Social justice is a concept of fair and just relations between the individual and society. This is measured by the explicit and tacit terms for the distribution of wealth, opportunities for personal activity, social privileges. In Western as well as in older Asian cultures, the concept of social justice has referred to the process of ensuring that individuals fulfill their societal roles and receive what was their due from society. In the current global grassroots movements for social justice, the emphasis has been on the breaking of barriers for social mobility, the creation of safety nets and economic justice. Social justice assigns rights and duties in the institutions of society, which enables people to receive the basic benefits and burdens of cooperation; the relevant institutions include taxation, social insurance, public health, public school, public services, labor law and regulation of markets, to ensure fair distribution of wealth, equal opportunity. Interpretations that relate justice to a reciprocal relationship to society are mediated by differences in cultural traditions, some of which emphasize the individual responsibility toward society and others the equilibrium between access to power and its responsible use.
Hence, social justice is invoked today while reinterpreting historical figures such as Bartolomé de las Casas, in philosophical debates about differences among human beings, in efforts for gender and social equality, for advocating justice for migrants, the environment, the physically and developmentally disabled. While the concept of social justice can be traced through the theology of Augustine of Hippo and the philosophy of Thomas Paine, the term "social justice" became used explicitly in the 1780s. A Jesuit priest named Luigi Taparelli is credited with coining the term, it spread during the revolutions of 1848 with the work of Antonio Rosmini-Serbati. However, recent research has proved; the term appears in The Federalist Papers, No. 7: "We have observed the disposition to retaliation excited in Connecticut in consequence of the enormities perpetrated by the Legislature of Rhode Island. In the late industrial revolution, progressive American legal scholars began to use the term more Louis Brandeis and Roscoe Pound.
From the early 20th century it was embedded in international law and institutions. In the 20th century, social justice was made central to the philosophy of the social contract by John Rawls in A Theory of Justice. In 1993, the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action treats social justice as a purpose of human rights education; some authors such as Friedrich Hayek criticize the concept of social justice, arguing the lack of objective, accepted moral standard. The different concepts of justice, as discussed in ancient Western philosophy, were centered upon the community. Plato wrote in The Republic that it would be an ideal state that "every member of the community must be assigned to the class for which he finds himself best fitted." In an article for J. N. V University, author D. R. Bhandari says, "Justice is, for Plato, at once a part of human virtue and the bond, which joins man together in society, it is the identical quality that makes social. Justice is an order and duty of the parts of the soul, it is to the soul.
Plato says that justice is not mere strength. Justice is not the right of the stronger but the effective harmony of the whole. All moral conceptions revolve about the good of the whole-individual as well as social". Plato believed rights existed only between free people, the law should take "account in the first instance of relations of inequality in which individuals are treated in proportion to their worth and only secondarily of relations of equality." Reflecting this time when slavery and subjugation of women was typical, ancient views of justice tended to reflect the rigid class systems that still prevailed. On the other hand, for the privileged groups, strong concepts of fairness and the community existed. Distributive justice was said by Aristotle to require that people were distributed goods and assets according to their merit. Socrates is attributed with developing the idea of a social contract, whereby people ought to follow the rules of a society, accept its burdens because they have accepted its benefits.
During the Middle Ages, religious scholars such as Thomas Aquinas continued discussion of justice in various ways, but connected being a good citizen to the purpose of serving God. After the Renaissance and Reformation, the modern concept of social justice, as developing human potential, began to emerge through the work of a series of authors. Baruch Spinoza in On the Improvement of the Understanding contended that the one true aim of life should be to acquire "a human character much more stable than own", to achieve this "pitch of perfection... The chief good is that he should arrive, together with other individuals if possible, at the possessio
Royal Library of the Netherlands
The Royal Library of the Netherlands is based in The Hague and was founded in 1798. The mission of the Royal Library of the Netherlands, as presented on the library's web site, is to provide "access to the knowledge and culture of the past and the present by providing high-quality services for research and cultural experience"; the initiative to found a national library was proposed by representative Albert Jan Verbeek on August 17 1798. The collection would be based on the confiscated book collection of William V; the library was founded as the Nationale Bibliotheek on November 8 of the same year, after a committee of representatives had advised the creation of a national library on the same day. The National Library was only open to members of the Representative Body. King Louis Bonaparte gave the national library its name of the Royal Library in 1806. Napoleon Bonaparte transferred the Royal Library to The Hague as property, while allowing the Imperial Library in Paris to expropriate publications from the Royal Library.
