Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players on a field at the centre of, a 20-metre pitch with a wicket at each end, each comprising two bails balanced on three stumps. The batting side scores runs by striking the ball bowled at the wicket with the bat, while the bowling and fielding side tries to prevent this and dismiss each player. Means of dismissal include being bowled, when the ball hits the stumps and dislodges the bails, by the fielding side catching the ball after it is hit by the bat, but before it hits the ground; when ten players have been dismissed, the innings ends and the teams swap roles. The game is adjudicated by two umpires, aided by a third umpire and match referee in international matches, they communicate with two off-field scorers. There are various formats ranging from Twenty20, played over a few hours with each team batting for a single innings of 20 overs, to Test matches, played over five days with unlimited overs and the teams each batting for two innings of unlimited length.
Traditionally cricketers play in all-white kit, but in limited overs cricket they wear club or team colours. In addition to the basic kit, some players wear protective gear to prevent injury caused by the ball, a hard, solid spheroid made of compressed leather with a raised sewn seam enclosing a cork core, layered with wound string. Cricket's origins are uncertain and the earliest definite reference is in south-east England in the middle of the 16th century, it spread globally with the expansion of the British Empire, leading to the first international matches in the second half of the 19th century. The game's governing body is the International Cricket Council, which has over 100 members, twelve of which are full members who play Test matches; the game's rules are held in a code called the Laws of Cricket, owned and maintained by Marylebone Cricket Club in London. The sport is followed in the Indian subcontinent, the United Kingdom, southern Africa and the West Indies, its globalisation occurring during the expansion of the British Empire and remaining popular into the 21st century.
Women's cricket, organised and played separately, has achieved international standard. The most successful side playing international cricket is Australia, having won seven One Day International trophies, including five World Cups, more than any other country, having been the top-rated Test side more than any other country. Cricket is one of many games in the "club ball" sphere that involve hitting a ball with a hand-held implement. In cricket's case, a key difference is the existence of a solid target structure, the wicket, that the batsman must defend; the cricket historian Harry Altham identified three "groups" of "club ball" games: the "hockey group", in which the ball is driven to and fro between two targets. It is believed that cricket originated as a children's game in the south-eastern counties of England, sometime during the medieval period. Although there are claims for prior dates, the earliest definite reference to cricket being played comes from evidence given at a court case in Guildford on Monday, 17 January 1597.
The case concerned ownership of a certain plot of land and the court heard the testimony of a 59-year-old coroner, John Derrick, who gave witness that: "Being a scholler in the ffree schoole of Guldeford hee and diverse of his fellows did runne and play there at creckett and other plaies". Given Derrick's age, it was about half a century earlier when he was at school and so it is certain that cricket was being played c. 1550 by boys in Surrey. The view that it was a children's game is reinforced by Randle Cotgrave's 1611 English-French dictionary in which he defined the noun "crosse" as "the crooked staff wherewith boys play at cricket" and the verb form "crosser" as "to play at cricket". One possible source for the sport's name is the Old English word "cryce" meaning a staff. In Samuel Johnson's Dictionary, he derived cricket from "cryce, Saxon, a stick". In Old French, the word "criquet" seems to have meant a kind of stick. Given the strong medieval trade connections between south-east England and the County of Flanders when the latter belonged to the Duchy of Burgundy, the name may have been derived from the Middle Dutch "krick", meaning a stick.
Another possible source is the Middle Dutch word "krickstoel", meaning a long low stool used for kneeling in church and which resembled the long low wicket with two stumps used in early cricket. According to Heiner Gillmeister, a European language expert of Bonn University, "cricket" derives from the Middle Dutch phrase for hockey, met de sen. Gillmeister has suggested that not only the name but the sport itself may be of Flemish origin. Although the main object of the game has always been to score the most runs, the early form of cricket differed from the modern game in certain key technical aspects; the ball was bowled underarm by the bowler and all along the ground towards a batsman armed with a bat that, in shape, resembled a hockey stick.
