Lord Mayor of London
The Lord Mayor of London is the City of London's mayor and leader of the City of London Corporation. Within the City, the Lord Mayor is accorded precedence over all individuals except the sovereign and retains various traditional powers and privileges, including the title and style The Right Honourable the Lord Mayor of London; this office differs from the much more powerful Mayor of London, a popularly elected position and covers the much larger Greater London area. In 2006 the Corporation of London changed its name to the City of London Corporation, when the title Lord Mayor of the City of London was reintroduced to avoid confusion with the Mayor of London. However, the legal and used title remains Lord Mayor of London; the Lord Mayor is elected at Common Hall each year on Michaelmas, takes office on the Friday before the second Saturday in November, at The Silent Ceremony. The Lord Mayor's Show is held on the day after taking office. One of the world's oldest continuously elected civic offices, the Lord Mayor's main role nowadays is to represent and promote the businesses and residents in the City of London.
Today, these businesses are in the financial sector and the Lord Mayor is regarded as the champion of the entire UK-based financial sector regardless of ownership or location throughout the country. As leader of the Corporation of the City of London, the Lord Mayor serves as the key spokesman for the local authority and has important ceremonial and social responsibilities. All Lord Mayors of London are apolitical; the Lord Mayor of London delivers many hundreds of speeches and addresses per year, attends many receptions and other events in London and beyond. Many incumbents of the office make overseas visits while Lord Mayor of London; the Lord Mayor ex-officio Rector of London's City, University of London and Admiral of the Port of London, is assisted in day-to-day administration by the Mansion House'Esquires' and whose titles include the City Marshal, Sword Bearer and Common Crier. Peter Estlin is serving as the 691st Lord Mayor, for the 2018–19 period. Of the 69 cities in the United Kingdom, the City of London is among the 30.
The Lord Mayor is entitled to the style The Right Honourable. The style, however, is used; the latter prefix applies only to Privy Counsellors. A woman who holds the office is known as a Lord Mayor; the wife of a male Lord Mayor is styled as Lady Mayoress, but no equivalent title exists for the husband of a female Lord Mayor. A female Lord Mayor or an unmarried male Lord Mayor may appoint a female consort a fellow member of the corporation, to the role of Lady Mayoress. In speech, a Lord Mayor is referred to as "My Lord Mayor", a Lady Mayoress as "My Lady Mayoress", it was once customary for Lord Mayors to be appointed knights upon taking office and baronets upon retirement, unless they held such a title. This custom was followed with a few inconsistencies from the 16th until the 19th centuries. However, from 1964 onwards, the regular creation of hereditary titles such as baronetcies was phased out, so subsequent Lord Mayors were offered knighthoods. Since 1993, Lord Mayors have not automatically received any national honour upon appointment.
Furthermore, foreign Heads of State visiting the City of London on a UK State Visit, diplomatically bestow upon the Lord Mayor one of their suitable national honours. For example, in 2001, Sir David Howard was created a Grand Cordon of the Order of Independence of Jordan by King Abdullah II. Lord Mayors have been appointed at the beginning of their term of office Knights or Dames of St John, as a mark of respect, by HM The Queen, Sovereign Head of the Order of St John; the office of Mayor was instituted in 1189, the first holder of the office being Henry Fitz-Ailwin de Londonestone. The Mayor of the City of London has been elected by the City, rather than appointed by the Sovereign since a Royal Charter providing for a Mayor was issued by King John in 1215; the title "Lord Mayor" came to be used after 1354, when it was granted to Thomas Legge by King Edward III. Lord Mayors are elected for one-year terms. Numerous individuals have served multiple terms in office, including: As Mayor: 24 terms: Henry Fitz-Ailwin de Londonestone 9 terms: Ralph de Sandwich 8 terms: Gregory de Rokesley 7 terms: Andrew Buckerel.
The Bishops' Wars of 1639 and 1640 are viewed as the starting point of the 1639–1652 Wars of the Three Kingdoms that involved the whole of the British Isles. They originated in long-standing disputes over control and governance of the Church of Scotland or kirk that went back to the 1580s; these came to a head in 1637 when Charles I attempted to impose uniform practices between the kirk and the Church of England. Charles favoured an episcopal system, or rule by bishops, while the majority of Scots advocated a presbyterian system, without bishops; the 1638 National Covenant pledged to oppose these'innovations' and the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland voted to expel bishops from the kirk. When Charles resorted to force, the Covenanters defeated Royalist forces in Aberdeenshire in 1639 an English army in 1640, leaving them in control of Scotland. James VI claimed his authority as monarch and head of the Church came directly from God, the so-called theory of Divine Right, not subject to'interference' by either Parliament or church leaders.
