New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
Charles Joseph Crist Jr. is an American attorney and politician serving as the U. S. Representative from Florida's 13th congressional district since 2017, he served as the 44th Governor of Florida, from 2007 to 2011. Crist began his political career as a Republican, serving in the Florida Senate from 1993 to 1999, running unsuccessfully for the U. S. Senate in 1998 when he challenged incumbent Bob Graham and serving as Florida Education Commissioner from 2001 to 2003 and Florida Attorney General from 2003 to 2007, before being elected governor in 2006. Crist decided not to run for re-election as governor in 2010, instead announcing on May 12, 2009 that he was running for the U. S. Senate seat being vacated by Republican Senator Mel Martinez. After leading in the race for the Republican nomination, he was overtaken in the polls by Marco Rubio, in April 2010, Crist left the Republican Party and ran as an Independent. In the general election, he lost to Rubio in a three-way race, taking 30% of the vote to Rubio's 49% and Democratic nominee Kendrick Meek's 20%.
Crist's term as Florida Governor ended in January 2011. On December 7, 2012, he joined the Democratic Party, having endorsed President Barack Obama for re-election in 2012. On November 1, 2013, he announced. However, he was defeated by incumbent Governor Rick Scott, his own successor, losing by a 1% margin. In 2016 Crist was elected to the United States House of Representatives from Florida's 13th congressional district, defeating incumbent David Jolly by a margin of 52%-48%. Crist was born in Altoona, Pennsylvania, on July 24, 1956, to Charles Joseph Crist, Sr. an American physician of Greek Cypriot and Lebanese descent, Nancy, of Scots-Irish and Welsh descent. His family name is adapted from the original Greek name "Christodoulou."In his childhood, Crist moved to St. Petersburg, where he attended Riviera Middle School, Shorecrest Preparatory School, St. Petersburg High School, from which he graduated in 1974, he is the second of four children and has three sisters: Margaret Crist Wood, Elizabeth Crist Hyden, Catherine Crist Kennedy.
He attended Wake Forest University for two years. Crist earned his undergraduate degree from Florida State University, where he was elected vice president of the student body and became a member of the Pi Kappa Alpha fraternity, he received his J. D. from Samford University Cumberland School of Law. After graduating from the Cumberland School of Law in 1981, having passed the bar on his third attempt, Crist was hired as general counsel to Minor League Baseball, headquartered in St. Petersburg. Drawn to politics, Crist was a candidate for public office for the first time in 1986, as a Republican, in the primary race for a state Senate seat in Pinellas County. After losing in a runoff, Crist joined his brother-in-law in private practice in St. Petersburg, but soon returned to politics as an aide in the successful 1988 United States Senate campaign of Connie Mack III, whom he has since described as his political mentor. Crist was elected to a two-year term to the Florida Senate in 1992 from the 20th District, which encompassed parts of St. Petersburg and south Tampa.
Crist defeated longtime incumbent Democratic State Senator Helen Gordon Davis of Tampa, 58.3 to 41.7%. Crist was able to unseat Gordon Davis following the 1992 decennial redistricting process, which reconfigured the districts in the Tampa Bay area, his victory was credited with helping to end the 128-year control of the Florida Senate by the Democratic Party, as the Republicans netted three Senate seats in 1992, resulting in a 20-20 tie between the two parties. He was known as a law-and-order senator, sponsoring legislation requiring inmates to serve at least 85% of their sentences before becoming eligible for parole, he supported teacher salary increases, charter schools, a specialty license plate for Everglades conservation. With Crist as chairman, the Senate Ethics and Elections Committee investigated actions of then-governor Lawton Chiles amid allegations that Chiles's campaign had made "scare calls" to senior citizens days before the 1994 gubernatorial election. Chiles admitted that his campaign had made the calls.