Kent county cricket teams
Kent county cricket teams have been traced back to the 17th century but the county's involvement in cricket goes back much further than that. Kent, jointly with Sussex, is accepted as the birthplace of the sport, it is believed that cricket was first played by children living on the Weald in Saxon or Norman times. The world's earliest known organised match was held in Kent c.1611 and the county has always been at the forefront of cricket's development through the growth of village cricket in the 17th century to representative matches in the 18th. A Kent team took part in the earliest known inter-county match, played on Dartford Brent in 1709. Several famous players and patrons were involved in Kent cricket from until the creation of the first county club in 1842. Among them were William Bedle, Robert Colchin and the 3rd Duke of Dorset. Kent were regarded as the strongest county team in the first half of the 18th century and were always one of the main challengers to the dominance of Hambledon in the second half.
County cricket ceased through the Napoleonic War and was resurrected in 1826 when Kent played Sussex. By the 1830s, Kent remained so until mid-century. Cricket is believed to have developed out of other bat-and-ball games and was first played in early medieval times to the south and south-east of London in the geographical areas of the North Downs, the South Downs and the Weald; the world's earliest known organised match took place in c. 1611, at Chevening. A court case described it as a "cricketing of the Weald and the Upland versus the Chalk Hill". Cricket became established in Kent and its neighbouring counties through the 17th century with the development of village cricket and it is possible that the earliest county teams were formed in the aftermath of the Restoration in 1660. In 1705, a newspaper recorded an 11-a-side match between West of Kent and Chatham at a place called "Maulden", which does not exist. Historians have surmised that the venue must have been either Malling. Four years the earliest known inter-county match took place when a Kent side and one from Surrey played against each other on Dartford Brent.
It is believed, as asserted by G. B. Buckley, that "inter-county matches" till about 1730 were inter-parish matches involving two villages on either side of a county boundary. Dartford was an important club in the first half of the 18th century and its team at this time featured William Bedle, acknowledged to have been cricket's first great player; the 1709 match is the earliest known mention of Dartford Brent as a venue. The Association of Cricket Statisticians and Historians considers Kent to be one of cricket's "major counties" throughout its entire history and rates all Kent county matches in the 18th and 19th centuries, as well as many played by teams called East Kent or West Kent, as first-class; the ACS have explained that any match between a strong Kent eleven and another top-class team justifies the classification but caution is needed with nomenclature because of the different committees and sponsors who organised the games and would sometimes use team names other than "Kent". Dartford came under the patronage of Edwin Stead through the 1720s and its team became representative of Kent as a county playing against teams from Sussex.
Stead developed a keen rivalry with the Sussex patrons Charles Lennox, 2nd Duke of Richmond, Sir William Gage. Their teams would name themselves either by their counties or as the patron's XI. There were three Kent v Sussex matches in 1728 and Stead's team won them all. After the third win, a newspaper reported the outcome as "the third time this summer that the Kent men have been too expert for those of Sussex"; the 1728 proclamation of Kent's superiority is the first time that the concept of a "Champion County" can be seen in the sources and it is augmented by a "turned the scales" comment made by a reporter after Sussex defeated Kent in 1729. The 1729 report added that the "scale of victory had been on the Kentish side for some years past". In 1730, a newspaper referred to the "Kentish champions". In his cricket history, Harry Altham titled his third chapter, about cricket in the second quarter of the 18th century, as "Kent, The First Champions". Strong teams played under the name of Kent throughout the 18th century with several famous patrons including Stead, Robert Colchin, Lord John Sackville, his son John Frederick Sackville, 3rd Duke of Dorset and Sir Horatio Mann organising teams.
