. Under the command of Captain Derek Bazalgette, she saw service in the Mediterranean in 1973 visiting Malta, Istanbul, Gibraltar and, in December 1973, Travemünde, the port of Lübeck. Owing to a delayed start date for refit, she embarked a company of Netherlands Marine Corps and spent early 1974 in the Dutch Caribbean visiting Cartagena, Colombia; the 1974 refit was undertaken in Devonport Dockyard, during which time command transferred to Captain Johnnie R C Johnston. In 1975 she returned to the Mediterranean, visiting Gibraltar and Malta before returning to her home port of Plymouth in July. In March 1976, Bulwark was placed in Reserve. During this year the Ministry of Defence offered Bulwark to the Peruvian Navy. After two years of negotiations the Royal Navy decided to keep the ship.
Furthermore, she underwent a refit at Portsmouth in 1978, was recommissioned as an anti-submarine wa
Redruth is a town and civil parish in Cornwall, United Kingdom. The population of Redruth was 14,018 at the 2011 census. In the same year the population of the Camborne-Redruth urban area, which includes Carn Brea and several satellite villages, stood at 55,400 making it the largest conurbation in Cornwall. Redruth lies at the junction of the A393 and A3047 roads, on the route of the old London to Land's End trunk road, is 9 miles west of Truro, 12 miles east of St Ives, 18 miles north east of Penzance and 11 miles north west of Falmouth. Camborne and Redruth together form the largest urban area in Cornwall and before local government reorganisation were an urban district; the name Redruth derives from its older Cornish name, Rhyd-ruth. It means Red Ford; the first syllable'red' means ford. The second'ruth' means red. Rhyd is the older form of'Res', a Cornish equivalent to a ford, a common Celtic word, it is the - ruth. Traditionally in the Penwith Hundred, the town has developed away from the original settlement, near where the present Churchtown district of Redruth stands today.
This location is a steeply wooded valley, with Carn Brea on one side and the now-called Bullers Hill on the other. The presence of shallow lodes of tin and copper lying east to west made it an advantageous site for extracting metals, tin and copper; the first settlers stayed by a crossing in the river and started extracting metal ores, this process turned the colour of the river red. Redruth was a small market town overshadowed by its neighbours until a boom in the demand for copper ore during the 18th century. Copper ore had been discarded by the Cornish tin-mining industry but was now needed to make brass, an essential metal in the Industrial Revolution. Surrounded by copper ore deposits, Redruth became one of the largest and richest mining areas in Britain and the town's population grew markedly, although most miners' families remained poor. In the 1880s and 1890s the town end of Clinton Road gained a number of institutions, notably a School of Mines and Art School in 1882–83, St. Andrew's Church in 1883 and, the Free Library, built in 1895.
The Mining Exchange was built in 1880 as a place for the trading of mineral stock. By the turn of the 20th century, Victoria Park had been laid out to commemorate the Golden Jubilee and this part of town had taken on its present appearance – a far cry from the jumble of mining activity that had taken place there in the early 19th century. Redruth was making its transition from a market town dominated by mines and industry to a residential centre. By the end of the 19th century, the Cornish mining industry was in decline and Britain was importing most of its copper ore. To find employment, many miners emigrated to the newer mining industries in the Americas, Mexico and South Africa. Cornwall's last operational mine, South Crofty at Pool between Redruth and Camborne, closed in March 1998. See Camborne#Governance. Redruth School, a Technology College, is a secondary school and sixth form college, for ages 11–18; the town used to have a coeducational independent school, Highfields Private School, but this closed in 2012.
Primary schools within the town include Pennoweth School, Treleigh School, Treloweth Community Primary School, Trewirgie Infant School and Trewirgie Junior School. The Curnow Community Special School caters for students with special needs; the Parish Church of St Uny, some distance from the town centre, is of Norman foundation but was rebuilt in 1756. The patron saint is honoured at Lelant; the tower is two centuries earlier and the whole church is built of granite. A chapel of ease was built in the town in 1828 but it is no longer in use. Other places of worship include the Wesleyan Church of 1826, the Free Methodist Church of 1864 and the Quaker Meeting House of 1833; the former post office in Alma Place is now known as the Cornish Studies Centre: housed there is the collection of Tregellas Tapestries which depict the history of Cornwall in embroidery. The Mining Exchange building is now used as a housing advice centre; the house now called Murdoch House in the middle of Cross Street was erected in the 1660s as a chapel and it afterwards became a prison.
William Murdoch lived in it from 1782 to 1798. During this time, he worked on local tin and copper mines, erecting engines on behalf of Boulton and Watt, he fitted the house out with gas lighting from coal gas – this was the first house in the world with this type of lighting. In the 19th century, the house was used as a tea room, run by a Mrs Knuckey. In 1931 Mr A. Pearce Jenkin, a leading citizen of Redruth purchased the house and gave it as a gift to the Society of Friends. Murdoch House has since been restored and is now used by the Redruth Old Cornwall Society, as well as the Cornish-American Connection and the Redruth Story Group. Next door are St. Rumon's Gardens. A bronze sculpture of a Cornish miner by artist David Annand standing at 6 feet 7 inches was erected in April 2008; the sculpture was commissioned by the Redruth Public Realm Working Party's Minin