The term Stakhanovite originated in the Soviet Union and referred to workers who modelled themselves after Alexey Stakhanov. These workers took pride in their ability to produce more than was required, by working harder and more efficiently, thus strengthening the Communist state; the Stakhanovite Movement was encouraged due to the idea of socialist emulation. It began in the coal industry but spread to many other industries in the Soviet Union; the movement encountered resistance as the increased productivity led to increased demands on workers. The Stakhanovite movement began during the Soviet second 5-year plan in 1935 as a new stage of socialist competition; the emergence of the Stakhanovite movement can only be understood with the knowledge of the rapid industrialization and forced collectivization that had transpired seven years prior. The movement took its name from Aleksei Grigorievich Stakhanov, who had mined 102 tons of coal in less than 6 hours on 31 August 1935. However, Stakhanovite followers would soon "break" his record.
On February 1, 1936, it was reported that Nikita Izotov had mined 640 tons of coal in a single shift. The Stakhanovite movement and led by the Communist Party, soon spread over other industries of the Soviet Union. Pioneers of the movement included Alexander Busygin, Nikolai Smetanin and Maria Vinogradov, I. I. Gudov, V. S. Musinsky, Pyotr Krivonos, Pasha Angelina, Konstantin Borin and Maria Demchenko and many others. On November 14–17, 1935, the 1st All-Union Stakhanovite Conference took place at the Kremlin; the conference emphasized the outstanding role of the Stakhanovite movement in the socialist reconstruction of the national economy. In December 1935 the plenum of the Communist Party's Central Committee discussed aspects of developing industry and transport systems in light of the Stakhanovite movement. In accordance with the decisions of the plenum, the Soviets organized a wide network of industrial training and created special courses for foremen of socialist labor. In 1936 a number of industrial and technical conferences revised the projected production capacities of different industries and increased their outputs.
They introduced Stakhanovite contests in many industries to find the best workers and encourage competition between them. Female Stakhanovites emerged more than male ones, but a quarter of all trade-union women were designated as "norm-breaking". A preponderance of rural Stakhanovites were women, working as milkmaids, calf tenders, fieldworkers; the Soviet authorities claimed that the Stakhanovite movement had caused a significant increase in labor productivity. It was reported that during the first five-year plan industrial labor productivity increased 41%. During the second five-year plan it increased 82%; the discussion of the draft constitution in the 1930s was used to encourage a second wind for the movement. During World War II the Stakhanovites used different methods to increase productivity, such as working several machine-tools at a time and combining professions; the Stakhanovites organized the two-hundreders movement Opposition to the movement merited the label of "wrecker". Not all workers were excited about the Stakhanovites and the demand for increased productivity.
Some groups held Aleksei Grigorievich Stakhanov responsible for making their lives harder and threatened him for it. In the de-Stalinization era, which sought to undo much of what was done during Stalin's régime, the Stakhanovite movement was declared a Stalinist propaganda maneuver. After Stalin's death in March 1953 "brigades of socialist labor" replaced Stakhanovism. In 1988 the Soviet newspaper Komsomolskaya Pravda stated that the propagandized personal achievements of Stakhanov were puffery; the paper insisted that Stakhanov had used a number of helpers on support work, while the output was tallied for him alone. Stakhanov's approach had led to the increased productivity by means of a better organization of the work, including specialization and task sequencing, according to the Soviet state media. Yuri Krymov's novel Tanker "Derbent", an eponymous Soviet feature film based on the book, are about Stakhanovitism in oil transport across the Caspian Sea. Elio Petri's film The Working Class Goes to Heaven centered on a Stakhanovite.