In July 1739, the strength of Kent as a county team was recognised by the formation of a non-international England team, loosely termed "All-England" or, more the Rest of England, to play against them. Kent at this time were led by Lord John Sackville and his team won the first All-England match on Bromley Common. In 1744, the year in which the Laws of Cricket were first published as a code, Kent met All-England four times; the most famous encounter was the one on Monday, 18 June at the Artillery Ground, commemorated in a poem by James Love and is the subject of the world's second oldest scorecard. It is the opening match in Scores and Biographies. Kent, whose team included both Colchin and Sackville, won the match by one wicket. Under the Duke of Dorset and Sir Horatio Mann, Kent continued to field a strong team through the last quarter of the 18th century and were, along with Surrey, the main challengers to Hampshire whose team was organised by the Hambledon Club. Dartford had played against a Hambledo
Charles Lennox, 2nd Duke of Richmond
Charles Lennox, 2nd Duke of Richmond, 2nd Duke of Lennox, 2nd Duke of Aubigny, was a British nobleman and politician. He was the son of Charles Lennox, 1st Duke of Richmond, an illegitimate son of King Charles II, he held a number of posts in connection with his high office but is best remembered for his patronage of cricket. He has been described as the most important of the sport's early patrons and did much to help its evolution from village cricket to first-class cricket. Lennox was styled Earl of March from his birth in 1701 as heir to his father's dukedom, he inherited his father's love of sports cricket. He had a serious accident at the age of 12 when he was thrown from a horse during a hunt, but he recovered and it did not deter him from horsemanship. March entered into an arranged marriage in December 1719 when he was still only 18 and his bride, Lady Sarah Cadogan, was just 13 in order to use Lady Sarah's large dowry to pay his considerable debts, they were married at The Hague. In 1722, March became Member of Parliament for Chichester as first member with Sir Thomas Miller as his second.
He gave up his seat after his father died in May 1723 and he succeeded to the title of 2nd Duke of Richmond. A feature of Richmond's career was the support he received from his wife Sarah, her interest being evident in surviving letters, their marriage was a great success by Georgian standards. Their grandson who became the 4th Duke is known to cricket history as the Hon. Col. Charles Lennox, a noted amateur batsman of the late 18th century, one of Thomas Lord's main guarantors when he established his new ground in Marylebone; the 2nd Duke of Richmond has been described as early cricket's greatest patron. Although he had played cricket as a boy, his real involvement began after he succeeded to the dukedom, he captained his own team and his players included some of the earliest known professionals, such as his groom Thomas Waymark. When he patronised Slindon Cricket Club, Richmond was associated with the Newland brothers, his earliest recorded match is the one against Sir William Gage's XI on 20 July 1725, mentioned in a surviving letter from Sir William to the Duke.
Records have survived of four matches played by Richmond's team in the 1727 season. Two were against two against an XI raised by the Surrey patron Alan Brodrick; these last two games are significant because Richmond and Brodrick drew up Articles of Agreement beforehand to determine the rules that must apply in their contests. These were itemised in sixteen points, it is believed that this was the first time that rules were formally agreed, although rules as such existed. The first full codification of the Laws of Cricket was done in 1744. In early times, the rules were subject to local variations; the articles of agreement focused on residential qualifications and ensuring that there was no dissent by any player other than the two captains. In 1728, Richmond's Sussex played twice against Edwin Stead's Kent and lost both matches, " men have been too expert for those of Sussex". In 1730, Richmond's team played two matches against Gage's XI and another match against a Surrey XI backed by a Mr Andrews of Sunbury.
Richmond lost to Andrews. The second of his matches against Gage, due to be played at The Dripping Pan, near Lewes, was "put off on account of Waymark, the Duke's man, being ill". In 1731, Richmond was involved in one of the most controversial matches recorded in the early history of cricket. On 16 August, his Sussex team played a Middlesex XI backed by one Thomas Chambers at an unspecified venue in Chichester. Chambers' team won this match, which had a prize of 100 guineas, a return was arranged to take place at Richmond Green on 23 August; the return match was played for 200 guineas and it is notable as the earliest match of which the team scores are known: Richmond's XI 79, Chambers' XI 119. The game ended promptly at a pre-agreed time although Chambers' XI with "four or five more to have come in" and needing "about 8 to 10 notches" had the upper hand; the end result caused a fracas among the crowd at Richmond Green, who were incensed by the prompt finish because the Duke of Richmond had arrived late and delayed the start of the game.