Crist was reelected to the Senate in 1994 to a four-year term, defeating Democrat Dana Lynn Maley with 63.3% of the vote. Crist gained recognition in 1998 as the Republican challenger to the incumbent Democratic U. S. Senator Bob Graham, he lost to Graham by 26 percentage points. He was elected Education Commissioner of Florida in 2000 – a position he held until it became an appointive office in 2003, as the result of a 1998 constitutional amendment. Crist left his position. In 2002 Crist was elected as the Attorney General in Florida, his candidacy was supported by the host of John Walsh. Walsh and other supporters cited his work with the Center for Exploited Children. Crist was praised by civil rights and consumer groups for expanding the powers of the Attorney General during his time in office; these powers enabled him and future Attorneys General to have greater powers when prosecuting in civil rights and fraud cases. He worked at combating spam e-mail and froze utility rates, he sought to protect the environment.
Having won the 2006 election, Crist was inaugurated as Governor of Florida on January 2, 2007. He was involved in the state's purchase of sugar plantations, he worked on education, with Florida rising into the top 10 states for K12 education under his control. Crist supported President Barack Obama's American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, a stimulus package in response to the Great Re
Mount Sinai Beth Israel
Mount Sinai Beth Israel is a 799-bed teaching hospital in New York City. It is part of the Mount Sinai Health System, a nonprofit health system formed in September 2013 by the merger of Continuum Health Partners and Mount Sinai Medical Center, an academic affiliate of the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. Beth Israel is Hebrew for "House of Israel." The hospital was incorporated at Beth Israel Hospital on May 28, 1890 by a group of 40 Orthodox Jews on the Lower East Side of Manhattan, each of whom paid 25 cents to set up a hospital dedicated to serving immigrant Jews living in the tenement slums of the Lower East Side of Manhattan. At the time, most of New York's hospitals would not treat patients, in the city less than a year, it opened a dispensary at 206 Broadway in 1891, moved to Jefferson and Cherry Streets in 1895. On March 12, 1929, it moved to First Avenue and 16th Street, facing Stuyvesant Square, the old building was converted into a old age home, the Home of Old Israel, it purchased its neighbor Manhattan General Hospital in 1964 and was renamed Beth Israel Medical Center on March 10, 1965..
By it had extended beyond its Jewish base and served the entire population of Lower Manhattan including Manhattan's Lower East Side, Gramercy, the West Village, Chelsea. In 1988 it had the largest network of heroin-treatment clinics in the United States with 7,500 patients and 23 facilities, it acquired Doctors Hospital on the Upper East Side in the 1990s, renaming it Beth Israel Medical Center-Singer Division, Kings Highway Hospital Center in Brooklyn in 1995, renaming it Beth Israel Medical Center-Kings Highway Division. In 2004, the Singer Division closed and the Manhattan inpatient operations were consolidated in the buildings on First Avenue at 16th Street in Manhattan; as of 2010 Mount Sinai Beth Israel had residency training programs in nearly every major field of medicine including Emergency Medicine, Internal Medicine, Otolaryngology and maxillofacial surgery, Family Medicine, Dermatology and Gynecology, Ophthalmology, Psychiatry and Urology. Mount Sinai Beth Israel has a department of Chiropractic, Music Therapy, Acupuncture.
On November 22, 2013 the name of Beth Israel Medical Center was changed to Mount Sinai Beth Israel as a part of the merger with Mount Sinai to form the Mount Sinai Health System. On May 25, 2016, Mount Sinai announced a significant restructuring and downsizing, with plans to build a new hospital with only 70 inpatient beds on a site several blocks away; this is expected to take over four years, after which the main hospital on 16th Street will be closed and that site will be sold. On June 11, 2017, the hospital's Labor and Delivery Department closed; the hospital's "Continuum Center for Health and Healing" closed in 2017. Official website Phillips School of Nursing
Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects. Medically they are used for pain relief, including anesthesia. Other medical uses include suppression of diarrhea, replacement therapy for opioid use disorder, reversing opioid overdose, suppressing cough, suppressing opioid induced constipation, as well as for executions in the United States. Potent opioids such as carfentanil are only approved for veterinary use. Opioids are frequently used non-medically for their euphoric effects or to prevent withdrawal. Side effects of opioids may include itchiness, nausea, respiratory depression and euphoria. Tolerance and dependence will develop with continuous use, requiring increasing doses and leading to a withdrawal syndrome upon abrupt discontinuation; the euphoria attracts recreational use and frequent, escalating recreational use of opioids results in addiction. An overdose or concurrent use with other depressant drugs results in death from respiratory depression.
Opioids act by binding to opioid receptors, which are found principally in the central and peripheral nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract. These receptors mediate the somatic effects of opioids. Opioid drugs include partial agonists, like the anti-diarrhea drug loperamide and antagonists like naloxegol for opioid-induced constipation, which do not cross the blood-brain barrier, but can displace other opioids from binding to those receptors; because opioids are addictive and may result in fatal overdose, most are controlled substances. In 2013, between 28 and 38 million people used opioids illicitly. In 2011, an estimated 4 million people in the United States used opioids recreationally or were dependent on them; as of 2015, increased rates of recreational use and addiction are attributed to over-prescription of opioid medications and inexpensive illicit heroin. Conversely, fears about over-prescribing, exaggerated side effects and addiction from opioids are blamed for under-treatment of pain.
Opioids include opiates, an older term that refers to such drugs derived from opium, including morphine itself. Other opioids are semi-synthetic and synthetic drugs such as hydrocodone and fentanyl; the terms opiate and narcotic are sometimes encountered as synonyms for opioid. Opiate is properly limited to the natural alkaloids found in the resin of the opium poppy although some include semi-synthetic derivatives. Narcotic, derived from words meaning'numbness' or'sleep', as an American legal term, refers to cocaine and opioids, their source materials. In some jurisdictions all controlled drugs are classified as narcotics; the term can have pejorative connotations and its use is discouraged where, the case. The weak opioid codeine, in low doses and combined with one or more other drugs, is available without a prescription and can be used to treat mild pain. Other opioids are reserved for the relief of moderate to severe pain. Opioids are effective for the treatment of acute pain. For immediate relief of moderate to severe acute pain opioids are the treatment of choice due to their rapid onset and reduced risk of dependence.
However a new report showed a clear risk of prolonged opioid use when opioid analgesics are initiated for an acute pain management following surgery or trauma. They have been found to be important in palliative care to help with the severe, disabling pain that may occur in some terminal conditions such as cancer, degenerative conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis. In many cases opioids are a successful long-term care strategy for those with chronic cancer pain. Guidelines have suggested that the risk of opioids is greater than their benefits when used for most non-cancer chronic conditions including headaches, back pain, fibromyalgia, thus they should be used cautiously in chronic non-cancer pain. If used the benefits and harms should be reassessed at least every three months. In treating chronic pain, opioids are an option to be tried after other less risky pain relievers have been considered, including paracetamol/acetaminophen or NSAIDs like ibuprofen or naproxen; some types of chronic pain, including the pain caused by fibromyalgia or migraine, are preferentially treated with drugs other than opioids.
The efficacy of using opioids to lessen chronic neuropathic pain is uncertain. Opioids are contraindicated as a first-line treatment for headache because they impair alertness, bring risk of dependence, increase the risk that episodic headaches will become chronic. Opioids can cause heightened sensitivity to headache pain; when other treatments fail or are unavailable, opioids may be appropriate for treating headache if the patient can be monitored to prevent the development of chronic headache. Opioids are being used more in the management of non-malignant chronic pain; this practice has now led to a new and growing problem with misuse of opioids. Because of various negative effects the use of opioids for long term management of chronic pain is not indicated unless other less risky pain relievers have been found ineffective. Chronic pain which occurs only periodically, such as that from nerve pain and fibromyalgia is better treated with medications other than opioids. Paracetamol and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs including ibuprofen and naproxen are considered safer alternatives.
