John Morton (cardinal)
John Morton was an English prelate who served as Archbishop of Canterbury from 1486 until his death and Lord Chancellor of England from 1487. He was elevated to the cardinalate in 1493. Born in Dorset, he was educated at Balliol College, Oxford. After graduating with a BCL in 1448, he practised law in ecclesiastical courts, including the Court of Arches, being appointed rector of Shellingford in 1453, he was made prebendary of Sarum in 1458, rector of St. Dunstan's, archdeacon of Norwich circa 1460, he became a government lawyer with the Lancastrian party and drafted the Bill of Attainder against Richard, Duke of York in 1459. He was captured after the Battle of Towton and attainted, but escaped into exile, joining Queen Margaret in France, where he was Keeper of the Privy Seal to Henry VI in the Lancastrian government in exile and graduated in theology from the University of Louvain in 1469, he returned to England in 1470, but following the failure of the Readeption and the murder of Henry VI, he made his peace with Edward IV.
He received a royal pardon in July 1471, became a Master of Chancery that Michaelmas, Master of the Rolls in the following March. Further church appointments followed, as Archdeacon of Winchester and Dean of the Court of Arches in 1474, canon of Wells from 1475 to 1478, archdeacon of Berkshire in 1476 and archdeacon of Norfolk in 1477, he was appointed Master of the Rolls from 1472 to 1479. In February 1477, he was sent by the Yorkist King Edward IV, together with Sir John Donne, as ambassador to the French court. After serving a short spell in 1478 as Archdeacon of Leicester he was appointed Bishop of Ely by King Edward on 8 August 1478 and he was consecrated on 31 January 1479. Between 1478 and 1483 he had replaced the bishop's palace on the site of Wisbech Castle with one built in brick and Ketton stone, he was responsible for cutting of'Morton's Leam' from Stanground to Guyhirn improving the navigation and drainage of the Fens. Morton was an important foe of the Yorkist regime of King Richard III and spent some time in captivity in Brecknock Castle.
After the dynastic change to the Tudors in 1485, King Henry VII made him Archbishop of Canterbury on 6 October 1486, appointed him Lord Chancellor of England in 1487. In 1493 he was appointed Cardinal priest of the church of St. Anastasia in Rome by Pope Alexander VI. In 1485 he built the residence of Ely's Bishop which will become "Old Palace" of Hatfield Palace, on the ancestral soil of a residence of Ely's Bishops; this manor will be chosen by Henry VIII, to be the nursery of his children, the place where, Queen Elizabeth I spent much of her girlhood. As Lord Chancellor, Morton was tasked with restoring the royal estate, depleted by Edward IV. By the end of Henry VII's reign, the king's frugality, Morton's tax policy, carried out by Edmund Dudley and Richard Empson, had replenished the treasury. Morton gave a statement known as'Morton's Fork', that no one was to be exempted from taxes: "If the subject is seen to live frugally, tell him because he is a money saver of great ability, he can afford to give generously to the King.
If, the subject lives a life of great extravagance, tell him he, can afford to give the proof of his opulence being evident in his expenditure." Morton died at Knole House, Kent, on 15 September 1500. His monument was placed in the south-east part of Canterbury Cathedral's crypt, with an effigy and an arch decorated with angels, cardinal's caps, tun barrels inscribed with MOR. However, this monument is a cenotaph since his actual body was buried in the crypt's central chapel of the Virgin Mary, according to his wishes. Morton was a mentor of the young Sir Thomas More. More served as a page in Morton's house, acted in revels at Morton's court at Knole House, the archiepiscopal palace, mentioned him in his work Utopia. Although most scholars credit More with authoring the History of King Richard III, they debate the issue of the original authorship as More was only seven when Richard III was killed at the Battle of Bosworth in 1485 so had no first-hand in-depth knowledge of him. Morton is believed by many to be the originator of the account.