The riot resulted in some of the Sussex players "having the shirts torn off their backs" and it was said "a law suit would commence about the play". In a note about another match involving Chambers' XI in September, G. B. Buckley has recorded that Richmond may have conceded the result to Chambers to stop the threat of litigation. Richmond is not mentioned in cricket sources again for ten years, he may have stepped aside after the 1731 fracas but it is more that he terminated his Duke of Richmond's XI after he broke his leg in 1733 and could no longer play himself. Instead, he channelled his enthusiasm for cricket through a team from the small village of Slindon, which bordered on his Goodwood estate; the rise to fame of Slindon Cricket Club was based on the play of Richard Newland and the patronage of Richmond. On Thursday, 9 July 1741, in a letter to her husband, the Duchess of Richmond mentions a conversation with John Newland regarding a Slindon v. East Dean match at Long Down, near Eartham, a week earlier.
This is the earliest recorded mention of any of the Newland family. On 28 July, Richmond sent two letters to the Duke of Newcastle to tell him about a game that day which had resulted in a brawl with "hearty blows" and "broken heads"; the game was at Portslade between Sl
Sarah Lennox, Duchess of Richmond
Sarah Lennox was Duchess of Richmond and Lady of the Bedchamber to Queen Caroline from 1724 to 1737. She was born Sarah Cadogan in The Hague, the eldest daughter of William Cadogan and his wife, Margaretta Cecilia Munter, she was brought up in a convent and at the age of thirteen was married, on 4 December 1719, to Charles Lennox, Earl of March, at The Hague. The marriage was arranged by both fathers in order to cancel a gambling debt incurred by the Earl of Cadogan. On his return in 1722, the earl was reluctant to meet Sarah. In 1723, Charles succeeded to his father's title of Duke of Richmond, whereupon Sarah became Duchess of Richmond, they had a well-publicized companionable marriage. Sarah was appointed a Lady of the Bedchamber to Caroline of Ansbach when Princess of Wales, remained in post when Caroline became queen consort in 1727, she received a salary of £500 per year but, despite the fact that the post represented the highest possible position at court, she would have carried out mundane duties, including ordering meals and clothes, dispatching servants to run errands.
Sarah was one of the twenty-one'ladies of quality and distinction' who signed Thomas Coram's first petition, presented to George II in 1735, calling for the foundation of the Founding Hospital. She signed the petition on 22 December 1729 and was the first Lady of the Bedchamber to the Queen recruited by Coram, her husband signed the Royal Charter in 1739. In the 1730s and 1740s Sarah and her daughters were enthusiastic collectors of shells brought by naval captains returning to Portsmouth, they arranged the shells into elaborate patterns that were incorporated into a grotto in the park of the family's home in Sussex, Goodwood House. Sarah had twenty-three pregnancies, from which twelve children survived: Lady Georgiana Carolina Lennox, married Henry Fox, 1st Baron Holland. Lord Charles Lennox, Earl of March. Lady Louisa Margaret Lennox. Lady Anne Lennox. Lord Charles Lennox, Earl of March. Lady Emilia Mary Lennox, married first James FitzGerald, 1st Duke of Leinster. Charles Lennox, 3rd Duke of Richmond.
Lord George Lennox, General. Lady Margaret Lennox. Lady Louisa Augusta Lennox, had no issue. Lady Sarah Lennox, married first Sir Charles Bunbury, 6th Baronet, had a daughter. Lady Cecilia Lennox, unmarried. In 1999, a six-part BBC miniseries based on the lives of her daughters aired in the U. K, it was called Aristocrats and the Duchess was played by Diane Fletcher
Scoring in cricket matches involves two elements – the number of runs scored and the number of wickets lost by each team. The scorer is someone appointed to record all runs scored, all wickets taken and, where appropriate, the number of overs bowled. In professional games, in compliance with the Laws of Cricket, two scorers are appointed, most one provided by each team; the scorers have wickets taken or overs bowled. This is the job of the umpires on the field of play, who signal to the scorers in cases of ambiguity such as when runs are to be given as extras rather than credited to the batsmen, or when the batsman is to be awarded a boundary 4 or 6. So that the umpire knows that they have seen each signal, the scorers are required to acknowledge it. While it is possible to keep score using a pencil and plain paper, scorers use pre-printed scoring books, these are commercially available in many different styles. Simple score books allow the recording of each batsman's runs, their scores and mode of dismissal, the bowlers' analyses, the team score and the score at the fall of each wicket.
