Church of the United Brethren in Christ
The Church of the United Brethren in Christ is an evangelical Christian denomination based in Huntington, Indiana. It is a Protestant denomination of episcopal structure, Arminian theology, with roots in the Mennonite and German Reformed communities of 18th-century Pennsylvania, as well as close ties to Methodism, it was organized in 1800 by Martin Boehm and Philip William Otterbein and is the first American denomination, not transplanted from Europe. It emerged from United Brethren churches that were at first unorganized, not all of which joined this church when it was formally organized in 1800, following a 1789 conference at the Otterbein Church. In 1889, a controversy over membership in secret societies such as the Freemasons, the proper way to modify the church's constitution, other issues split the United Brethren into majority liberal and minority conservative blocs, the latter of, led by Bishop Milton Wright. Both groups continued to use the name Church of the United Brethren in Christ.
The majority faction, known as the Church of the United Brethren in Christ, merged with the Evangelical Church in 1946 to form a new denomination known as the Evangelical United Brethren Church. This in turn merged in 1968 with The Methodist Church to form the United Methodist Church; the Wright-led faction continues today as a denomination of about 550 congregations, with 47,300 members in fifteen countries. The US National Conference consists of about 200 churches and 25,000 members in the United States, plus mission districts in Haiti and India; the United States national office, known as Healthy Ministry Resources, is located in Huntington, Indiana, as is the denomination's only college, Huntington University. Though the church was not organized until 1800, its roots reach back to 1767. In May of that year, a Great Meeting was held at a barn belonging to Isaac Long in Lancaster, Pennsylvania. Martin Boehm, a Mennonite preacher, spoke of his becoming a Christian through crying out to God while plowing in the field.
Philip William Otterbein, a Reformed pastor at York, left his seat, embraced Boehm and said to him, "Wir sind Brüder." The followers of Boehm and Otterbein formed a loose movement for many years. It spread to include German-speaking churches in Pennsylvania, Virginia and Ohio. In 1800, they began a yearly conference. Thirteen ministers attended the first conference at the home of Peter Kemp in Maryland. At that conference in 1800, they adopted a name, the United Brethren in Christ, elected Boehm and Otterbein as bishops of the conference; the United Brethren Church claims this organization in 1800 as the first denomination to begin in the United States, rather than be transplanted from Europe. A Confession of Faith was adopted in 1815, it has remained the statement of church doctrine to the present. In 1841, they adopted a Constitution, it has remained intact, being changed only a few times. William Otterbein retained a connection with the Reformed Church, pastoring a Reformed Church in Baltimore, Maryland from 1774 until his death in 1813.
Martin Boehm was excluded by the Mennonites in 1775. He joined the Methodist Church in 1802, while remaining bishop of the United Brethren until his death in 1812. Francis Asbury, bishop of the Methodist Church in America, spoke at the memorial services of both of these United Brethren bishops. Otterbein had assisted in Asbury's ordination; the United Brethren took a strong stand against slavery in 1821. After 1837, slave owners were no longer allowed to remain as members of the United Brethren Church. In 1847, the United Brethren founded Otterbein University in Westerville, which continues today. In 1853, the Home and Foreign Missionary Society was organized. Expansion occurred into the western United States, but the church's stance against slavery limited expansion to the south. By 1889, the United Brethren had grown to over 200,000 members with six bishops. In that same year they experienced a division. Denominational leaders desired to make three changes: to give local conferences proportional representation at the General Conference.
However, the process for amending the Constitution at the time made it all but impossible to amend it. The denominational leadership made these changes, but the minority felt the changes violated the Constitution because they were not made by the majority vote of all United Brethren members. Milton Wright was the only one of the church's six bishops to side with the minority, he and other conference delegates resumed the session elsewhere. They believed that the other delegates had violated the Constitution, deemed themselves to be the true United Brethren Church. Courts saw it differently. Most of the congregations that sided with Wright lost their property. Wright led this group—estimated at 10,000-20,000 constituents—in those early years as they reorganized. A new headquarters began taking shape in 1897 in Huntington, Ind. with the establishment of a publishing house, national offices, Huntington College. Wright served as bishop until 1905; until 1946 two groups operated under the name Church of the United Brethren in Christ, distinguished by whether they were under the old constitution or the new constitution
Robert Denning was an American interior designer whose lush interpretations of French Victorian decor became an emblem of corporate raider tastes in the 1980s. Denning was born Robert Dennis Besser in New York City, New York, to Jacob Besser. Denning, as he was called, developed an early interest in his body and health, a characteristic instilled in him by his mother, he was just fifteen when he met Edgar de Evia, the research assistant to Dr. Guy Beckley Stearns and would go on to become a noted photographer, he became a testing subject for this Homeopathic medical research and when his parents and younger brother moved to Florida, he stayed in New York City living with de Evia and his mother Miirrha Alhambra. He would say that he saw his first lampshade in this home, as he grew up with a bare bulb being adequate, his first effort with decorating was in imitation of Syrie Maugham when Edgar and he, painted everything in Miirrha's room white and put her bed on a dais. Her only response was: "Did you have to paint my Baccarat perfume bottles?"