They are used combined with opioids, such as paracetamol co
60 Minutes is an American news magazine and television program, broadcast on the CBS television network. Debuting in 1968, the program was created by Don Hewitt, who chose to set it apart from other news programs by using a unique style of reporter-centered investigation. In 2002, 60 Minutes was ranked at No. 6 on TV Guide's 50 Greatest TV Shows of All Time and in 2013, it was ranked #24 on TV Guide's 60 Best Series of All Time. The New York Times has called it "one of the most esteemed news magazines on American television". Season 50 debuted on September 24, 2017, it has been renewed for a record 51st. The program employed a magazine format, similar to that of the Canadian program W5, which had premiered two years earlier, it pioneered many of the most important investigative journalism procedures and techniques, including re-editing interviews, hidden cameras, "gotcha journalism" visits to the home or office of an investigative subject. Similar programs sprang up in Australia and Canada during the 1970s, as well as on local television news.
60 Minutes aired as a bi-weekly show hosted by Harry Reasoner and Mike Wallace, debuting on September 24, 1968, alternating weeks with other CBS News productions on Tuesday evenings at 10:00 p.m. Eastern Time; the first edition, described by Reasoner in the opening as a "kind of a magazine for television," featured the following segments: A look inside the headquarters suites of presidential candidates Richard Nixon and Hubert Humphrey during their respective parties' national conventions that summer. Wallace said that the show aimed to "reflect reality"; the first "magazine-cover" chroma key was a photo of two helmeted policemen. Wallace and Reasoner sat in chairs on opposite sides of the set; the logo was in Helvetica type with the word "Minutes" spelled in all lower-case letters. Further, to extend the magazine motif, the producers added a "Vol. xx, No. xx" to the title display on the chroma key. The trademark stopwatch, did not appear on the inaugural broadcast. Alpo dog food was the sole sponsor of the first program.
Don Hewitt, a producer of the CBS Evening News with Walter Cronkite, sought out Wallace as a stylistic contrast to Reasoner. According to one historian of the show, the idea of the format was to make the hosts the reporters, to always feature stories that were of national importance but focused upon individuals involved with, or in conflict with, those issues, to limit the reports' airtime to around 13 minutes. However, the initial season was troubled by lack of network confidence, as the program did not garner ratings much higher than that of other CBS News documentaries; as a rule, during that era, news programming during prime time lost money. 60 Minutes struggled under that stigma during its first three years. Changes to 60 Minutes came early in the program's history; when Reasoner left CBS to co-anchor ABC's evening newscast, Morley Safer joined the team in 1970, he took over Reasoner's duties of reporting less aggressive stories. However, when Richard Nixon began targeting press access and reporting Safer the CBS News bureau chief in Saigon and London, began to do "hard" investigative reports, during the 1970–71 season alone 60 Minutes reported on cluster bombs, the South Vietnamese Army, draft dodgers, the Middle East, Northern Ireland.
By 1971, the Federal Communications Commission introduced the Prime Time Access Rule, which freed local network affiliates in the top 50 markets to take a half-hour of prime time from the networks on Mondays through Saturdays and one full hour on Sundays. Because nearly all affiliates found production costs for the FCC's intended goal of increased public affairs programming high and the ratings low, making it unprofitable, the FCC created an exception for network-authored news and public affairs shows. After a six-month hiatus in late 1971, CBS found a prime place for 60 Minutes in a portion of that displaced time, 6:00 p.m. to 7:00 p.m. on Sundays in January 1972. This proved somewhat less than satisfactory, because in order to accommodate CBS' telecasts of late afternoon National Football League football games, 60 Minutes went on hiatus during the fall from 1972 to 1975; this took place because football telecasts were protected contractually from interruptions in the wake of the infamous "Heidi Bowl" inciden
Florida is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States. The state is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the northwest by Alabama, to the north by Georgia, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by the Straits of Florida. Florida is the 22nd-most extensive, the 3rd-most populous, the 8th-most densely populated of the U. S. states. Jacksonville is the most populous municipality in the state and the largest city by area in the contiguous United States; the Miami metropolitan area is Florida's most populous urban area. Tallahassee is the state's capital. Florida's $1.0 trillion economy is the fourth largest in the United States. If it were a country, Florida would be the 16th largest economy in the world, the 58th most populous as of 2018. In 2017, Florida's per capita personal income was ranking 26th in the nation; the unemployment rate in September 2018 was 3.5% and ranked as the 18th in the United States. Florida exports nearly $55 billion in goods made in the 8th highest among all states.