More sophisticated score books allow for the recording of more detail, other statistics such as the number of balls faced by each batsman. Scorers sometimes produce their own scoring sheets to suit their techniques, some use coloured pens to highlight events such as wickets, or differentiate the actions of different batsmen or bowlers, it is possible to tell from a modern scorecard the time at which everything occurred, who bowled each delivery, which batsman faced it, whether the batsman left the ball or played and missed, or which direction the batsman hit the ball and whether runs were scored. Sometimes details of occurrences between deliveries, or incidental details like the weather, are recorded. In early times runs scored were sometimes recorded by carving notches on a stick – this root of the use of the slang term "notches" for "runs". In contrast, scoring in the modern game has become a specialism for international and national cricket competitions. While the scorers' role is defined under the Laws of Cricket to be the recording of runs and overs, the constant checking of the accuracy of their records with each other and with the umpires, in practice a modern scorer's role is complicated by other requirements.
For instance, cricket authorities require information about matters such as the rate at which teams bowled their overs. The media ask to be notified of records and averages. For many important matches, unofficial scorers keep tally for the broadcast commentators and newspaper journalists allowing the official scorers to concentrate undisturbed. In the English county game, the scorers keep score on a computer that updates a central server, to meet the demands of the online press that scores should be as up-to-date as possible; the official scorers make mistakes, but unlike umpires' mistakes these may be corrected after the event. Some cricket statisticians who keep score unofficially for the printed and broadcast media have become quite famous, for instance Bill Frindall, who scored for the BBC radio commentary team from 1966 to 2008, Jo King; the ECB's Association of Cricket Officials provides training for scorers. There computerised; the manual method uses a pen. The scorecard is colloquially known as The Book.
Using the book, the scorer fills out two main sections per ball, the bowling analysis and the batting analysis. Each section helps track the number of balls bowled in an over, any extras and any wickets. At the end of each over, the scorer may fill in an over analysis with the score at the end of the over, the number of wickets that have fallen, any penalties incurred and the number of the bowler in the analysis. Most software used for cricket scoring uses a form at the front end with buttons for the scorer to press to record ball by ball events. Additional functions include being able to draw a line denoting where the ball went from the batting crease and where the ball pitched; this gives additional charts tracking bowling placement and shot selection which can be used at the coaching level. This additional information, does not form part of the critical role of a scorer, to keep track of the score of the game, it has been known for scorers to use both methods in conjunction with one another, in case the computer goes down or runs out of battery.
In addition to PC software, mobile apps are being used. Most of the amateur tournaments use mobile apps on their smartphones because they are more convenient and free, which makes it perfect fit for amateur cricketers since they cannot afford to spend money on standalone and custom software. There are several cricket scoring apps such as Total Cricket Scorer, a comprehensive program favoured by all but one of the scorers in the County Championship in England, CricHQ, CricScores, CricClubs, Chauka etc.. TCS was bought out by CricHQ in late 2015. Mobile apps allow amateur cricketers to keep their scores online, provide them with personalised statistics and graphs on their own mobile devices; the ECB make free software available for cricket scoring both on PC and mobile devices from the PlayCricket website. The score of a cricket team whose innings is in progress is given as the number of runs they have scored "for" the number of wickets their opponents have taken. For example, a team that has scored 100 runs and lost three wickets has a score of "one hundred for three", written 100–3.
The Hambledon Club was a social club, famous for its organisation of 18th century cricket matches. By the late 1770s it was the foremost cricket club in England; the origin of the club, based near Hambledon in rural Hampshire, is unclear but it had been founded by 1768. Its basis was a local parish cricket team, in existence before 1750 and achieved prominence in 1756 when it played a series of three matches versus Dartford, which had itself been a major club for at least 30 years. At this time, the parish team was sometimes referred to as "Squire Land's Club", after Squire Thomas Land, the main organiser of cricket teams in the village before the foundation of the club proper. Thomas Land seems to have withdrawn from the scene in about 1764, it is believed. Land was interested in hunting and maintained a pack of hounds that earned him recognition as "one of the most celebrated fox-hunters in Great-Britain". Land is mentioned in the Hambledon Club Song written by Reverend Reynell Cotton in about 1771.