He never used white again. From 1960 the firm of Denning & Fourcade would become known for colorful extravagance and over the top opulence. Clients beginning with Michel David-Weill. Soon they were known for creating an established and ` old money' atmosphere anywhere. For thirty years they were courted on both sides of the Atlantic. Denning kept the fragrance Sous Le Vent in his automobiles to remind him of Lillian Bostwick Phipps who always wore the scent. Longtime clients such as Spencer Hays, the Richard Merillats for whom he has designed homes in Naples and Michigan, the Countess Rattazzi, for whom he did homes in Manhattan, South America and Italy looked forward to shopping sprees with him be it in the wholesale import markets in New York City or the Paris flea market. Denning's five story townhouse for Phyllis Cerf Wagner is described as: "... cozy and grand at the same time, but not elaborately fussy."Eugenia Sheppard of the New York Herald Tribune dubbed their work "Le Style Rothschild."
It reeked de l'argent. "Outrageous luxury is what our clients want," Denning & Fourcade said. This was the era of instant wealth, they visually defined it, giving crisp money the appearance of provenance and what Denning called "a casual English attitude about grandeur."Often perceived as "...the Odd Couple. Boyish, down-to-earth Denning is the hardest worker, while Fourcade sniffs the client air to gauge if it's registered before he goes beyond the fringe." Jewelry designer Kenneth Jay Lane developed a passion for art pieces from the Middle East which the firm was in the vanguard of introducing and has used some of their lighting treatments. Denning designed Jason Epstein's SoHo home from scratch in the shell of the building that housed the first consolidated New York police department; this was an new effort for the designer, known by many to specialize in a period "we'd call early-fringed-lampshade, but chic". They would amass a large collection of artwork and bronzes, they would commission original works of art and collect many of the same artists that they would recommend to their clients.
Fourcade and Denning shared a red brick mansion on East 73d Street in Manhattan and a house they built in Bridgehampton, Long Island. Denning'reinvented' himself to use his own word, after Vincent Fourcade's death from AIDS in 1992. Taking a lighter approach with more emphasis on effect and comfort than signed pieces of furniture, he used to laugh at how he would coach his early clients with decorating their children and grandchildren's homes, he was listed in the AD100, top hundred decorators by Architectural Digest for a number of years and once said: "I'll accept commissions from anyone who isn't frightened by my proposals." Listed in New York The Top 100 Architects & Decorators and The New York Times Magazine in an article "Who Made It" he was listed as one of 15 interior designers who had become "celebrities in their own right".: Technology permitting, Robert Denning would return to the nineteenth century. Since he can't, he devotes himself to re-creating – with international mixes of opulent furniture – the sumptuous interiors of his favorite era, using damask and taffetas.
His jobs have appeared not only in AD's pages, but those of every major magazine with home interiors. He always participated in charity benefits such as the auction to benefit Friends In Deed, a counseling organization for people with AIDS and cancer to decorating the main foyer of the von Stade mansion to benefit Southampton's Rogers Memorial Library, he was one of the decorators that contributed to the restoration of the 1932, 50 room mansion, of William Goadby Loew for the Smithers Alcoholism Treatment and Training Center on Manhattan's upper East side. "A sense of humor overlaying a deep commitment to style and a consuming passion for detail characterize all of Denning's work."During the last decade of his life he tired of Paris, giving up his home that he had shared with Vincent in the 17th arrondissment. He was content in the familiar surroundings of his home and offices in the Lombardy Hotel in New York City, where both the lobby and restaurant were of his design, he died in his apartment in New York City i
Michigan State University
Michigan State University is a public research university in East Lansing, Michigan. MSU was founded in 1855 and served as a model for land-grant universities created under the Morrill Act of 1862; the university was founded as the Agricultural College of the State of Michigan, one of the country's first institutions of higher education to teach scientific agriculture. After the introduction of the Morrill Act, the college became coeducational and expanded its curriculum beyond agriculture. Today, MSU is one of the largest universities in the United States and has 563,000 living alumni worldwide. U. S. News & World Report ranks many of its graduate programs among the best in the nation, including African history, criminology and organizational psychology, educational psychology and secondary education, osteopathic medicine, human medicine, nuclear physics, rehabilitation counseling, supply chain/logistics, veterinary medicine. MSU pioneered the studies of packaging, hospitality business, supply chain management, communication sciences.