In 1815 King William I of the Netherlands confirmed the name of'Royal Library' by royal resolution. It has been known as the National Library of the Netherlands since 1982, when it opened new quarters; the institution became independent of the state in 1996, although it is financed by the Department of Education and Science. In 2004, the National Library of the Netherlands contained 3,300,000 items, equivalent to 67 kilometers of bookshelves. Most items in the collection are books. There are pieces of "grey literature", where the author, publisher, or date may not be apparent but the document has cultural or intellectual significance; the collection contains the entire literature of the Netherlands, from medieval manuscripts to modern scientific publications. For a publication to be accepted, it must be from a registered Dutch publisher; the collection is accessible for members. Any person aged 16 years or older can become a member. One day passes are available. Requests for material take 30 minutes.
The KB hosts several open access websites, including the "Memory of the Netherlands". List of libraries in the Netherlands European Library Nederlandse Centrale Catalogus Books in the Netherlands Media related to Koninklijke Bibliotheek at Wikimedia Commons Official website
August William Derleth was an American writer and anthologist. Though best remembered as the first book publisher of the writings of H. P. Lovecraft, for his own contributions to the Cthulhu Mythos and the Cosmic Horror genre, as well as his founding of the publisher Arkham House, Derleth was a leading American regional writer of his day, as well as prolific in several other genres, including historical fiction, detective fiction, science fiction, biography. A 1938 Guggenheim Fellow, Derleth considered his most serious work to be the ambitious Sac Prairie Saga, a series of fiction, historical fiction and non-fiction naturalist works designed to memorialize life in the Wisconsin he knew. Derleth can be considered a pioneering naturalist and conservationist in his writing; the son of William Julius Derleth and Rose Louise Volk, Derleth grew up in Wisconsin. He was educated in local parochial and public high school. Derleth wrote his first fiction at age 13, he was interested most in reading, he made three trips to the library a week.
He would save his money to buy books. Some of his biggest influences were Ralph Waldo Emerson's essays, Walt Whitman, H. L. Mencken's The American Mercury, Samuel Johnson's The History of Rasselas, Prince of Abissinia, Alexandre Dumas, Edgar Allan Poe, Walter Scott, Henry David Thoreau's Walden. Forty rejected stories and three years according to anthologist Jim Stephens, he sold his first story, "Bat's Belfry", to Weird Tales magazine. Derleth wrote throughout his four years at the University of Wisconsin, where he received a B. A. in 1930. During this time he served as associate editor of Minneapolis-based Fawcett Publications Mystic Magazine. Returning to Sauk City in the summer of 1931, Derleth worked in a local canning factory and collaborated with childhood friend Mark Schorer, they rented a cabin, writing Gothic and other horror stories and selling them to Weird Tales magazine. Derleth won a place on the O'Brien Roll of Honor for Five Alone, published in Place of Hawks, but was first found in Pagany magazine.
As a result of his early work on the Sac Prairie Saga, Derleth was awarded the prestigious Guggenheim Fellowship. White, Nobel Prize-winning novelist Sinclair Lewis and poet Edgar Lee Masters of Spoon River Anthology fame. In the mid-1930s, Derleth organized a Ranger's Club for young people, served as clerk and president of the local school board, served as a parole officer, organized a local men's club and a parent-teacher association, he lectured in American regional literature at the University of Wisconsin and was a contributing editor of Outdoors Magazine. With longtime friend Donald Wandrei, Derleth in 1939 founded Arkham House, its initial objective was to publish the works of H. P. Lovecraft, with whom Derleth had corresponded since his teenage years. At the same time, he began teaching a course in American Regional Literature at the University of Wisconsin. In 1941, he became literary editor of The Capital Times newspaper in Madison, a post he held until his resignation in 1960, his hobbies included fencing, chess and comic-strips.