Cotton was not too concerned about Land having left the club: Then why should we fear either Sackville or Mann, Or repine at the loss of both Bayton and Land? From the mid-1760s, Hambledon's stature grew till by the late 1770s it was the foremost cricket club in England. In spite of its relative remoteness, it had developed into a private club of noblemen and country gentry, for whom one of cricket's attractions was the opportunity it offered for betting. Although some of these played in matches, professional players were employed; the club produced several famous players including John Small, Thomas Brett, Richard Nyren, David Harris, Tom Taylor, Billy Beldham and Tom Walker. It was the inspiration for the first significant cricket book: The Cricketers of My Time by John Nyren, the son of Richard Nyren; the Hambledon Club was social and, as it was multi-functional, not a cricket club as such. Rather it is seen as an organiser of matches. Arguments have taken place among historians about whether its teams should be termed Hampshire or Hambledon.
A study of the sources indicates that the nomenclature changed and both terms were applicable. The subject is complicated by a reference to the Kent versus Hampshire & Sussex match at Guildford Bason on 26 and 28 August 1772. According to the source, "Hampshire & Sussex" was synonymous with "Hambledon Club". Sussex cricket was not prominent during the Hambledon period and this could have been because Hambledon operated a team representing two counties. There were Sussex connections at Hambledon such as John Bayton, Richard Nyren, William Barber and Noah Mann. In 1782 the club moved from its original ground at Broadhalfpenny Down to Windmill Down, about half a mile away towards the village of Hambledon; the Bat and Ball Inn had been requisitioned as a munitions dump by the military, Windmill Down provided as an alternative. However, after a couple of seasons playing on the steep sloping and exposed new ground the club agitated for a move to a more suitable location and Ridge Meadow was purchased as a permanent replacement.
Ridge Meadow is still the home of Hambledon C. C. today. Hambledon's great days ended in the 1780s with a shift in focus from the rural counties of Kent and Hampshire to metropolitan London where Lord's was established as the home of the new Marylebone Cricket Club in 1787; however for the decade up to 1793, Hambledon remained a meeting place for like-minded Royal Navy Officers such as Captains Erasmus Gower, Robert Calder, Charles Powell Hamilton, Mark Robinson, Sir Hyde Parker and Robert Linzee. In May 1791 Lord Hugh Seymour became president of the Club but soon afterwards these officers all returned to sea. Membership declined during the 1790s. On 29 August 1796, fifteen people attended a meeting and amongst them, according to the official minutes, was "Mr Thos Pain, Authour of the rights of Man"! It was a joke for Thomas Paine was under sentence of death for treason and exiled in revolutionary Paris; the last meeting was held on 21 September 1796 where the minutes read only that "No Gentlemen were present".
The club had a famous round of six toasts: 6. The Queen's mother 5, her Majesty the Queen 4. The Hambledon Club 3. Cricket 2; the Immortal Memory of Madge 1. The President; the enigmatic "Madge" is a "what", not a "who". Indeed, it is believed to be a common, but crude, contemporary reference to the vagina. A description of the revival and, the whole history of the Hambledon Club can be read in The Glory Days of Cricket by Ashley Mote; the original ground is at Broadhalfpenny Down, opposite the Bat and Ball Inn, in Hyden Farm Lane, near Clanfield, where now the Broadhalfpenny Brigands Cricket Club play. The current Hambledon Cricket Club ground is nearer Hambledon village at Ridge Meadow, just off the road to Broadhalfpenny Down, about half a mile from the village. On Saturday 8 September 2007 the clubhouse was burnt to the ground. Mote, Ashley; the Glory Days of Cricket. Robson. Nyren, John. Ashley Mote, ed; the Cricketers of my Time. Robson
An all-rounder is a cricketer who performs well at both batting and bowling. Although all bowlers must bat and quite a few batsmen do bowl most players are skilled in only one of the two disciplines and are considered specialists; some wicket-keepers have the skills of a specialist batsman and have been referred to as all-rounders, but the term wicketkeeper-batsman is more applied to them if they are substitute wicketkeepers who bowl. There is no precise qualification for a player to be considered an all-rounder and use of the term tends to be subjective; the accepted criterion is that a "genuine all-rounder" is someone whose batting or bowling skills, considered alone, would be good enough to win him/her a place in the team. Another definition of a "genuine all-rounder" is a player who can through both batting and bowling "win matches for the team". By either definition, a genuine all-rounder is quite rare and valuable to a team operating as two players. Confusion sometimes arises. For example, West Indies pace bowler Malcolm Marshall achieved ten scores of 50 or above in 107 Test innings between 1978 and 1991, but had a batting average of less than 19.
He would be termed a "useful lower-order batsman", or indeed "a bowler who bats a bit". A specialist batsman/woman may be termed a "useful change bowler" and a good example of this is Australian Allan Border, who in a Test match against the West Indies in Sydney in January 1989 took 11 wickets for 96 runs as the conditions suited his used left-arm spin. One of the main constraints to becoming a recognised all-rounder is that batsmen/women and bowlers "peak" at different ages. Batsmen/women tend to reach their peak in their late twenties after their technique has matured through experience. Conversely, fast bowlers peak in their early to mid twenties at the height of their physical prowess. Other bowlers spinners but fast bowlers who can "swing" the ball, are most effective in their careers. In 2013, Ali Bacher used statistical analysis to argue that there had only been 42 genuine all-rounders in the history of Test cricket, he rated Garry Sobers as the best, followed by Jacques Kallis. One used statistical rule of thumb is that a player's batting average should be greater than his/her bowling average.
In Test cricket, only three players have batting averages that are 20 greater than their bowling average over their entire careers (with: Garfield Sobers, Jacques Kallis and Wally Hammond. However, some other players have achieved such a differential over significant parts of their careers, such as Imran Khan. Doug Walters achieved the 20-run average differential with a batting average of 48.26 and a bowling average of 29.08, however he was regarded as an occasional bowler who could break partnerships rather than a genuine all-rounder. In overall first-class cricket, there are several players with higher batting averages. Statistically, few can challenge Frank Woolley who had a batting average of 40.77 and a bowling average of 19.87. Woolley took over 2000 wickets in his career, scored more runs than anyone except Jack Hobbs and is the only non-wicketkeeper to have taken more than 1000 catches. Many all-rounders are better at bowling than vice versa. Few are good at both and hardly any have been outstanding at both.
Thus the terms "bowling all-rounder" and "batting all-rounder" have come into use. For example, Richard Hadlee had an excellent bowling average of 22.29 in Tests and a solid batting average of 27.16, leading him to be termed a "bowling all-rounder". Meanwhile, a player like Jacques Kallis is known as a "batting all-rounder". Batting all-rounders may not bowl much due to injury concerns, or their batting skills are far better than their bowling to begin with to the point they revert to being known as a batsman. V. E. Walker of Middlesex, playing for All-England versus Surrey at The Oval on 21, 22 & 23 July 1859, took all ten wickets in the Surrey first innings and followed this by scoring 108 in the England second innings, having been the not out batsman in the first, he took a further four wickets in Surrey's second innings. All-England won by 392 runs. On 15 August 1862, E. M. Grace carried his bat through the entire MCC innings, scoring 192 not out of a total of 344. Bowling underarm, he took all 10 wickets in the Kent first innings for 69 runs.
However, this is not an official record. The first player to perform the double of 1000 runs and 100 wickets in an English season was W. G. Grace in 1873, he scored 2139 runs at 71.30 and took 106 wickets at 12.94. Grace completed eight doubles to 1886 and it was not until 1882 that another player accomplished the feat. In the 1906 English cricket season, George Herbert Hirst achieved the unique feat of scoring over 2000 runs and taking over 200 wickets, he scored 2385 runs including six centuries at 45.86 with a highest score of 169. He took 208 wickets at 16.50 with a best analysis of 7/18