Michigan State is a member of the Association of American Universities, an organization of 62 leading research universities in North America. The university's campus houses the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, the W. J. Beal Botanical Garden, the Abrams Planetarium, the Wharton Center for Performing Arts, the Eli and Edythe Broad Art Museum, the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, the country's largest residence hall system; the Michigan State Spartans compete in the NCAA Division I Big Ten Conference. Michigan State Spartans football won the Rose Bowl Game in 1954, 1956, 1988 and 2014, a total of six national championships. Spartans men's basketball won the NCAA National Championship in 1979 and 2000 and has attained the Final Four eight times since the 1998–1999 season, including in 2019 with a victory over Duke. Spartans ice hockey won NCAA national titles in 1966, 1986 and 2007; the Michigan Constitution of 1850 called for the creation of an "agricultural school," though it was not until February 12, 1855, that Michigan Governor Kinsley S. Bingham signed a bill establishing the United States' first agriculture college, the Agricultural College of the State of Michigan.
Classes began on May 13, 1857, with three buildings, five faculty members, 63 male students. The first president, Joseph R. Williams, designed a curriculum that required more scientific study than any undergraduate institution of the era, it balanced science, liberal arts, practical training. The curriculum excluded Latin and Greek studies since most applicants did not study any classical languages in their rural high schools. However, it did require three hours of daily manual labor, which kept costs down for both the students and the College. Despite Williams' innovations and his defense of education for the masses, the State Board of Education saw Williams' curriculum as elitist, they reduced the curriculum to a two-year vocational program. In 1860, Williams became acting lieutenant governor and helped pass the Reorganization Act of 1861; this gave the college the power to grant master's degrees. Under the act, a newly created body, known as the State Board of Agriculture, took over from the State Board of Education in running the institution.
The college changed its name to State Agricultural College, its first class graduated in the same year. As the Civil War had begun, there was no time for an elaborate graduation ceremony; the first alumni enlisted to the Union Army. Williams died, the following year, Abraham Lincoln signed the First Morrill Act of 1862 to support similar colleges, making the Michigan school a national model. Shortly thereafter, on March 18, 1863, the state designated the college its land-grant institution making Michigan State University one of the nation's first land-grant college; the college first admitted women in 1870, although at that time there were no female residence halls. The few women who enrolled boarded with faculty families or made the arduous stagecoach trek from Lansing. From the early days, female students took the same rigorous scientific agriculture courses as male students. In 1896, the faculty created a "Women Course" that melded a home economics curriculum with liberal arts and sciences.
That same year, the College turned the Abbot Hall male dorm into a women's dormitory. It was not until 1899 that the State Agricultural College admitted its first African American student, William O. Thompson. After graduation, he taught at. President Jonathan L. Snyder invited its president Booker T. Washington to be the Class of 1900 commencement speaker. A few years Myrtle Craig became the first woman African-American student to enroll at the College. Along with the Class of 1907, she received her degree from U. S. President Theodore Roosevelt, commencement speaker for the Semi-Centennial celebration; the City of East Lansing was incorporated the same year, two years the college changed its name to Michigan Agricultural College. During the early 20th century, M. A. C. Expanded its curriculum well beyond agriculture. By 1925 it had expanded enough it changed its name to Michigan State College of Agriculture and Applied Science. In 1941, the Secretary of the State Board of Agriculture, John A. Hannah, became president of the College.
After World War II, he began the largest expansion in the institution's history, with the help of the 1945 G. I. Bill, which helped World War II veterans gain college educations. One of Hannah's strategies was to build a new dormitory building, enroll enough students to fill it, use the income to start construction on a new dormitory. Under his plan, enrollment increased fr
Board of directors
A board of directors is a group of people who jointly supervise the activities of an organization, which can be either a for-profit business, nonprofit organization, or a government agency. Such a board's powers and responsibilities are determined by government regulations and the organization's own constitution and bylaws; these authorities may specify the number of members of the board, how they are to be chosen, how they are to meet. In an organization with voting members, the board is accountable to, might be subordinate to, the organization's full membership, which vote for the members of the board. In a stock corporation, non-executive directors are voted for by the shareholders, with the board having ultimate responsibility for the management of the corporation; the board of directors appoints the chief executive officer of the corporation and sets out the overall strategic direction. In corporations with dispersed ownership, the identification and nomination of directors are done by the board itself, leading to a high degree of self-perpetuation.