He reintroduced episcopacy to the Church of Scotland in 1584 and when he became King of England in 1603, a unified Church of Scotland and England governed by bishops became the first step in his vision of a centralised, Unionist state. However, while both were nominally Episcopalian, the two were different in governance and doctrine. Calvinists believed a'well-ordered' monarchy was part of God's plan; the Covenanter view was best summarised by Andrew Melville, who told James in 1598. Chryst Jesus the King and this Kingdome the Kirk, whose subject King James the Saxt is.' Royalists tended to be'traditionalists' in religion and politics but there were many other factors, including nationalist allegiance to the kirk, individual motives were complex. Many Covenanters would end up fighting on both sides, such as Montrose. In 1618, the General Assembly reluctantly approved the Five Articles of Perth; when Charles I succeeded his father in 1625, unfamiliarity with Scotland made him more reliant on the bishops the Archbishop of St Andrews, prone to sudden decisions.
The 1625 Act of Revocation cancelled all grants of land made by the Crown since 1540 without consultation, alienating much of the Scottish nobility and clergy. While Catholicism itself was now confined to parts of the aristocracy and Gaelic-speaking areas in the Highlands and Islands, fear of'Popery' remained widespread. Many Scots studied such as Montauban. Scots fought in or were affected by the Thirty Years' War, a religious conflict that caused an estimated 8 million deaths and remains one of the most destructive conflicts in human history. Concerns were reinforced by Charles marrying a French Catholic, Henrietta Maria, employing senior Catholic advisors like the Earl of Portland and accepting the first Papal envoy since the Reformation. Against this background, a new Book of Canons in 1636 replaced John Knox's Book of Discipline and excommunicated anyone who denied the King's supremacy in church matters; when this was followed in 1637 by a new Book of Common Prayer, the result was anger and widespread rioting, said to have been set off with the throwing of a stool by Jenny Geddes during a service in St Giles Cathedral.
The kirk itself seemed under threat and in February 1638, representatives from all sections of Scottish society agreed a National Covenant, pledging resistance to liturgical'innovations.' Support for the Covenant was widespread except in Aberdeen and Banff, heartland of Royalist and Episcopalian resistance for the next 60 years. The Marquess of Argyll and six members of Charles' Scottish Privy Council backed the Covenant and in December the General Assembly expelled bishops from the kirk, putting it on a full Presbyterian basis. Charles resorted to military force to assert his authority but refused to obtain funding by recalling Parliament, instead relying on his own resources; the plan consisted of three parts. Lastly, an Irish army under Randal MacDonnell, Earl of Antrim would invade western Scotland and join forces with the MacDonalds and other Royalist clans. Preparations were hampered by lack of funds and enthusiasm for the war in England, where many were sympathetic to the Covenanter cause.
The Irish element never materialised and Huntly's men withdrew when confronted outside Turriff by a Covenanter force under Montrose, who occupied Aberdeen in March, leaving Hamilton nowhere to land. In April, George Ogilvy, Lord Banff assumed command of Royalist forces in Aberdeenshire and temporarily re-occupied Aberdeen after two minor engagements, one at Towie Barclay Castle, where David Prat became the first casualty of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms and the Trot of Turriff.'The English army mustered at the border town of Berwick-upon-Tweed totalled some 15,000 men but the vast majority were untrained conscripts from the Northern tr
George Goring, Lord Goring
George Goring, Lord Goring was an English Royalist soldier. He was known by the courtesy title Lord Goring as the eldest son of the first Earl of Norwich. Goring, the eldest son of George Goring, 1st Earl of Norwich, was born on 14 July 1608, he soon became famous at court for his dissolute manners. His father-in-law, Richard Boyle, 1st Earl of Cork, procured for him a post in the Dutch Army with the rank of colonel, he was permanently lamed by a wound received at the Siege of Breda in 1637, returned to England early in 1639, when he was made governor of Portsmouth. He served in the Bishops' Wars, had a considerable reputation when he was involved in the "Army Plot". Officers of the army stationed at York proposed to petition the king and parliament for the maintenance of the royal authority. A second party was in favour of more violent measures, Goring, in the hope of being appointed lieutenant-general, proposed to march the army on London and overawe the Parliament during Strafford's trial; this proposition being rejected by his fellow-officers, he betrayed the proceedings to Mountjoy Blount, 1st Earl of Newport, who passed on the information indirectly to John Pym in April.
Colonel Goring was there upon called on to give evidence before the Commons, who commended him for his services to the Commonwealth. This betrayal of his comrades induced confidence in the minds of the parliamentary leaders, who sent him back to his Portsmouth command, he declared for the king in August. He surrendered Portsmouth to the parliament in September 1642 after the Siege of Portsmouth and went to the Netherlands to recruit for the Royalist army, returning to England in December. Appointed to a cavalry command by the Earl of Newcastle, he defeated Fairfax at Seacroft Moor near Leeds in March 1643, but in May he was taken prisoner at Wakefield on the capture of the town by Fairfax. In April 1644 he effected an exchange. At the Battle of Marston Moor, Goring commanded the Royalist left, charged with great success, allowing his troopers to disperse in search of plunder, was routed by Oliver Cromwell at the close of the battle. In November 1644, on his father's elevation to the earldom of Norwich, he became Lord Goring.
The parliamentary authorities, refused to recognise the creation of the earldom, continued to speak of the father as "Lord Goring" and the son as "General Goring". In August Goring had been despatched by Prince Rupert of the Rhine, who recognised his ability, to join Charles I in the south, in spite of his dissolute and insubordinate character he was appointed to supersede Henry, Lord Wilmot, as lieutenant-general of the Royalist horse, he secured some successes in the west, in January 1645 advanced through Hampshire and occupied Farnham. The excesses committed by his troops injured the Royalist cause, his exactions made his name hated throughout the west, he had himself prepared to besiege Taunton in March 1645, yet when in the next month he was desired by Prince Charles, at Bristol, to send reinforcements to Sir Richard Grenville for the siege of Taunton, he obeyed the order only with ill-humour. In April 1645 he was summoned with his troops to the relief of the king at Oxford. Lord Goring had long been intriguing for an independent command, he now secured from the king what was supreme authority in the west.
It was alleged by the Earl of Newport that he was willing to transfer his allegiance once more to the parliament. It is not that he meditated open treason, but he was culpably negligent and occupied with private ambitions and jealousies, he was still engaged in desultory operations against Taunton. For the part taken by Goring's army in the operations of the Naseby campaign see First English Civil War: Naseby Campaign. After the decisive defeat of the king, the army of Fairfax marched into the west and defeated Goring in a disastrous fight at Langport on 10 July 1645, he made no further serious resistance to the parliamentary general, but wasted his time in frivolous amusements. In November 1645 he obtained leave to quit his disorganised forces and retire to France on the ground of health, his father's services secured him the command of some English regiments in the Spanish service. He died in Madrid after converting to Catholicism in July or August 1657. Clarendon says of Goring that he "would, without hesitation, have broken any trust, or done any act of treachery to have satisfied an ordinary passion or appetite.
Of all his qualifications dissimulation was his masterpiece. Clarendon's assessment according to Florene Memegalos is untrustworthy as he appears to have blackened his name at court for personal reasons. Florene Memegalos asserts from archive material in the Venice State records and other sources, that George Goring's reputation stood on his military abilities as a Royalist general and not just on Clarendon's all too obvious character assassination of him. Goring was married to daughter of Richard Boyle, 1st Earl of Cork; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Goring, George Goring, Lord". Encyclopædia Britannica. 12. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 258–259. This work in turn cites
Modesty, sometimes known as demureness, is a mode of dress and deportment which intends to avoid the encouraging of sexual attraction in others. The word "modesty" comes from the Latin word modestus which means "keeping within measure". Standards of modesty vary widely. In this use, it may be considered immodest to reveal certain parts of the body. In some societies, modesty may involve women covering their bodies and not talking to men who are not immediate family members. In some countries, exposure of the body in breach of community standards of modesty is considered to be public indecency, public nudity is illegal in most of the world and regarded as indecent exposure. For example, Stephen Gough a lone man attempting to walk naked from south to north Britain was imprisoned. However, nudity is at times tolerated in some societies. In semi-public contexts standards of modesty vary. Nudity may be acceptable in public single-sex changing rooms at swimming baths, for example, or for mass medical examination of men for military service.