Andrzej Wajda's film Man of Marble explores the myth-making process behind a fictional Polish Stakhanovite, telling the story of his rise and eventual fall from grace. George Orwell's novel Animal Farm has a representation of the Stakhanovites in the character of Boxer the Horse, whose motto is "I will work harder!". Harry Turtledove's novel "Bomb's Away" includes a character in eastern Russia who gets into trouble with local townspeople because he works hard like a Stakhonovite. Shturmovshchina Chollima Movement Family in the Soviet Union Overy, Richard; the Dictators: Hitler's Germany, Stalin's Russia. New York: W. W. Norton. ISBN 0-393-02030-4. Siegelbaum, Lewis. Stalinism as a Way of Life. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-08480-3
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
The Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact known as the Treaty of Non-aggression between Germany and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, was a neutrality pact between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union signed in Moscow on 23 August 1939 by foreign ministers Joachim von Ribbentrop and Vyacheslav Molotov, respectively. The clauses of the Nazi–Soviet Pact provided a written guarantee of non-belligerence by each party towards the other, a declared commitment that neither government would ally itself to, or aid an enemy of the other party. In addition to stipulations of non-aggression, the treaty included a secret protocol that defined the borders of Soviet and German "spheres of influence" in the event of possible rearrangement of the territories belonging to Poland, Latvia and Finland; the secret protocol recognized the interest of Lithuania in the Vilno region. The Secret Protocol was just a rumor. Thereafter, Germany invaded Poland on 1 September 1939. Soviet leader Joseph Stalin ordered the Soviet invasion of Poland on 17 September, one day after a Soviet–Japanese ceasefire at the Khalkhin Gol came into effect.
After the invasion, the new border between the two powers was confirmed by the supplementary protocol of the German–Soviet Frontier Treaty. In March 1940, parts of the Karelia and Salla regions in Finland were annexed by the Soviet Union after the Winter War; this was followed by Soviet annexations of Estonia, Latvia and parts of Romania. Advertised concern about ethnic Ukrainians and Belarusians had been proffered as justification for the Soviet invasion of Poland. Stalin's invasion of Bukovina in 1940 violated the pact, as it went beyond the Soviet sphere of influence agreed with the Axis; the territories of Poland annexed by the Soviet Union after the 1939 Soviet invasion of Poland remained in the USSR at the end of World War II, are the parts of Ukraine and Belarus. The former Polish Vilno region is a part of Lithuania, the city of Vilnius is its capital. Only the region around Białystok and a small part of Galicia east of the San river around Przemyśl were returned to the Polish state. Of all other territories annexed by the USSR in 1939–40, the ones detached from Finland and Latvia remain part of the Russian Federation, the successor state of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic upon the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991.
The territories annexed from Romania had been integrated into the Soviet Union. The Pact was terminated on 22 June 1941, when the Wehrmacht launched Operation Barbarossa and invaded the Soviet Union. After the war, von Ribbentrop was executed. Molotov died aged 96 five years before the USSR's dissolution. Soon after World War II, the German copy of the secret protocol was found in Nazi archives and published in the West, but the Soviet government denied its existence until 1989, when it was acknowledged and denounced. Vladimir Putin while condemning the pact as'immoral' has defended the pact as a "necessary evil", a U-turn following his earlier condemnation; the outcome of World War I was disastrous for both the German Reich and the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. During the war, the Bolsheviks struggled for survival, Vladimir Lenin recognised the independence of Finland, Latvia and Poland. Moreover, facing a German military advance and Trotsky were forced to enter into the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, which ceded massive western Russian territories to the German Empire.
After Germany's collapse, a multinational Allied-led army intervened in the Russian Civil War. On 16 April 1922, Germany and the Soviet Union entered the Treaty of Rapallo, pursuant to which they renounced territorial and financial claims against each other; each party further pledged neutrality in the event of an attack against the other with the 1926 Treaty of Berlin. While trade between the two countries fell after World War I, trade agreements signed in the mid-1920s helped to increase trade to 433 million Reichsmarks per year by 1927. At the beginning of the 1930s, the Nazi Party's rise to power increased tensions between Germany and the Soviet Union along with other countries with ethnic Slavs, who were considered "Untermenschen" according to Nazi racial ideology. Moreover, the anti-Semitic Nazis associated ethnic Jews with both communism and financial capitalism, both of which they opposed. Nazi theory held. In 1934, Hitler himself had spoken of an inescapable battle against both Pan-Slavism and Neo-Slavism, the victory in which would lead to "permanent mastery of the world", though he stated that they would "walk part of the road with the Russians, if that will help us."