In a non-stock corporation with no general voting membership, the board is the supreme governing body of the institution, its members are sometimes chosen by the board itself. Other names include board of directors and advisors, board of governors, board of managers, board of regents, board of trustees, or board of visitors, it may be called "the executive board" and is simply referred to as "the board". Typical duties of boards of directors include: governing the organization by establishing broad policies and setting out strategic objectives. For companies with publicly trading stock, these responsibilities are much more rigorous and complex than for those of other types; the board chooses one of its members to be the chairman, who holds whatever title is specified in the by-laws or articles of association. However, in membership organizations, the members elect the president of the organization and the president becomes the board chair, unless the by-laws say otherwise; the directors of an organization are the persons.
Several specific terms categorize directors by the presence or absence of their other relationships to the organization. An inside director is a director, an employee, chief executive, major shareholder, or someone connected to the organization. Inside directors represent the interests of the entity's stakeholders, have special knowledge of its inner workings, its financial or market position, so on. Typical inside directors are: A chief executive officer who may be chairman of the board Other executives of the organization, such as its chief financial officer or executive vice president Large shareholders Representatives of other stakeholders such as labor unions, major lenders, or members of the community in which the organization is locatedAn inside director, employed as a manager or executive of the organization is sometimes referred to as an executive director. Executive directors have a specified area of responsibility in the organization, such as finance, human resources, or production.
An outside director is a member of the board, not otherwise employed by or engaged with the organization, does not represent any of its stakeholders. A typical example is a director, president of a firm in a different industry. Outside directors are not affiliated with it in any other way. Outside directors bring outside experience and perspectives to the board. For example, for a company that only serves a domestic market, the presence of CEOs from global multinational corporations as outside directors can help to provide insights on export and import opportunities and international trade options. One of the arguments for having outside directors is that they can keep a watchful eye on the inside directors and on the way the organization is run. Outside directors are unlikely to tolerate "insider dealing" between insider directors, as outside directors do not benefit from the company or organization. Outside directors are useful in handling disputes between inside directors, or between shareholders and the board.
They are thought to be advantageous because they can be objective and present little risk of conflict of interest. On the other hand, they might lack familiarity with the specific issues connected to the organization's governance and they might not know about the industry or sector in which the organization is operating. Director – a person appointed to serve on the board of an organization, such as an institution or business. Inside director – a director who, in addition to serving on the board, has a meaningful connection to the organization Outside director – a director who, other than serving on the board, has no meaningful connections to the organization Executive director – an insi
Merillat Industries was founded in Adrian, Michigan as an American manufacturer of kitchen cabinets in 1946 by Orville D. Merillat. Now retired, Richard Merillat, took over from his father as President; the Merillat Industries corporate headquarters, still located in Adrian, are on US-223 just outside the Adrian city limits. They had 11 manufacturing plants and over 4,200 employees in 2004 and have operated as an independent unit of Masco Corporation, a Detroit building products conglomerate since 1985. In 2004 Merillat and Duncanville, Texas based QualityCabinets joined to form the Masco Builder Cabinet Group. In late 2007 Merillat Industries began going by this new moniker. On September 22, 2008, Masco announced that it plans to close the Adrian plant in early 2009, stating the following as its reason of closure: "Given the unprecedented decline in new construction, more action is necessary; this was a difficult decision with a high level of emotion as Adrian is the original founding plant for the Merillat brand.