Derleth's true avocation, was hiking the terrain of his native Wisconsin lands, observing and recording nature with an expert eye. Derleth once wrote of his writing methods, "I write swiftly, from 750,000 to a million words yearly little of it pulp material." In 1948, he was elected president of the Associated Fantasy Publishers at the 6th World Science Fiction Convention in Toronto. He was married April 1953, to Sandra Evelyn Winters, they divorced six years later. Derleth retained April Rose and Walden William. April earned a Bachelor of Arts degree in English from the University of Wisconsin-Madison in 1977, she became majority stockholder, CEO of Arkham House in 1994. She remained in that capacity until her death, she was known in the community as humanitarian. April died on March 21, 2011. In 1960, Derleth began editing and publishing a magazine called Hawk and Whippoorwill, dedicated to poems of man and nature. Derleth died of a heart attack on July 4, 1971, is buried in St. Aloysius Cemetery in Sauk City.
The U. S. 12 bridge over the Wisconsin River is named in his honor. Derleth was Roman Catholic. Derleth wrote more than 100 books during his lifetime. Derleth wrote an expansive series of novels, short stories, journals and other works about Sac Prairie. Derleth intended this series to comprise up to 50 novels telling the projected life-story of the region from the 19th century onwards, with analogies to Balzac's Human Comedy and Proust's Remembrance of Things Past. This, other early work by Derleth, made him a well-known figure among the regional literary figures of his time: early Pulitzer Prize winners Hamlin Garland and Zona Gale, as well as Sinclair Lewis, the last both an admirer and critic of Derleth; as Edward Wagenknecht wrote in Cavalcade of the American Novel, "What Mr. Derleth has, lacking...in modern novelists is a country. He belongs, he writes of a people that are bone of his bone and flesh of his flesh. In his fictional world, there is a unity much deeper and more fundam
Madison is the capital of the U. S. state of Wisconsin and the seat of Dane County. As of July 1, 2017, Madison's estimated population of 255,214 made it the second-largest city in Wisconsin by population, after Milwaukee, the 82nd-largest in the United States; the city forms the core of the Madison Metropolitan Area which includes Dane County and neighboring Iowa and Columbia counties for a population of 654,230. Located on an isthmus between Lake Mendota and Lake Monona, the city is home to the University of Wisconsin–Madison, the Wisconsin State Capitol, Henry Vilas Zoo, an extensive network of parks and bike trails. Known for its progressive culture and Democratic politics, Madison has been a location for political activity and demonstrations. Madison is a growing technology economy and the region is home to the headquarters of Epic Systems, American Family Insurance, American Girl, Sub-Zero, Lands' End, a regional office for Google, the University Research Park, as well as many biotech and heath systems startups.
A 2018 report ranked Madison 14th among the top fifteen cities worldwide for venture capital deals per capita. Before Europeans, humans inhabited the area around Madison for about 12,000 years. In 1800, the Madison area was Ho-Chunk Country; the Native Americans called this place Taychopera, meaning "land of the four lakes". Effigy mounds, constructed for ceremonial and burial purposes over 1,000 years earlier, dotted the rich prairies around the lakes. Madison's European origins begin in 1829, when former federal judge James Duane Doty purchased over a thousand acres of swamp and forest land on the isthmus between Lakes Mendota and Monona, with the intention of building a city in the Four Lakes region, he purchased 1,261 acres for $1,500. When the Wisconsin Territory was created in 1836 the territorial legislature convened in Belmont, Wisconsin. One of the legislature's tasks was to select a permanent location for the territory's capital. Doty lobbied aggressively for Madison as the new capital, offering buffalo robes to the freezing legislators and promising choice Madison lots at discount prices to undecided voters.
He had James Slaughter plat two cities in the area, Madison and "The City of Four Lakes", near present-day Middleton. Doty named his city Madison for James Madison, the fourth President of the U. S. who had died on June 28, 1836, he named the streets for the other 39 signers of the U. S. Constitution. Although the city existed only on paper, the territorial legislature voted on November 28, 1836 in favor of Madison as its capital because of its location halfway between the new and growing cities around Milwaukee in the east and the long established strategic post of Prairie du Chien in the west, between the populated lead mining regions in the southwest and Wisconsin's oldest city, Green Bay, in the northeast; the cornerstone for the Wisconsin capitol was laid in 1837, the legislature first met there in 1838. On October 9, 1839, Kintzing Prichett registered the plat of Madison at the registrar's office of the then-territorial Dane County. Madison was incorporated as a village in 1846, with a population of 626.
When Wisconsin became a state in 1848, Madison remained the capital, the following year it became the site of the University of Wisconsin. The Milwaukee & Mississippi Railroad connected to Madison in 1854. Madison incorporated as a city in 1856, with a population of 6,863, leaving the unincorporated remainder as a separate Town of Madison; the original capitol was replaced in 1863 and the second capitol burned in 1904. The current capitol was built between 1906 and 1917. During the Civil War, Madison served as a center of the Union Army in Wisconsin; the intersection of Milwaukee, East Washington and North Streets is known as Union Corners, because a tavern there was the last stop for Union soldiers before heading to fight the Confederates. Camp Randall, on the west side of Madison, was built and used as a training camp, a military hospital, a prison camp for captured Confederate soldiers. After the war ended, the Camp Randall site was absorbed into the University of Wisconsin and Camp Randall Stadium was built there in 1917.
In 2004 the last vestige of active military training on the site was removed when the stadium renovation replaced a firing range used for ROTC training. In the 1960s and 1970s, the Madison counterculture was centered in the neighborhood of Mifflin and Bassett streets, referred to as "Miffland"; the area contained many three-story apartments where students and counterculture youth lived, painted murals, operated the co-operative grocery store, the Mifflin Street Co-op. Residents of the neighborhood came into conflict with authorities during the administration of Republican mayor Bill Dyke. Dyke was viewed by students as a direct antagonist in efforts to protest the Vietnam War because of his efforts to suppress local protests; the annual Mifflin Street Block Party became a focal point for protest, although by the late 1970s it had become a mainstream community party. During the late 1960s and early 1970s, thousands of students and other citizens took part in anti-Vietnam War marches and demonstrations, with more violent incidents drawing national attention to the city and UW campus.
These include: the 1967 student protest with 74 injured.
Delavan is a city in Walworth County, United States. The population was 8,463 at the 2010 census, it is located 45 miles southwest of Milwaukee. The city is located within the Town of Delavan but the two entities are politically independent. Delavan sits in the middle of. During the last Ice Age, the final glaciation, named the Michigan tongue, covered this region; the Michigan tongue descended along the area of Lake Michigan. The "Delavan lobe" of this glacier broke off; the first humans known to inhabit the Delavan area were Native Americans around 1000 BCE. Between 500-1000 CE, Mound Builders lived in what is now the Delavan Lake area. Mound Builders were of the Woodland culture; the effigy mounds they erected along the shores of Delavan Lake numbered well over 200, according to an archeological survey done in the late 19th century by Beloit College. Many were along the north shore of the lake; the Potawotomi Indians settled around the lake in the late 18th century, although there were only an estimated 240 in the county.
Some of their burial mounds are preserved in. From the mid-17th century through the mid-18th century, Delavan was part of "New France", it came under British rule in the Province of Quebec following the French and Indian War. In accordance with the Treaty of Paris, it was turned over to the United States and became part of the newly established Northwest Territory. Between 1800 and 1836, the Delavan area was part of the Indiana Territory, followed by the Illinois Territory becoming part of the Wisconsin Territory in 1836. Statehood was granted to Wisconsin in 1848. Between 1847 and 1894, Delavan was home to 26 circus companies; the Mabie Brothers U. S. Olympic Circus the largest in America, arrived in 1847, to become the first circus to quarter in the territory of Wisconsin, its famous rogue elephant, "Romeo", stood 10 1⁄2 feet high, 10,500 pounds. The original P. T. Barnum Circus was organized here in 1871 by William C. Coup and Dan Costello. Over 130 members of Delavan's 19th century circus colony are buried in Spring Grove and St. Andrew cemeteries.
On July 21, 1948, Delavan was the site of Wisconsin’s Circus Centennial as part of the state's celebration of 100 years of statehood. On May 2, 1966, Delavan was selected by the U. S. Post Office to issue on a first day cover basis, the five-cent American Circus commemorative postage stamp. Delavan is located at 42°39′N 88°38′W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 7.22 square miles, of which 6.76 square miles is land and 0.46 square miles is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 8,463 people, 3,189 households, 2,079 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,251.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 3,500 housing units at an average density of 517.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 81.2% White, 1.7% African American, 0.7% Native American, 1.0% Asian, 12.7% from other races, 2.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 29.4% of the population. There were 3,189 households of which 36.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.9% were married couples living together, 14.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 6.1% had a male householder with no wife present, 34.8% were non-families.