Modern-day Ricardians James Bentham wrote in 1771 concerning the arms of Bishop Morton: "The Arms given him in Anglia Sacra, p. 673, are not sufficiently explicit. And this agrees with his arms carved various times on the noble Tower of Wisbeche Church, as they were in a window of Linton Church in Cambridgeshire, as I have it in a manuscript of church notes taken above a century ago; however these accord not with those for our bishop in his own cathedral twice, viz. in the east window of the north aisle of the presbytery, in another window of the same aisle, where they are still remaining, are thus blasoned: Quarterly gules and ermine, on the 1st and 4th three goat's heads erased argent, attired or. In the 1972 BBC television series The Shadow of the Tower, which focused on the reign of Henry VII, Morton was played by Denis Carey. In the Netflix/Canal series "Borgia," Morton appears in one scene in season 2, episode 4, is portrayed by David Gant. Fryde, E. B.. Handbook of British Chronology.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-56350-X
Bishop of St Asaph
The Bishop of St Asaph heads the Church in Wales diocese of St Asaph. The diocese covers the counties of Conwy and Flintshire, Wrexham county borough, the eastern part of Merioneth in Gwynedd and part of northern Powys; the Episcopal seat is located in the Cathedral Church of St Asaph in the city of St Asaph in Denbighshire, north Wales. The Bishop's residence is St Asaph; the current bishop is Gregory Cameron, elected on 5 January and consecrated on 4 April 2009. He became Bishop of St Asaph in succession to John Davies, consecrated in October 1999 and who retired in 2008; this diocese was founded by St Kentigern about the middle of the 6th century, although this is unlikely. The date given is 583. Exiled from his see in Scotland, Kentigern is said to have founded a monastery called Llanelwy –, the Welsh name for St Asaph – at the confluence of the rivers Clwyd and Elwy in north Wales, where after his return to Scotland he was succeeded by Asaph or Asa, consecrated Bishop of Llanelwy; the Diocese of Llanelwy largely coincided with the kingdom of Powys, together with the part of the kingdom of Gwynedd known as Gwynedd Is Conwy, but lost much territory first by the Mercian encroachment marked by Watt's dyke and again by the construction of Offa's Dyke, soon after 798.
Nothing is known of the history of the diocese during the disturbed period. Some historians doubt the existence of the diocese per se before the Norman period, the bishop list and the fact that the Diocese of Bangor, in the kingdom of Gwynedd, held large tracts of land there tends to confirm this. Domesday Book is silent as to the cathedral. Early in the twelfth century Norman influence asserted itself and in 1143 Theobald, Archbishop of Canterbury, consecrated one Gilbert as Bishop of St. Asaph, but the position of his successors was difficult and one of them, was driven away by poverty and the hostility of the Welsh. A return made in the middle of the thirteenth century shows the existence of eight rural deaneries, seventy-nine churches, nineteen chapels. By 1291 the deaneries had been doubled in number and there were Cistercian houses at Basingwerk, Strata Marcella and Valle Crucis, a Cistercian nunnery, Llanllugan Abbey; the cathedral, burnt in the wars, was rebuilt and completed in 1295.
Dedicated to St Asaph, it was a plain massive structure of simple plan, was again destroyed during the Wars of the Roses. When it was restored by Bishop Redman the palace was not rebuilt and thus the bishops continued to be nonresident, notwithstanding the fact that in the late Middle Ages the bishop had five episcopal residences, four of which were alienated under Edward VI of England. Redman was abbot of Shap Abbey and visitor for the Premonstratensian canons, spent most of his time visiting their monasteries or his diocese. At the end of the fifteenth century there was a great revival of church building, as is evidenced by the churches of that date still existing in the diocese; the chief shrines in the diocese were St Winefred's Well, St Garmon in Yale, St Derfel Gadarn in Edeirnion, St Melangell at Pennant, the Holy Cross in Strata Marcella. All these were demolished at the Reformation. At that time the diocese contained one archdeaconry, sixteen deaneries, one hundred and twenty-one parishes.
The names and succession of the bishops after Saints Kentigern and Asaph are not known until 1143. The last bishop in communion with Rome was Thomas Goldwell, who acceded in 1555 and was in the process of being transferred to Oxford when Queen Mary died and Elizabeth I came to the throne. Goldwell fled to the Continent and died in Rome on 13 April 1585, the last surviving member of the pre-Reformation hierarchy; the see continued to be part of the Church of England until the Church was disestablished in Wales in 1920, since when it has been part of the Church in Wales. Haydn's Book of Dignities Joseph Haydn/Horace Ockerby, reprinted 1969 Whitaker's Almanack 1883 to 2004 Joseph Whitaker & Sons Ltd/A&C Black, London https://web.archive.org/web/20050320015243/http://tejones.net/religion/Bishops/ This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Ancient Diocese of Saint Asaph". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton
William of Kilkenny
William of Kilkenny was a Lord Chancellor of England and Bishop of Ely. William may be the same William of Kilkenny, elected Bishop of Ossory in 1231, but resigned the office in 1232 before being consecrated. Whether that William is the same William that became Bishop of Ely, the man who became bishop was a king's clerk by 1234, he was sent to Rome on royal business twice, once in 1234–1235 and again in 1237. In 1238 he left royal service, was employed by two successive bishops of Durham, Nicholas of Farnham and Richard Poore. By May 1247 he was back in royal service, for in that month King Henry III of England sent him overseas. William was Archdeacon of Coventry, from November 1247, as well as controller of the wardrobe from 1249 to 1252, chancellor from 1250 to 1255. William was elected to the see of Ely about 29 September 1254 and consecrated on 15 August 1255 at Bellay in Savoy by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Boniface of Savoy. William died on 21 September 1256, in Spain, his heart was sent to Ely for burial in Ely Cathedral.