This closure is the quality of the workforce. Rather, it is driven by deteriorating market conditions." 300 people will be without jobs when the plant closes. In February 2010, the company announced a merger of the Adrian, Michigan-based Masco Builder Cabinet Group, the Middlefield, Ohio-based Masco Retail Cabinet Group; the Retail Cabinet Group was most noted for producing the Kraftmaid, Mills Pride cabinet brands. The new company, formed has come to be known as Masco Cabinetry; this new company is headquartered in Michigan at 4600 Arrowhead Drive. The company adopted its new name on January 1, 2011. Merillat.com TomorrowsThinkingToday.com
American Quarter Horse
The American Quarter Horse, or Quarter Horse, is an American breed of horse that excels at sprinting short distances. Its name came from its ability to outdistance other horse breeds in races of less; the American Quarter Horse is the most popular breed in the United States today, the American Quarter Horse Association is the largest breed registry in the world, with 3 million living American Quarter Horses registered in 2014. The American Quarter Horse is well known both as a race horse and for its performance in rodeos, horse shows and as a working ranch horse; the compact body of the American Quarter Horse is well-suited to the intricate and speedy maneuvers required in reining, working cow horse, barrel racing, calf roping, other western riding events those involving live cattle. The American Quarter Horse is shown in English disciplines and many other equestrian activities.. In the 17th century, colonists on the eastern seaboard of what today is the United States began to cross imported English Thoroughbred horses with assorted "native" horses such as the Chickasaw horse, a breed developed by Native American people from horses descended from Spain, developed from Iberian and Barb stock brought to what is now the Southeastern United States by the Conquistadors.
One of the most famous of these early imports was Janus, a Thoroughbred, the grandson of the Godolphin Arabian. He was foaled in 1746, imported to colonial Virginia in 1756; the influence of Thoroughbreds like Janus contributed genes crucial to the development of the colonial "Quarter Horse". The breed is sometimes referred to as the "Famous American Quarter Running Horse"; the resulting horse was small and quick, was used as a work horse during the week and a race horse on the weekends. As flat racing became popular with the colonists, the Quarter Horse gained more popularity as a sprinter over courses that, by necessity, were shorter than the classic racecourses of England, were no more than a straight stretch of road or flat piece of open land; when matched against a Thoroughbred, local sprinters won. As the Thoroughbred breed became established in America, many colonial Quarter Horses were included in the original American stud books, starting a long association between the Thoroughbred breed and what would become known as the "Quarter Horse", named after the 1⁄4 mile race distance at which it excelled.
With some individuals being clocked at up to 55 mph. In the 19th century, pioneers heading West needed a willing horse. On the Great Plains, settlers encountered horses that descended from the Spanish stock Hernán Cortés and other Conquistadors had introduced into the viceroyalty of New Spain, which today includes the Southwestern United States and Mexico; these horses of the west included herds of feral animals known as Mustangs, as well as horses domesticated by Native Americans, including the Comanche and Nez Perce tribes. As the colonial Quarter Horse was crossed with these western horses, the pioneers found that the new crossbred had innate "cow sense", a natural instinct for working with cattle, making it popular with cattlemen on ranches. Early foundation sires of Quarter horse type included Steel Dust, foaled 1843; the main duty of the ranch horse in the American West was working cattle. After the invention of the automobile, horses were still irreplaceable for handling livestock on the range.
Thus, major Texas cattle ranches, such as the King Ranch, the 6666 Ranch, the Waggoner Ranch played a significant role in the development of the modern Quarter Horse. The skills needed by cowboys and their horses became the foundation of the rodeo, a contest which began with informal competition between cowboys and expanded to become a major competitive event throughout the west. To this day, the Quarter Horse dominates the sport both in speed events and in competition that emphasizes the handling of live cattle. However, sprint races were popular weekend entertainment and racing became a source of economic gain for breeders as well; as a result, more Thoroughbred blood was added back into the developing American Quarter Horse breed. The American Quarter Horse benefitted from the addition of Arabian and Standardbred bloodlines. In 1940, the American Quarter Horse Association was formed by a group of horsemen and ranchers from the southwestern United States dedicated to preserving the pedigrees of their ranch horses.
The horse honored with the first registration number, P-1, was Wimpy, a descendant of the King Ranch foundation sire Old Sorrel. Other sires alive at the founding of the AQHA were given the earliest registration numbers Joe Reed P-3, Chief P-5, Oklahoma Star P-6, Cowboy P-12, Waggoner's Rainy Day P-13; the Thoroughbred race horse Three Bars, alive in the early years of the AQHA, is recognized by the American Quarter Horse Hall of Fame as one of the significant foundation sires for the Quarter Horse breed. Other significant Thoroughbred sires seen in early AQHA pedigrees include Rocket Bar, Top Deck and Depth Charge. Since the American Quarter Horse formally established itself as a breed, the AQHA stud book has remained open to additional Thoroughbred blood via a performance standard. An "Appendix" American Quarter Horse is a first generation cross between a registered Thoroughbred and an
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent