Stoke Gabriel is a village and parish in Devon, situated on a creek of the River Dart. The village is a popular tourist destination in the South Hams and is famous for its mill pond and crab fishing, it is equidistant from Paignton and Totnes, has a population of 1,200, reducing to 1,107 at the 2011 census. The village is the major part of the electoral ward of East Dart; the ward population at the abovementioned census was 1,877. Fisherman first came to Stoke Gabriel to fish salmon and gain access to the River Dart; the village has an 1,000-year-old yew tree in the churchyard of The Church of St Mary and St Gabriel, a church which has stood since Norman times. Legend has it that if you walk backwards seven times round the yew's main stem you will be granted a wish. Stoke Gabriel was the birthplace of the Great Western Railway's Chief Mechanical Engineer George Jackson Churchward, who lends his name to the local football club Stoke Gabriel A. F. C.'s ground. The village has two public houses; until recently there were three pubs.
The other being The Victoria and Albert Inn. The Church House Inn was built to accommodate the masons who constructed the church and served as the courthouse; the old stocks can be seen outside the inn today. Stoke Gabriel is the template for the fictional village of Thornford Regis in C. C. Benison's crime novels Twelve Eleven Pipers Piping. Stoke Gabriel online Stoke Gabriel Football Club Stoke Gabriel Cricket Club Stoke Gabriel Pre-School
Academy of Athens (modern)
The Academy of Athens is Greece's national academy, the highest research establishment in the country. It was established in 1926, operates under the supervision of the Ministry of Education; the Academy's main building is one of the major landmarks of Athens. The organization of the Academy of Athens, whose title hearkens back to the ancient Academy of Plato, was first established on 18 March 1926, its charter was ratified by the law 4398/1929; this charter, with subsequent amendments, is still governs the Academy's affairs. According to it, the Academy is divided into three Orders: Natural Sciences and Arts, Moral and Political Sciences; the Academy today, maintains 14 research centres, seven research offices and the "Ioannis Sykoutris" central library. In 2002, the Foundation for Biomedical Research of the Academy of Athens was established; the Hellenic Institute for Byzantine and Post-Byzantine Studies in Venice functions under the supervision of the Academy. From its foundation, the Academy of Athens has been a member of the International Association of Academies, the International Council of Scientific Unions.
It participates in the following body: All European Academies, European Academies Science Advisory Council, Inter Academy Council, Inter Academy Medical Panel. The main building of the Academy is a neoclassical building between Panepistimiou Street and Akadimias Street in the centre of Athens; the building was designed as part of an architectural "trilogy" in 1859 by the Danish architect Theophil Hansen, along with the University and the National Library. Funds had been provided by the magnate Simon Sinas for the purpose, the foundation stone was laid on 2 August 1859. Construction proceeded after 1861 under the supervision of Ernst Ziller, but the internal tumults during the latter years of King Otto's reign, which resulted in his ousting in 1862, hampered construction until it was stopped in 1864. Works resumed in 1868, but the building was not completed until 1885, at a total cost of 2,843,319 gold drachmas, most of it provided by Sinas, after his death, by his wife Ifigeneia; the Greek neo-classical sculptor Leonidas Drosis sculpted the principle multi-figure pediment sculpture, on the theme of the birth of Athena, based on a design by painter Carl Rahl.
This brought first prize at the Vienna Exhibition of 1873. Drosis is responsible for the figures of Athena and Apollo with lyre on the Academy's flanking pillars, the seated marble figures of Plato and Socrates, which were executed "by the Italian sculptor Piccarelli"; the eight smaller pediments in the Academy complex are the terra-cotta work of Austrian sculptor Franz Melnitzky. Interior murals and paintings were done by the Austrian artist Christian Griepenkerl. On 20 March 1887, the building of the "Sinaean Academy", as it was called, was delivered by Ziller to the Greek Prime Minister, Charilaos Trikoupis. In the absence of a national Academy, the building was used for housing the Numismatic Museum in 1890, in 1914 the Byzantine Museum and the State Archives. On 24 March 1926, the building was handed over to the newly established Academy of Athens; the Academy of Athens was selected as main motif for a high value euro collectors' coin. In the obverse of the coin, a close view of the building is depicted.
The intention was to highlight the premise that in the city of Athena, the Olympic Games should not only be the most important athletic event, but reflect equal importance toward intellectual and cultural activities. All three should be equivalent to the style and character of the city, the birthplace and the matrix for the revival of the modern Olympic Games. List of members of the Academy of Athens Bibliotheca Alexandrina, a "restored" Library of Alexandria Academy of Athens website 3D Scan of Academy of Athens
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used for documentation in libraries and also by archives and museums; the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero licence; the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format; the Integrated Authority File became operational in April 2012 and integrates the content of the following authority files, which have since been discontinued: Name Authority File Corporate Bodies Authority File Subject Headings Authority File Uniform Title File of the Deutsches Musikarchiv At the time of its introduction on 5 April 2012, the GND held 9,493,860 files, including 2,650,000 personalised names.
There are seven main types of GND entities: LIBRIS Virtual International Authority File Information pages about the GND from the German National Library Search via OGND Bereitstellung des ersten GND-Grundbestandes DNB, 19 April 2012 From Authority Control to Linked Authority Data Presentation given by Reinhold Heuvelmann to the ALA MARC Formats Interest Group, June 2012
British School at Athens
The British School at Athens is an archaeological research institute, one of the eight British International Research Institutes supported by the British Academy. Under UK law it is a registered educational charity, which translates to a non-profit organisation in American and Greek law, it is one of the 19 Foreign Archaeological Institutes defined by Hellenic Law No. 3028/2002, "On the Protection of Antiquities and Cultural Heritage in General," passed by the Greek Parliament in 2002. Under that law the 17 accredited foreign institutes may perform systematic excavation in Greece with the permission of the government; the School was founded in 1886 as the fourth such institution in Greece. For most of its existence, it focused on supporting and facilitating British-based research in Classical Studies and Archaeology, but in recent years, it has broadened that focus to all areas of Greek Studies, it has made notable contributions in the history of Modern Greece. It is defined by Hellenic law to be a "foreign archaeological school" with a specific meaning.
In addition to being trusted with antiquities in Greece, it serves as an agent for the Hellenic utilisation of British resources in Greece. Only the BSA can assign projects to British institutions, it may only do so with permission of the Minister of Culture; the BSA's activities include a regular programme of lectures and seminars, a series of scholarships and bursaries, Athens-based courses for undergraduates and teachers, as well as archaeological fieldwork. BSA facilities include one of the most important Classical and archaeological libraries in Greece, the Fitch laboratory, the oldest archaeometric laboratory in Greece; the BSA operates a branch at Knossos in Crete, including one of the island's main archaeological libraries. The Marc and Ismene Fitch Laboratory, Fitch Laboratory for short, is a scientific laboratory for conducting technical investigation of materials obtained from archaeology, it is located in a separate building on the grounds of the premises at Athens. Having begun in 1974 in a storage facility, it was expanded into a two-story building in 1988.
The laboratory is funded separately from the rest of the school. It has its own director Evangelia Kiriatzi, its own research scientists, teaches its own courses, offers its own grants, issues its own publications, it is, governed by the main school's Committee for Archaeology. Fitch Laboratory was founded during a period of growing interest in establishing the provenience of pottery discovered during excavation; the method of archaeology established a sequence of layers at a site, which gave relative dates to the objects found in them. Suppose that pottery in one region was similar to pottery at another, how was this similarity to be interpreted? Did invaders carry the pottery from one site to another? Were the similar pots trade exports? Did the pottery of one region serve as a model for the manufacture of pottery in another? Answers to these questions were provided by the judgements of the lead excavators, but with no method of establishing provenience, these judgements were highly controversial.
For example, there are striking similarities between some Mycenaean pottery. Arthur Evans, Duncan Mackenzie and their supporters were proposing that Mycenaean pottery was a type of Minoan pottery. To the contrary, Carl Blegen and his supporters were affirming a mainland Greek origin for and importation to Crete of Mycenaean pottery. Given some of this pottery at a site, it, Minoan or Mycenaean, how could one establish which? By the 1960s archaeologists were turning to the physical sciences for answers; the science of geology provided them with petrology, the study of the rock composition of the clay from which the pots were made. Microscopic examination of a thin section of pot material reveals the minerals present in the grains of clay; the mineral composition of pots is compared to the mineral composition of the rock from which various known clay beds had come. If there were any mineralic distinctions between Mycenaean and Minoan pottery, petrology would discover them. By that time new methods of chemical analysis of inorganic material were available, which are classified as “activation analysis.”
The general method exploits two natural phenomena: the tendency to form stable atoms with a given energy structure, the action of an atom to transduce radiational energy falling on it. The input energy “activates” or superenergizes the atom in some way, creating an unstable configuration, which decays, releasing the extra energy in radiation of wavelengths characteristic of the atom. A device to read the wavelengths and radiational intensities at those wavelengths identifies the element and concentration present. Of the three general types of activation, the mass spectrometer bombards the sample with a stream of electrons, or electrical current, until it reaches temperatures high enough to dissociate the atoms into a plasma, or cloud of superenergized ions, in which the electrons have acquired the energy to expand into unstable orbits; as the electrons fall back they lose energy as visible light. Diffraction of the light produces a spectrum that can be captured on film; the bands of light identify the elements.
Specrometers are used less in archaeology as they destroy the sample. In a second type, Neutron activation analysis, a stream of neutrons generated in
University of Oxford
The University of Oxford is a collegiate research university in Oxford, England. There is evidence of teaching as early as 1096, making it the oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's second-oldest university in continuous operation, it grew from 1167 when Henry II banned English students from attending the University of Paris. After disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled north-east to Cambridge where they established what became the University of Cambridge; the two'ancient universities' are jointly called'Oxbridge'. The history and influence of the University of Oxford has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world; the university is made up of 38 constituent colleges, a range of academic departments, which are organised into four divisions. All the colleges are self-governing institutions within the university, each controlling its own membership and with its own internal structure and activities, it does not have a main campus, its buildings and facilities are scattered throughout the city centre.
Undergraduate teaching at Oxford is organised around weekly tutorials at the colleges and halls, supported by classes, lectures and laboratory work provided by university faculties and departments. It operates the world's oldest university museum, as well as the largest university press in the world and the largest academic library system nationwide. In the fiscal year ending 31 July 2018, the university had a total income of £2.237 billion, of which £579.1 million was from research grants and contracts. The university is ranked first globally by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings as of 2019 and is ranked as among the world's top ten universities, it is ranked second in all major national league tables, behind Cambridge. Oxford has educated many notable alumni, including 27 prime ministers of the United Kingdom and many heads of state and government around the world; as of 2019, 69 Nobel Prize winners, 3 Fields Medalists, 6 Turing Award winners have studied, worked, or held visiting fellowships at the University of Oxford, while its alumni have won 160 Olympic medals.
Oxford is the home of numerous scholarships, including the Rhodes Scholarship, one of the oldest international graduate scholarship programmes. The University of Oxford has no known foundation date. Teaching at Oxford existed in some form as early as 1096, but it is unclear when a university came into being, it grew from 1167 when English students returned from the University of Paris. The historian Gerald of Wales lectured to such scholars in 1188 and the first known foreign scholar, Emo of Friesland, arrived in 1190; the head of the university had the title of chancellor from at least 1201, the masters were recognised as a universitas or corporation in 1231. The university was granted a royal charter in 1248 during the reign of King Henry III. After disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled from the violence to Cambridge forming the University of Cambridge; the students associated together on the basis of geographical origins, into two'nations', representing the North and the South.
In centuries, geographical origins continued to influence many students' affiliations when membership of a college or hall became customary in Oxford. In addition, members of many religious orders, including Dominicans, Franciscans and Augustinians, settled in Oxford in the mid-13th century, gained influence and maintained houses or halls for students. At about the same time, private benefactors established colleges as self-contained scholarly communities. Among the earliest such founders were William of Durham, who in 1249 endowed University College, John Balliol, father of a future King of Scots. Another founder, Walter de Merton, a Lord Chancellor of England and afterwards Bishop of Rochester, devised a series of regulations for college life. Thereafter, an increasing number of students lived in colleges rather than in halls and religious houses. In 1333–34, an attempt by some dissatisfied Oxford scholars to found a new university at Stamford, was blocked by the universities of Oxford and Cambridge petitioning King Edward III.
Thereafter, until the 1820s, no new universities were allowed to be founded in England in London. The new learning of the Renaissance influenced Oxford from the late 15th century onwards. Among university scholars of the period were William Grocyn, who contributed to the revival of Greek language studies, John Colet, the noted biblical scholar. With the English Reformation and the breaking of communion with the Roman Catholic Church, recusant scholars from Oxford fled to continental Europe, settling at the University of Douai; the method of teaching at Oxford was transformed from the medieval scholastic method to Renaissance education, although institutions associated with the university suffered losses of land and revenues. As a centre of learning and scholarship, Oxford's reputation declined in the Age of Enlightenment. In 1636 William Laud, the chancellor and Archbishop of Canterbury, codified the university's statutes. These, to a large extent, remained its gove
Simon McGillivray, FRS, played an intricate role in merging the family owned North West Company with the rival Hudson's Bay Company. From 1835, he co-owned the London Advertiser, he was Provincial Grand Master of Upper Canada. In 1785, McGillivray was born near Daviot in the Scottish Highlands, he was the youngest son of Donald Roy McGillivray, tacksman of Achnalodan in Dunmaglass and of Dalscoilt in Strathnairn. His mother, was the daughter of Lieutenant John McTavish, of Garthbeg; the McGillivrays had traditionally held the Dunmaglass estate since the fourteenth century, Simon's grandfather was a first cousin of the Chief of Clan McGillivray, Captain William McGillivray of Dunmaglass. However, on his side of the family, the land had dissipated so that Simon's father was a small tenant on what had become part of the Lovat estate, he was unable to provide secondary schooling for Simon and his brothers William and Duncan. Instead, their education was paid for by their wealthy uncle Simon McTavish, of Montreal, who provided each of the boys with careers within his fur trading empire.
Simon McGillivray had a lame foot and was blind in one eye, so instead of coming to the Canadas and being put through an apprenticeship with the North West Company as his brothers had, he was sent down to London to work for another branch of his uncle's business, McTavish, Fraser & Co. This company was set up to maximise profits for the Montreal firm; the company supplied the Canadian firm with trade goods, obtained credit for it, looked after shipments and sold the pelts at the best price on the London market. He became a partner of the firm in 1805 and in 1811 he was made a partner of the parent company in Montreal, McTavish, McGillivrays & Co. From London, Simon worked with his brother, William McGillivray, in his struggles to overcome Lord Selkirk and the Hudson's Bay Company, he made various business trips to Montreal when needed but otherwise remained in London where his authority had grown to supersede his cousin John Fraser, the financial expert in Simon McTavish's time. In 1820, when William McGillivray realised that the collapse of the North West Company was imminent unless an agreement could be made with their rivals, the Hudson's Bay Company, Simon took a leading role.
Together with his friend Edward Ellice, they devised a plan to merge the two giant fur companies. During the discussions that followed, Colin Robertson remarked: "I like Simon much better than his friend the Member of Parliament; the merger was completed by 1821, having broken the news to the partners in Canada, Robertson again commented, "Simon McGillivray has carried everything without the semblance of opposition. The first day he opened the business, the second the Deed and Release was signed, the third all was peace and harmony". Simon and William were placed on the board of the new organisation after investing £164,000 between them, but the peace did not last long and by 1825 their Montreal and London firms, McTavish, McGillivrays & Co. and McGillivrays, Thain & Co. went bankrupt. They were left in debt to the sum of £200,000. Blame for the failure is accredited to the dealings of the Ellice family, who since the American Revolution had made ambitions on gaining control of the riches in North West Canada.
McGillivray was forced to sell his valuable art collection, but his talents had not gone unnoticed in London and his career continued to prosper. In 1829, Simon was chosen by the United Mexican Mining Association of London to go to Mexico to help reorganise the administration of the company's silver mines. In 1835, he was back in London, becoming a co-owner of the Morning London Advertiser. A Freemason in London, from 1822 he held the position of Provincial Grand Master of Upper Canada, a position he held until his death. In 1838, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society. In 1837, at London, he married Anne Easthope, the eldest daughter of his business partner Sir John Easthope, 1st Bt. M. P. of Firgrove, Surrey, by his first wife, daughter of Jacob Stokes, of Leopard House, Worcestershire. The McGillivrays kept two houses, their London home was at 13 Salisbury Street, The Strand, they kept a residence on Dartmouth Row, in Kent. Simon was the godfather of John Auldjo; the McGillivrays were the parents of two daughters, they were survived by one.
Mary Louisa McGillivray, married Rear-Admiral Richard Dawkins, of Stoke Gabriel, Devon. They were the parents of five children, including Richard MacGillivray Dawkins Biography at the Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online Grand Lodge of Canada in the Province of Ontario