In private, standards again depend upon the circumstances. A person who would never disrobe in the presence of a physician of the opposite sex in a social context might unquestioningly do so for a medical examination. Standards of modesty discourage or forbid exposure of parts of the body, varying between societies, which may include areas of skin, the hair and intimate parts; the standards may require obscuring the shape of the body or parts of it by wearing non-form-fitting clothing. There are customs regarding the changing of clothes, the closing or locking of the door when changing or taking a shower. Standards of modesty vary by culture or generation and vary depending on, exposed, which parts of the body are exposed, the duration of the exposure, the context, other variables; the categories of persons who could see another's body could include: a spouse or partner, a friend or family member of the same sex, strangers of the same sexThe context would include matters such as whether it is in one's own home, at another family member's home, at a friend's home, at a semi-public place, at a beach, swimming pool, changing rooms or other public places.
For instance, wearing a bathing suit at the beach would not be considered immodest, while it would be in a street or an office. Excessive modesty is called prudishness; as a medical condition, it is called gymnophobia. Excessive immodesty is called exhibitionism. At times of public or private emergency, expectations of modest dress may be suspended. For example, during suspected anthrax attacks in 1998 and 2001 in the United States, groups of people had to strip to their underwear in tents set up in parking lots and other public places for hosing down by fire departments. On the other hand in an emergency situation, some people are unable to abandon their need to hide their bodies at the risk of their life; this may apply to decontamination after a chemical or biological attack, where removal of contaminated clothing is important, or escaping from a night-time fire without time to dress. Most discussion of modesty involves clothing; the criteria for acceptable modesty and decency have relaxed continuously in much of the world since the nineteenth century, with shorter, form-fitting, more revealing clothing and swimsuits, more for women than men.
Most people wear clothes that they consider not to be unacceptably immodest for their religion, generation and the people present. Some wear clothes which they consider immodest, due to exhibitionism, the desire to create an erotic impact, or for publicity. Appropriate modesty depends on place. For example, in single-sex public changing rooms, nudity is acceptable. In Western and some other societies, there are differences of opinion as to how much body exposure is acceptable in public. In contemporary Western society, the extent to which a woman may expose cleavage depends on social and regional context. Women's swimsuits and bikinis may reveal the tops and sides of the breasts, or they may be topless as is common on the beaches of French Riviera. Displaying cleavage is considered permissible in many settings, is a sign of elegance and sophistication on many formal social occasions, but it may be considered inappropriate in settings such as workplaces and schools. Showing the nipples or areolae is always considered toplessness or partial nudity.
However, in some circumstances partial breast exposure may be sanctioned in church as in 2014, newly elected Pope Francis drew world-wide commentary when he encouraged mothers to breastfeed in church if their babies were hungry. In private homes, the standards of modesty apply selectively. For instance, nudity among close family members in the home can take place in the bedroom and bathroom, wearing of undergarments only in the home is common. In many cultures it is not acceptable to bare the buttocks in public. In public, Western standards of decency expect people to cover their genitalia, women to cover their breasts. In the early twenty-first century, public breastfeeding has become acceptable, sometimes protected by law. President Barack Obama's health care bill from 2010 provides additional support to nursing mothers, requiring e
St Bride's Church
St Bride's Church is a church in the City of London, England. The building's most recent incarnation was designed by Sir Christopher Wren in 1672 in Fleet Street in the City of London, though Wren's original building was gutted by fire during the London Blitz in 1940. Due to its location in Fleet Street, it has a long association with newspapers; the church is a distinctive sight on London's skyline and is visible from a number of locations. Standing 226 feet high, it is the second tallest of all Wren's churches, with only St Paul's itself having a higher pinnacle; this is the church that inspired Cassandra Clare’s London Institute in her Shadowhunter Chronicles novels. St. Bride's may be one of the most ancient churches in London, with worship dating back to the conversion of the Middle Saxons in the 7th century, it has been conjectured that, as the patron saint is Bridget of Ireland, it may have been founded by Celtic monks, missionaries proselytising the English. The present St Bride's is at least the seventh church to have stood on the site.
Traditionally, it was founded by St Bridget in the sixth century. Whether or not she founded it the remnants of the first church appear to have significant similarities to a church of the same date in Kildare, Ireland; the Norman church, built in the 11th century, was of both religious and secular significance. It was replaced by a larger church in the 15th century,St Bride's association with the newspaper business began in 1500, when Wynkyn de Worde set up a printing press next door; until 1695, London was the only city in England. In the late 1580s, one Eleanor White, daughter to artist and explorer John White, was married in St Bride's, to the tiler and bricklayer Ananias Dare, their daughter Virginia Dare was to be the first English child born in North America. She was born on Roanoke Island on 18 August 1587: "Elenora, daughter to the governour and wife to Ananias Dare, one of the assistants, was delivered of a daughter in Roanoke"; the child was healthy and "was christened there the Sunday following, because this childe was the first Christian borne in Virginia, she was named Virginia".
A modern bust of Virginia Dare stands near the font replacing an earlier monument, stolen and has not been recovered. In the mid-17th century disaster struck. In 1665, the Great Plague of London killed 238 parishioners in a single week, in 1666, the following year, the church was destroyed during the Great Fire of London, which burned much of the city. After the fire, the old church was replaced by an new building designed by Sir Christopher Wren, one of his largest and most expensive works, taking seven years to build. St Bride's was reopened on 19 December 1675; the famous spire was added in 1701–1703. It measured 234 ft, but lost its upper eight feet to a lightning strike in 1764; the design utilises four octagonal stages of diminishing height, capped with an obelisk which terminates in a ball and vane. Buried at St Bride's is Robert Levet, a Yorkshireman who became a Parisian waiter a "practicer of physick" who ministered to the denizens of London's seedier neighbourhoods. Having been duped into a bad marriage, the hapless Levet was taken in by the author Samuel Johnson who wrote his poem "On the Death of Mr. Robert Levet", eulogising his good friend and tenant of many years.
Buried at St Bride's are the organist and composer, Thomas Weelkes and the poet, Richard Lovelace, as well as author Samuel Richardson The wedding cake is said to date back to 1703 when Thomas Rich, a baker’s apprentice from Ludgate Hill, fell in love with the daughter of his employer and asked her to marry him. He wanted to make an extravagant cake, drew on the design of St Bride's Church for inspiration. On the night of 29 December 1940, during the Blitz of central London in the Second World War, the church was gutted by fire-bombs dropped by the Luftwaffe; that night 1,500 fires were started, including three major conflagrations, leading to a fire storm, an event dubbed the Second Great Fire of London, due to the enormous amount of damage caused. St Paul's Cathedral itself was only saved by the dedication of the London firemen who kept the fire away from the cathedral and the volunteer firewatchers of the St Paul's Watch who fought to keep the flames from firebombs on the roof from spreading.
After the war, St Bride's was rebuilt at the expense of newspaper journalists. One fortunate and unintended consequence of the bombing was the excavation of the church's original 6th century Saxon foundations. Today, the crypt known as the Museum of Fleet Street is open to the public and contains a number of ancient relics, including Roman coins and medieval stained glass. Post-war excavations uncovered nearly 230 lead coffins with plaques dating from the 17th, 18th and early 19th centuries, filled with the bones of parishioners; the church was designated a Grade I listed building on 4 January 1950. In September 2007 the former rector, Archdeacon the Venerable David Meara, announced a special appeal to raise 3.5 million GBP to preserve the church's unique heritage and on November 2007 Queen Elizabeth II was guest of honour at a service to celebrate the fiftieth anniversary of the restoration work necessary after the Second World War. In March 2012 The Inspire! Appeal was launched to raise the at least £2.5m needed to repair the crumbling stonework of the church's famous spire.