His only known relative was a nephew who held land in Waterford and was knighted in 1254. He had constructed an elaborate tomb that remained empty, is now located near the high altar in the north choir aisle of Ely Cathedral, his heart was buried near the altar of Saint Etheldreda
Francis White (bishop)
Francis White was an English bishop and controversialist. He was son of Peter White, vicar of Eaton Socon, was born at Eaton Socon about 1564, his father had five sons, all clergymen, among them John White, chaplain to James I. Francis, after passing through the grammar school at St Neots, was admitted pensioner at Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, on 20 March 1579, aged 15, he graduated Bachelor of Arts in 1583, Cambridge Master of Arts in 1586, was ordained priest by John Aylmer, Bishop of London, on 17 May 1588. His early preferments were the rectory of Broughton Astley, Leicestershire, a lectureship at St. Paul's Cathedral and the rectory of St. Peter's, London. In controversy against Catholicism he took a prominent part, it produced his first publication, he graduated Doctor of Divinity in 1618. Early in 1622 he was employed by James I as a disputant against John Percy alias Fisher, to stay the Roman Catholic tendencies of Mary, Countess of Buckingham, he held two conferences. White's Replie to Fisher was dedicated to James I.
On 14 September 1622 White was presented to the deanery of Carlisle. He took part, in conjunction with Daniel Featley, in another discussion with Fisher, opened on 27 June 1623, at the house of Humphrey Lynde, in Sheer Lane, London. In 1625 White became senior dean of Sion College, which existed only on paper, he was consecrated Bishop of Carlisle on 3 December 1626 at Durham House, London, by Richard Neile, Bishop of Durham. His elevation was much canvassed, it was said that he had'sold his orthodoxe bookes and bought Jesuits'.' Sir Walter Earle referred to the matter in parliament, quoting the line'Qui color albus erat, nunc est contrarius albo'. He was made Lord Almoner the same year. On 22 January 1629 he was elected Bishop of Norwich. Shortly afterwards he held a conference at Ely House, with Theophilus Brabourne on the Sabbath question, had much to do with Brabourne's subsequent prosecution, his Treatise of the Sabbath-Day was dedicated to Laud and written at the command of Charles I. White treated the question doctrinally.
He visited Cambridge in 1632. His last publication was An Examination and Confutation of... A Briefe Answer to a late Treatise of the Sabbath-Day, 1637, he died at Ely House, Holborn, in February 1638, was buried in St. Paul's Cathedral, his will, dated 4 March 1637, proved 27 February 1638 by his widow Joane White, shows that he survived a son, left married daughters and several grandchildren. Among many, White ordained Ralph Wheelock, Clare College graduate, first schoolmaster of America's first free school in Dedham, Massachusetts, on 6 May 1630. List of the Bishops of the Diocese of Norwich and its precursor offices Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: "White, Francis". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900
Martin Heton was an English bishop. His father George Heton was prominent as a church reformer, his mother Joanna was daughter of Martin Bowes, Lord Mayor of London in 1545. He was educated at Christ Church, Oxford, he was Vice-Chancellor of the University of Oxford in 1588. He became Dean of Winchester in 1589, Bishop of Ely in 1599. There is a story that Elizabeth I applied pressure to him, or his predecessor Richard Cox, over some land deals disadvantageous to the diocese, in a letter beginning “Proud prelate!” But scholars from the nineteenth century onwards, for example Mandell Creighton, have considered the letter in question a hoax of the eighteenth century. A fat man, Heton was complimented by the king James I with the comment "Fat men are apt to make lean sermons, his daughter Ann married Sir Robert Filmer
Bishop of Ely
The Bishop of Ely is the ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Ely in the Province of Canterbury. The diocese covers the county of Cambridgeshire, together with a section of north-west Norfolk and has its episcopal see in the City of Ely, where the seat is located at the Cathedral Church of the Holy Trinity; the current bishop is Stephen Conway, who signs +Stephen Elien:. The diocesan bishops resided at the Bishop's Palace, Ely until 1941. Conway became Bishop of Ely in 2010, translated from the Diocese of Salisbury where he was Bishop suffragan of Ramsbury; the roots of the Diocese of Ely are ancient and the area of Ely was part of the patrimony of Saint Etheldreda. Prior to the elevation of Ely Cathedral as the seat of the diocese, it existed as first as a convent of religious sisters and as a monastery, it was led by first by an abbess and by an abbot. The convent was founded in the city in 673. After St Etheldreda's death in 679 she was buried outside the church, her remains were translated inside, the foundress being commemorated as a great Anglican saint.
The monastery, much of the city of Ely, were destroyed in the Danish invasions that began in 869 or 870. A new Benedictine monastery was built and endowed on the site by Saint Athelwold, Bishop of Winchester, in 970, in a wave of monastic refoundations which included Peterborough and Ramsey. In the Domesday Book in 1086, the Bishop of Ely is referenced as a landholder of Foxehola; this became a cathedral in 1109, after a new Diocese of Ely was created out of land taken from the Diocese of Lincoln. From that time the line of bishops begins; the earliest historical notice of Ely is given by the Venerable Bede who writes: "Ely is in the province of the East Angles, a country of about six hundred families, in the nature of an island, enclosed either with marshes or waters, therefore it has its name from the great abundance of eels which are taken in those marshes."This district was assigned in 649 to saint Æthelthryth, daughter of Anna, king of the East Angles, as a dowry in her marriage with Tonbert of the South Girvii.
After her second marriage to Ecgfrith of Northumbria, she became a nun, in 673 returned to Ely and founded a monastery on the site of the present cathedral. As endowment she gave it her entire principality of the isle, from which subsequent Bishops of Ely derived their temporal power. Æthelthryth died in 679 and her shrine became a place of pilgrimage. In 870 the monastery was destroyed by the Danes, having given to the Church four sainted abbesses, Æthelthryth and her sister Seaxburgh, the latter's daughter Ermenilda, Ermenilda's daughter Werburgh. Under their rule there was a community of monks as well as a convent of nuns, but when in 970 the monastery was restored by King Edgar and Ethelwold it was a foundation for monks only. For more than a century the monastery flourished, about the year 1105 Abbot Richard suggested the creation of the See of Ely, to relieve the enormous Diocese of Lincoln; the pope's brief erecting the new bishopric was issued 21 November 1108, on 17 October 1109 King Henry I granted his charter, the first bishop being Hervé le Breton, or Harvey, former Bishop of Bangor.
The monastery church thus became one of the "conventual" cathedrals. Of this building the transepts and two bays of the nave existed, in 1170 the nave as it stands to-day was finished; as the bishops succeeded to the principality of St Etheldreda they enjoyed palatine power and great resources. The Bishops of Ely held high office in the State and the roll includes many names of famous statesmen, including eight Lord Chancellors and six Lord Treasurers; the Bishops of Ely spent much of their wealth on their cathedral, with the result that Ely can show examples of Gothic architecture of many periods. Another Bishops Palace was in Wisbech on the site of the former Wisbech Castle, they had a London residence called Ely Place. Among the bishops Geoffry Riddell built the nave and began the west tower, Eustace the West Porch, while Hugh de Northwold rebuilt the Norman choir and John Hotham rebuilt the collapsed central tower – the famous Octagon. Hugh de Balsham founded Peterhouse, the first college at the University of Cambridge, while John Alcock was the founder of Jesus College and completed the building of the bishops palace at Wisbech, commenced in 1478 by his predecessor John Morton Archbishop of Canterbury.
Goodrich was a reformer and during his episcopate the monastery was dissolved. The last bishop in communion with the see of Rome was Thomas Thirlby. Since the Reformation, notable bishops have included Lancelot Andrewes, Matthew Wren, Peter Gunning and Simon Patrick. Etheldreda Seaxburh Ermenilda Werburh? Brythnoth Ælfsige Leofwine Leofric Leofsige Wulfric Thurstan – the last Saxon abbot Theodwin Godfrey Simeon – began building the cathedral Ranulf Flambard Richard FitzRichard de Clare – the last abbot Hervey, Bishop of Bangor From on, Ely was under the Bishop of Ely. Fryde, E. B.. Handbook
Lancelot Andrewes was an English bishop and scholar, who held high positions in the Church of England during the reigns of Elizabeth I and James I. During the latter's reign, Andrewes served successively as Bishop of Chichester, of Ely, of Winchester and oversaw the translation of the King James Version of the Bible. In the Church of England he is commemorated on 25 September with a Lesser Festival. Andrewes was born in 1555 near All Hallows, Barking, by the Tower of London, of an ancient Suffolk family domiciled at Chichester Hall, at Rawreth in Essex. Andrewes attended the Cooper's free school, in Ratcliff, in the parish of Stepney and the Merchant Taylors' School under Richard Mulcaster. In 1571 he entered Pembroke Hall and graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree, proceeding to a Master of Arts degree in 1578, his academic reputation spread so that on the foundation in 1571 of Jesus College, Oxford he was named in the charter as one of the founding scholars "without his privity". In 1576 he was elected fellow of Cambridge.
As catechist at his college he read. Once a year he would spend a month with his parents, during this vacation, he would find a master from whom he would learn a language of which he had no previous knowledge. In this way, after a few years, he acquired most of the modern languages of Europe. Andrewes was the elder brother of the scholar and cleric Roger Andrewes, who served as a translator for the King James Version of the Bible. In 1588, following a period as chaplain to Henry Hastings, 3rd Earl of Huntingdon, Lord President of the Council in the North, he became vicar of St Giles, Cripplegate in the City of London, where he delivered striking sermons on the temptation in the wilderness and the Lord's Prayer. In a great sermon on 10 April 1588, he stoutly vindicated the Reformed character of the Church of England against the claims of Roman Catholicism and adduced John Calvin as a new writer, with lavish praise and affection. Through the influence of Francis Walsingham, Andrewes was appointed prebendary of St Pancras in St Paul's, London, in 1589, subsequently became Master of his own college of Pembroke, as well as a chaplain to John Whitgift, Archbishop of Canterbury.
From 1589 to 1609 he was prebendary of Southwell. On 4 March 1590, as a chaplain of Elizabeth I, he preached before her an outspoken sermon and, in October that year, gave his introductory lecture at St Paul's, undertaking to comment on the first four chapters of the Book of Genesis; these were compiled as The Orphan Lectures. Andrewes liked to move among the people, yet found time to join a society of antiquaries, of which Walter Raleigh, Philip Sidney, Arundel, the Herberts, John Stow and William Camden were members. Elizabeth I had not advanced him further on account of his opposition to the alienation of ecclesiastical revenues. In 1598 he declined the bishoprics of Salisbury, because of the conditions attached. On 23 November 1600, he preached at Whitehall a controversial sermon on justification. In July 1601 he gave much attention to the school there. On the accession of James I, to whom his somewhat pedantic style of preaching recommended him, Andrewes rose into great favour, he assisted at James's coronation, in 1604 took part in the Hampton Court Conference.
Andrewes' name is the first on the list of divines appointed to compile the Authorized Version of the Bible. He headed the "First Westminster Company", he acted, furthermore, as a sort of general editor for the project as well. On 31 October 1605 his election as Bishop of Chichester was confirmed, he was consecrated a bishop on 3 November, installed at Chichester Cathedral on 18 November and made Lord High Almoner. Following the discovery of the Gunpowder Plot Andrewes was asked to prepare a sermon to be presented to the king in 1606. In this sermon Lancelot Andrewes justified the need to commemorate the deliverance and defined the nature of celebrations; this sermon became the foundation of celebrations. In 1609 he published Tortura Torti, a learned work which grew out of the Gunpowder Plot controversy and was written in answer to Bellarmine's Matthaeus Tortus, which attacked James I's book on the oath of allegiance. After moving to Ely, he again controverted Bellarmine in the Responsio ad Apologiam.
In 1617 he accompanied James I to Scotland with a view to persuading the Scots that Episcopacy was preferable to Presbyterianism. He was made dean of the Chapel Royal and translated to Winchester, a diocese that he administered with great success. Following his death in 1626 in his Southwark palace, he was mourned alike by leaders in Church and state, buried beside the high altar in St Saviour's. Two generations Richard Crashaw caught up the universal sentiment, when in his lines "Upon Bishop Andrewes' Picture before his Sermons" he exclaims: This reverend shadow cast that setting sun, Whose glorious course through our horizon ru