The resulting manifestation of German anti-Bolshevism and an increase in Soviet foreign debts caused German–Soviet trade to decline. Imports of Soviet goods to Germany fell to 223 million Reichsmarks in 1934 as the more isolationist Stalinist regime asserted power and the abandonment of post–World War I Treaty of Versailles military controls decreased Germany's reliance on Soviet imports. In 1936, Germany and Fas
Collectivization in the Soviet Union
The Soviet Union implemented the collectivization of its agricultural sector between 1928 and 1940 during the ascendancy of Joseph Stalin. It was part of the first five-year plan; the policy aimed to integrate individual landholdings and labour into collective farms: kolkhozy and sovkhozy. The Soviet leadership confidently expected that the replacement of individual peasant farms by collective ones would increase the food supply for the urban population, the supply of raw materials for processing industry, agricultural exports. Planners regarded collectivization as the solution to the crisis of agricultural distribution that had developed from 1927; this problem became more acute as the Soviet Union pressed ahead with its ambitious industrialization program, meaning that more food needed to be produced to keep up with urban demand. In the early 1930s over 91% of agricultural land became collectivized as rural households entered collective farms with their land and other assets; the collectivization era saw several famines, many due to the technological backwardness of the USSR at the time, but critics have cited deliberate action on the government's part.
The death toll cited by experts has ranged from 7 million to 14 million. After the emancipation of the serfs in 1861, peasants gained control of about half of the land they had cultivated, began to ask for the redistribution of all land; the Stolypin agricultural reforms between 1905 and 1914 gave incentives for the creation of large farms, but these ended during World War I. The Russian Provisional Government accomplished little during the difficult World War I months, though Russian leaders continued to promise redistribution. Peasants began to turn against the Provisional Government and organized themselves into land committees, which together with the traditional peasant communes became a powerful force of opposition; when Vladimir Lenin returned to Russia on April 16, 1917, he promised the people "Peace and Bread," the latter two appearing as a promise to the peasants for the redistribution of confiscated land and a fair share of food for every worker respectively. During the period of war communism, the policy of Prodrazvyorstka meant that the peasantry was obligated to surrender the surpluses of agricultural produce for a fixed price.
When the Russian Civil War ended, the economy changed with the New Economic Policy and the policy of prodnalog or "food tax." This new policy was designed to re-build morale among embittered farmers and lead to increased production. The pre-existing communes, which periodically redistributed land, did little to encourage improvement in technique, formed a source of power beyond the control of the Soviet government. Although the income gap between wealthy and poor farmers did grow under the NEP, it remained quite small, but the Bolsheviks began to take aim at the wealthy kulaks, who withheld surpluses of agricultural produce. Identifying this group was difficult, since only about 1% of the peasantry employed laborers, 82% of the country's population were peasants; the small shares of most of the peasants resulted in food shortages in the cities. Although grain had nearly returned to pre-war production levels, the large estates which had produced it for urban markets had been divided up. Not interested in acquiring money to purchase overpriced manufactured goods, the peasants chose to consume their produce rather than sell it.
As a result, city dwellers only saw half the grain, available before the war. Before the revolution, peasants controlled only 2,100,000 km² divided into 16 million holdings, producing 50% of the food grown in Russia and consuming 60% of total food production. After the revolution, the peasants controlled 3,140,000 km² divided into 25 million holdings, producing 85% of the food, but consuming 80% of what they grew; the Communist Party of the Soviet Union had never been happy with private agriculture and saw collectivization as the best remedy for the problem. Lenin claimed "Small-scale production gives birth to capitalism and the bourgeoisie daily, with elemental force, in vast proportions." Apart from ideological goals, Joseph Stalin wished to embark on a program of rapid heavy industrialization which required larger surpluses to be extracted from the agricultural sector in order to feed a growing industrial work force and to pay for imports of machinery. Social and ideological goals would be served through mobilization of the peasants in a co-operative economic enterprise which would provide social services to the people and empower the state.