The Miami Metropolitan Area is by far the largest urban economy in Florida and the 12th largest in the United States with a GDP of $344.9 billion as of 2017. This is more than twice the number of the next metro area, the Tampa Bay Area, which has a GDP of $145.3 billion. Florida is home to 51 of the world's billionaires with most of them residing in South Florida; the first European contact was made in 1513 by Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de León, who called it la Florida upon landing there in the Easter season, known in Spanish as Pascua Florida. Florida was a challenge for the European colonial powers before it gained statehood in the United States in 1845, it was a principal location of the Seminole Wars against the Native Americans, racial segregation after the American Civil War. Today, Florida is distinctive for its large Cuban expatriate community and high population growth, as well as for its increasing environmental issues; the state's economy relies on tourism and transportation, which developed in the late 19th century.
Florida is renowned for amusement parks, orange crops, winter vegetables, the Kennedy Space Center, as a popular destination for retirees. Florida is the flattest state in the United States. Lake Okeechobee is the largest freshwater lake in the U. S. state of Florida. Florida's close proximity to the ocean influences many aspects of daily life. Florida is a reflection of multiple inheritance. Florida has attracted many writers such as Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, Ernest Hemingway and Tennessee Williams, continues to attract celebrities and athletes, it is internationally known for golf, auto racing, water sports. Several beaches in Florida have emerald-colored coastal waters. About two-thirds of Florida occupies a peninsula between the Gulf of the Atlantic Ocean. Florida has the longest coastline in the contiguous United States 1,350 miles, not including the contribution of the many barrier islands. Florida has a total of 4,510 islands; this is the second-highest number of islands of any state of the United States.
It is the only state that borders both the Gulf of the Atlantic Ocean. Much of the state is characterized by sedimentary soil. Florida has the lowest high point of any U. S. state. The climate varies from subtropical in the north to tropical in the south; the American alligator, American crocodile, American flamingo, Roseate spoonbill, Florida panther, bottlenose dolphin, manatee can be found in Everglades National Park in the southern part of the state. Along with Hawaii, Florida is one of only two states that has a tropical climate, is the only continental state with either a tropical climate or a coral reef; the Florida Reef is the only living coral barrier reef in the continental United States, the third-largest coral barrier reef system in the world. By the 16th century, the earliest time for which there is a historical record, major Native American groups included the Apalachee of the Florida Panhandle, the Timucua of northern and central Florida, the Ais of the central Atlantic coast, the Tocobaga of the Tampa Bay area, the Calusa of southwest Florida and the Tequesta of the southeastern coast.
Florida was the first region of the continental United States to be visited and settled by Europeans. The earliest known European explorers came with the Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León. Ponce de León spotted and landed on the peninsula on April 2, 1513, he named the region Florida. The story that he was searching for the Fountain of Youth is mythical and only appeared long after his death. In May 1539, Conquistador Hernando de Soto skirted the coast of Florida, searching for a deep harbor to land, he described seeing a thick wall of red mangroves spread mile after mile, some reaching as high as 70 feet, with intertwined and elevated roots making landing difficult. The Spanish introduced Christianity, horses, the Castilian language, more to Florida. Spain established several settlements with varying degrees of success. In 1559, Don Tristán de Luna y Arellano established a settlement at present-day Pensacola, making it the first attempted settlement in Florida, but it was abandoned by 1561.
In 1565, the settlement of St. Augustine was established under the leadership of admiral and