28.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.63 and the average family size was 3.25. The median age in the city was 33.5 years. 28.1% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 49.3% male and 50.7% female. One of the major manufacturing and industrial centers of Walworth County, Delavan is home to over 230 businesses including such companies as Borg Indak, Andes Candies, Waukesha Cherry-Burrell, Ajay Leisure Products and Outboard Marine Corp. City events include the Delavan Train Show in March, Cinco de Mayo in May, Scarecrow Fest in September; the local school district has three elementary schools, Phoenix Middle School and Delavan Darien High School. There are three private schools: St. Andrew's Parish School, Our Redeemer Lutheran School, Delavan Christian School; the Wisconsin School for the Deaf is located in Delavan. Delavan was a stop on the Racine & Southwestern branch line of the Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul and Pacific Railroad, better known as the Milwaukee Road.
In its 1980 bankruptcy, the Milwaukee Road disposed of the Southwestern Line. The Wisconsin and Southern Railroad continues to service Delavan from a connection at Bardwell to the west. City of Delavan Sanborn fire insurance maps: 1885 1892 1895 1904 1910 "Delavan". New International Encyclopedia. 1905
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Wisconsin Historical Society
The Wisconsin Historical Society is a state agency and a private membership organization whose purpose is to maintain and spread knowledge relating to the history of North America, with an emphasis on the state of Wisconsin and the trans-Allegheny West. Founded in 1846 and chartered in 1853, it is the oldest historical society in the United States to receive continuous public funding; the society's headquarters are located in Madison, Wisconsin, on the campus of the University of Wisconsin–Madison. The Wisconsin Historical Society is organized into four divisions: the Division of Library-Archives, the Division of Museums and Historic Sites, the Division of Historic Preservation-Public History, the Division of Administrative Services; the Division of Library-Archives collects and maintains books and documents about the history of Wisconsin, the United States, Canada. The society's library and archives, which together serve as the library of American history for the University of Wisconsin–Madison, contain nearly four million items, making the society's collection the largest in the world dedicated to North American history.
The Wisconsin Historical Society's extensive newspaper collection is the second largest in the United States after the Library of Congress. The society's archives serve as the official repository for state and local government records; the society coordinates an Area Research Center Network, an alliance between the Historical Society in Madison and four-year campuses of the University of Wisconsin System throughout the state, to make most of the archival collections accessible to state residents. The Division of Museums and Historic Sites operates the Wisconsin Historical Museum in downtown Madison and 11 historic sites throughout the state; the museum has an archaeology program in collaboration with the Department of Transportation and the Department of Natural Resources that undertakes research, collects and preserves historical artifacts. The other historic sites are tourist attractions that display historic buildings reflecting Wisconsin history and provide exhibitions and demonstrations of state history, such as ethnic settlement, farming, fur trading and pioneering life.
The Division of Historic Preservation-Public History administers the state's historic preservation program, the state’s burial sites preservation program, the Wisconsin Historical Society Press, which publishes books on Wisconsin and American history and a quarterly magazine, the Wisconsin Magazine of History. The division provides outreach to local historical societies; the Wisconsin Magazine of History is a quarterly journal published by the WHS since September 1917. The society maintains a digitized archive that contains more than 2,000 feature articles totaling more than 30,000 pages; the Division of Administrative Services provides planning for the WHS and its divisions. The society's website include a large, searchable collection of historical images and a vast digital archive containing thousands of scanned documents relating to Wisconsin history. Wisconsin Historical Society employees are employees of the State of Wisconsin. John Givan Davis Mack, professor of engineering and curator of the WHS library Google Books Library Project Buck, Solon J.
"Recent Activities of the Wisconsin Historical Society." Minnesota History Bulletin: 94-108. In JSTOR Schumacher, Ryan. "The Wisconsin Magazine of History: A Case Study in Scholarly and Popular Approaches to American State Historical Society Publishing, 1917–2000." Journal of Scholarly Publishing 44.2: 114-141. Official website Wisconsin Magazine of History archive of scholarly articles Legislators’ Guide to the Wisconsin Historical Society Historical Society in The Buildings of the University of Wisconsin Teachinghistory.org review of WHS website, American Journeys