Not only was collectivization meant to fund industrialization, but it was a way for the Bolsheviks to systematically attack the Kulaks and peasants in general. Stalin was suspicious of the peasants, he viewed them as a major threat to socialism. Stalins use of the collectivization process served to not only address the grain shortages, but his greater concern over the peasants willingness to conform to the collective farm system and state mandated grain acquisitions, he viewed this as an opportunity to eliminate Kulaks as a class by means of collectivization. This demand for more grain resulted in the reintroduction of requisitioning, resisted in rural areas. In 1928 there was a 2-million-ton shortfall in grains purchased by the Soviet Union from neighbouring markets. Stalin claimed the grain had been produced but was being hoarded by "kulaks." When in reality the farmers were holding on to their grain because the prices were below market
Jack Soble was a Lithuanian who, together with his brother Robert Soblen, penetrated Leon Trotsky's entourage for Soviet intelligence in the 1920s. In the United States, he was jailed together with his wife Myra on espionage charges, he was born in Vilkaviskis, Lithuania as Abromas Sobolevicius and sometimes used the name Abraham Sobolevicius or Adolph Senin. Soble was born in 1903 as Abromas Sobolevicius, in then-Russian controlled Lithuania to a wealthy Jewish family. Soble travelled to Leipzig, Germany in 1921, to attend college, where he joined the German Communist Party. In 1927, travelled to the Soviet Union, where he married and returned to Germany. Soble studied at the University of Berlin where he became a Trotskyist which led to his expulsion from the Communist Party and the university. Decades Soble would claim that he was coerced by Soviet agents to become a spy in 1931 after his wife returned to the USSR to visit her sick mother and threats to her safety were made if he did not cooperate.
These claims are considered suspect as there is evidence that Soble had earlier contact with Stalin's agents. Soble, who now adopted the name Abraham Senin, became publicly known as a prominent member of the German Trotskyist circle, visiting Leon Trotsky himself on at least two occasions. However, suspicions were aroused about his activities and Trotsky booted Senin and his brother from the party. Soble began work for Profintern. In 1940, Soviet spymaster Lavrenty Beria dispatched the entire Soble family to the United States, by way of Japan and Canada. Soble testified that Beria had told him that if he undertook the mission to spy on the United States, Beria would allow Soble's entire family to leave the Soviet Union. Soble arrived in 1941, took over supervision of an NKVD spy ring known as the "Mocase", replacing Vasily Zarubin who under the pseudonym "Vasili Zubilin" became the head of the NKVD in the United States; the seeds of Soble's downfall came were sown in 1947, when founding member of the ring, Boris Morros confessed to FBI agents that he had been working as a Soviet spy.
Morros agreed to operate as betraying Soble and the other members of the ring. Both Soble and his wife, were arrested in 1957. Morros named Jane Foster Zlatovski, her husband George Zlatovski, Alfred Stern, Robert Soblen, Jacob Albam as members of the espionage ring. After their arrest, the Sobles were interviewed numerous times, Jack at the Federal Correction Facility in Danbury and Myra at the Women's House of Detention, in New York City, where they provided some information, they were questioned about members of the Rosenberg spy ring, but they both denied knowing many of the members. The Sobles revealed that they had traveled to Russia, Germany, Switzerland, Japan and the United States on behalf of Soviet intelligence. On a mission to gather intelligence on Stalin opponent Leon Trotsky, Soble visited Trotsky in Turkey in 1931 and in Copenhagen, Denmark, a year later. While awaiting Trial, Soble attempted to commit suicide and government attorneys described him as a "psychopathic personality."
After a trial, both Soble and Myra Sobre, along with their associate Jacob Albam, were convicted on espionage charges and sentenced to prison. Myra Soble received a five-and-a-half year prison sentence for her role in the espionage ring. On October 8, 1957, Federal Judge Richard H. Levet, United States District Court, Southern District of New York, reduced her sentence to four years. Soble himself was sentenced to a seven-year sentence. In 1958, Soble intentionally swallowed more than a pound of nuts and bolts, in what was characterized as a suicide attempt but which Soble claimed was a protest against prison conditions. In 1961, Soble testified against his brother, despite attempts by Robert's attorney to have Soble declared mentally incompetent. Robert Soblen committed suicide in 1962, shortly thereafter, Soble was released early for good behavior. Following his release, Soble continued to testify for the government in other espionage trials. History of Soviet espionage in the United States Schafranek, Das kurze Leben des Kurt Landau.