The church has a place in sport, as the wor
Duke of York
Duke of York is a title of nobility in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. Since the 15th century, it has, when granted been given to the second son of English monarchs; the equivalent title in the Scottish peerage was Duke of Albany. However, King George I and Queen Victoria granted the second sons of their eldest sons the titles Duke of York and Albany and Duke of York respectively. Granted in the 14th century in the Peerage of England, the title Duke of York has been created eight times; the title Duke of York and Albany has been created three times. These occurred during the 18th century, following the 1707 unification of the Kingdom of England and Kingdom of Scotland into a single, united realm; the double naming was done so that a territorial designation from each of the separate realms could be included. The current Duke of York is Prince Andrew, the second son of Queen Elizabeth II. Prince Andrew has no male heirs and has been unmarried since his 1996 divorce. In medieval times, York was the main city of the North of England and the see of the Archbishop of York from AD 735.
Yorkshire was England's largest shire in area. York under its Viking name "Jorvik" was a petty kingdom in the Early Medieval period. In the interval between the fall of independent Jorvik under Eirik Bloodaxe, last King of Jorvik, the first creation of the Dukedom of York, there were a few Earls of York; the title Duke of York was first created in the Peerage of England in 1385 for Edmund of Langley, the fourth surviving son of Edward III, an important character in Shakespeare's Richard II. His son Edward, who inherited the title, was killed at the Battle of Agincourt in 1415; the title passed to Edward's nephew Richard, the son of Richard of Conisburgh, 3rd Earl of Cambridge. The younger Richard managed to obtain a restoration of the title, but when his eldest son, who inherited the title, became king in 1461 as Edward IV, the title merged into the Crown; the title was next created for Richard of Shrewsbury, second son of King Edward IV. Richard was one of the Princes in the Tower, and, as he died without heirs, the title became extinct at his death.
The third creation was for Henry Tudor, second son of King Henry VII. When his elder brother Arthur, Prince of Wales, died in 1502, Henry became heir-apparent to the throne; when Henry became King Henry VIII in 1509, his titles merged into the crown. The title was created for the fourth time for Charles Stuart, second son of James I; when his elder brother, Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales, died in 1612, Charles became heir-apparent. He was created Prince of Wales in 1616 and became Charles I in 1625 when the title again merged into the Crown; the fifth creation was in favour of James Stuart, the second son of Charles I. The city and state of New York in what is now the United States of America were named for this particular Duke of York; when his elder brother, King Charles II, died without heirs, James succeeded to the throne as King James II, the title once again merged into the Crown. During the 18th century the double dukedom of York and Albany was created a number of times in the Peerage of Great Britain.
The title was first held by Duke Ernest Augustus of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Bishop of Osnabrück, the youngest brother of King George I. He died without heirs; the second creation of the double dukedom was for Prince Edward, younger brother of King George III, who died without heirs, having never married. The third and last creation of the double dukedom was for Prince Frederick Augustus, the second son of King George III, he served as Commander-in-Chief of the British Army for many years, was the original "Grand old Duke of York" in the popular rhyme. He too died without heirs; the sixth creation of the Dukedom of York was for Prince George of Wales, second son of the future King Edward VII. He was created Duke of York following the death of his elder brother, Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence and Avondale; the title merged with the crown when George succeeded his father as King George V. The seventh creation was for Prince Albert, second son of King George V, younger brother of the future King Edward VIII.
Albert came unexpectedly to the throne when his brother abdicated, took the name George VI, the Dukedom merging into the crown. The title was created for the eighth time for Prince Andrew, second son of Queen Elizabeth II. At present, he only has two daughters. Thus, if he has no future sons, the title will again become extinct at his death. Aside from the first creation, every time the Dukedom of York has been created it has had only one occupant, that person either inheriting the throne or dying without male heirs. In the early 18th century, the eldest son of the overthrown King James II and thus Jacobite claimant to the throne, James Francis Edward Stuart, known to his opponents as the Old Pretender, granted the title "Duke of York" to his own second son, using his purported authority as King James III. Henry became a cardinal in the Catholic church and is thus known as the Cardinal Duke of York. Since James was not recognised as king by English law, the grant is not recognised as a legitimate creation.
Cape York Peninsula, Australia Duke of York Archipelago, Canada Duke of York Bay, Canada York, Upper Canada, now Toronto, Ontario York County, New Brunswick, Canada Duke of York Island, Antarctica Cape York, Greenland Duke of York Island, Papua New Guinea Duke of York Islands Duke of York's Royal Military School New York, a U. S. state New York City, the largest city in the state of New York and the United States Duke of York School, renamed Lenana School after Kenya attain