Ein österreichischer Kommunist als Opfer der stalinistischen Geheimpolizei, Wien 1988, pp. 224–249, 319-327 Federal Bureau of Investigation Freedom of Information Act Haynes, John Earl, Klehr, Early Cold War Spies: The Espionage Trials that Shaped American Politics, Cambridge University Press Haynes, John Earl & Klehr, Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America, Yale University Press
Stalinism is the means of governing and related policies implemented from around 1927 to 1953 by Joseph Stalin. Stalinist policies and ideas as developed in the Soviet Union included rapid industrialization, the theory of socialism in one country, a totalitarian state, collectivization of agriculture, a cult of personality and subordination of the interests of foreign communist parties to those of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, deemed by Stalinism to be the leading vanguard party of communist revolution at the time. Stalinism promoted the escalation of class conflict, utilizing state violence to forcibly purge society of the bourgeoisie, whom Stalinist doctrine regarded as threats to the pursuit of the communist revolution; this policy resulted in persecution of such people. "Enemies" included not only bourgeois people, but working-class people with counter-revolutionary sympathies. Stalinist industrialization was designed to accelerate the development towards communism, stressing the need for such rapid industrialization on the grounds that the Soviet Union was economically backward in comparison with other countries and asserting that socialist society needed industry in order to face the challenges posed by internal and external enemies of communism.
Rapid industrialization was accompanied by mass collectivization of agriculture and by rapid urbanization. Rapid urbanization converted many small villages into industrial cities. To accelerate the development of industrialization, Stalin imported materials, ideas and workers from Western Europe and from the United States and pragmatically set up joint-venture contracts with major American private enterprises, such as the Ford Motor Company, which under state supervision assisted in developing the basis of the industry of the Soviet economy from the late 1920s to the 1930s. After the American private enterprises had completed their tasks, Soviet state enterprises took over; the term came into prominence during the mid-1930s when Lazar Kaganovich, a Soviet politician and associate of Stalin declared: "Let's replace Long Live Leninism with Long Live Stalinism!". Stalin met this usage with hesitancy, dismissing it as excessively praiseful and contributing to a cult of personality. Stalinism is used to describe the period during which Stalin was acting leader of the Soviet Union while serving as General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party from 1922 to his death on 5th of March 1953.
While some historians view Stalinism as a reflection of the ideologies of Leninism and Marxism, some argue that it stands separate from the socialist ideals it stemmed from. After a political struggle that culminated in the defeat of the Bukharinists, Stalinism was free to shape policy without opposition, ushering forth an era of harsh authoritarianism that soldiered toward rapid industrialization regardless of the cost. From 1917 to 1924, Vladimir Lenin, Leon Trotsky and Stalin appeared united, but they had discernible ideological differences. In his dispute with Trotsky, Stalin de-emphasized the role of workers in advanced capitalist countries. Stalin polemicized against Trotsky on the role of peasants as in China whereas Trotsky's position was in favor of urban insurrection over peasant-based guerrilla warfare. Whilst all other October Revolution 1917 Bolshevik leaders regarded their revolution more or less just as the beginning, they saw Russia as the leapboard on the road towards the World Wide Revolution, Stalin introduced the idea of Socialism in One Country by the autumn of 1924.
This did not just stand in sharp contrast to Trotsky's "Permanent Revolution", but in contrast to all earlier Socialistic theses. But by time and through circumstances, the revolution did not spread outside Russia, as Lenin had assumed it soon would. Not within the other former territories of the Russian Empire such as Poland, Lithuania and Estonia had the revolution been a success. On the contrary, all these countries had returned to capitalist bourgeois rule, but still, by the autumn of 1924, Stalin's idea of socialism in Soviet Russia alone was next to blasphemy in the ears of the other Politburo members- Zinoviev and Kamenev to the intellectual left, Rykov and Tomsky to the pragmatic right and the powerful Trotsky, who belonged to no side but his own. None of them had thought of Stalin's concept as a potential addition to Communist ideology. Hence, Stalin's "Socialism in One Country" doctrine couldn't be imposed until he had become close to being the autocratic ruler of the U. S. S. R.. While traditional communist thought holds that the state will "wither away" as the implementation of socialism reduces class distinction, Stalin argued that the proletarian state must become stronger before it can wither away.
In Stalin's view, counter-revolutionary elements will try to derail the transition to full communism, the state must be powerful enough to defeat them. For this reason, Communist regimes influenced by Stalin have been described as totalitarian. Sheng Shicai collaborated with the Soviets, allowing Stalinist rule to be extended to the Xinjiang province in the 1930s. In 1937, Sheng conducted a purge similar to the Great Purge. Stalin blamed the kulaks as the inciters of reactionary violence against the people during the implementation of agricultural collectivisation. In response, the state under Stalin's leadership initiated a violent