New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
Administrative law is the body of law that governs the activities of administrative agencies of government. Government agency action can include rule making, adjudication, or the enforcement of a specific regulatory agenda. Administrative law is considered a branch of public law; as a body of law, administrative law deals with the decision-making of the administrative units of government that are part of a national regulatory scheme in such areas as police law, international trade, the environment, broadcasting and transport. Administrative law expanded during the twentieth century, as legislative bodies worldwide created more government agencies to regulate the social and political spheres of human interaction. Civil law countries have specialized courts, administrative courts, that review these decisions. Unlike most common-law jurisdictions, the majority of civil law jurisdictions have specialized courts or sections to deal with administrative cases which, as a rule, will apply procedural rules designed for such cases and different from that applied in private-law proceedings, such as contract or tort claims.
In Brazil, unlike most Civil-law jurisdictions, there is no specialized court or section to deal with administrative cases. In 1998, a constitutional reform, led by the government of President Fernando Henrique Cardoso, introduced regulatory agencies as a part of the executive branch. Since 1988, Brazilian administrative law has been influenced by the judicial interpretations of the constitutional principles of public administration: legality, publicity of administrative acts and efficiency; the President of the Republic exercises the administrative function, in collaboration with several Ministries or other authorities with ministerial rank. Each Ministry has one or more under-secretary that performs through public services the actual satisfaction of public needs. There is not a single specialized court to deal with actions against the Administrative entities, but instead there are several specialized courts and procedures of review. In France, most claims against the national or local governments as well as claims against private bodies providing public services are handled by administrative courts, which use the Conseil d'État as a court of last resort for both ordinary and special courts.
The main administrative courts are the tribunaux administratifs and appeal courts are the cours administratives d'appel. Special administrative courts include the National Court of Asylum Right as well as military and judicial disciplinary bodies; the French body of administrative law is called "droit administratif". Over the course of their history, France's administrative courts have developed an extensive and coherent case law and legal doctrine before similar concepts were enshrined in constitutional and legal texts; these principes include: Right to fair trial, including for internal disciplinary bodies Right to challenge any administrative decision before an administrative court Equal treatment of public service users Equal access to government employment without regard for political opinions Freedom of association Right to Entrepreneurship Right to Legal certainty French administrative law, the founder of Continental administrative law, has a strong influence on administrative laws in several other countries such as Belgium, Greece and Tunisia.
Administrative law in Germany, called "Verwaltungsrecht" de:Verwaltungsrecht rules the relationship between authorities and the citizens and therefore, it establishes citizens' rights and obligations against the authorities. It is a part of the public law, which deals with the organization, the tasks and the acting of the public administration, it contains rules, regulations and decisions created by and related to administrative agencies, such as federal agencies, federal state authorities, urban administrations, but admission offices and fiscal authorities etc. Administrative law in Germany follows three basic principles. Principle of the legality of the authority, which means that there is no acting against the law and no acting without a law. Principle of legal security, which includes a principle of legal certainty and the principle of nonretroactivity Principle of proportionality, which says that an act of an authority has to be suitable and appropriateAdministrative law in Germany can be divided into general administrative law and special administrative law.
The general administration law is ruled in the administrative procedures law. Other legal sources are the Rules of the Administrative Courts, the social security code and the general fiscal law; the Verwaltungsverfahrensgesetz, enacted in 1977, regulates the main administrative procedures of the federal government. It serves the purpose to ensure a treatment in accordance with the rule of law by the public authority. Furthermore, it contains the regulations for mass processes and expands the legal protection against the authorities; the VwVfG applies for the entire public administrative activities of federal agencies as well as federal state authorities, in case of m
New York University School of Law
The New York University School of Law is the law school of New York University. Established in 1835, it is the oldest law school in New York City; the school offers J. D. LL. M. and J. S. D. degrees in law, is located in Greenwich Village, in Lower Manhattan. NYU Law is regarded as one of the most selective law schools in the world, it is ranked the 4th best law school in the world by Shanghai's Academic Ranking of World Universities by subject Law. NYU Law is consistently ranked in the top 5 by the QS World University Rankings. U. S. News & World Report ranks NYU Law 6th in the nation and has ranked the law school as high as 4th in recent years. Nationally, it is ranked 1st in the country in both international law and tax law by U. S. News & World Report. NYU Law boasts the best overall faculty in the U. S. according to a recent study, with leading renowned experts in all fields of law. NYU Law is well known for its strength in public interest law. According to New York University School of Law's 2013 ABA-required disclosures, 93.7% of the Class of 2013 obtained full-time, long-term, J.
D.-required employment nine months after graduation. NYU Law publishes ten student-edited law journals, including the NYU Law Review; the journals appear below in the order of their founding: New York University Law Review NYU Annual Survey of American Law NYU Journal of International Law and Politics Review of Law & Social Change Moot Court Board New York University Environmental Law Journal Journal of Legislation & Public Policy Journal of Law & Liberty Journal of Law & Business Journal of Intellectual Property & Entertainment LawThe law school's Root-Tilden-Kern Scholarship Program is a full-tuition scholarship awarded each year to twenty students committed to public service. NYU Law offers several fellowships to students admitted to the LLM Program; the Hauser Global Scholarship admits eight to ten top LLM students from all over the world. The scholarship includes full tuition waiver and reasonable accommodation costs. In addition, it offers the Hugo Grotius as well as Vanderbilt scholarships for International law studies and other branches of law respectively.
The school has a law and business program in which eight student-leaders in law and business are awarded fellowships in the Mitchell Jacobson Leadership Program. In addition, the NYU Center for Law and Organization administers the Lawrence Lederman Fellowship to facilitate the study of Law & Economics the program provides a $5,000 scholarship to selected students to work with NYU Law faculty and participate in a series of collaborative workshops designed to help students write a substantial research paper. NYU Law hosts the original chapter of the Unemployment Action Center. LL. M is an abbreviation for Master of Laws, an advanced academic degree, pursued by those holding a professional law degree. In general, there are two types of LL. M. Programs in the United States; the majority are programs designed to expose foreign legal graduates to the American Common Law. Other programs involve post doctoral study of a specialized area of the law such as Admiralty, Tax Law and Financial Law, Elder Law, Aeronautical Law or International Law.
NYU Law School's LL. M. in Taxation and in International Taxation programs have been ranked #1 by the U. S. News & World Report magazine since they started ranking specialty law school programs in 1992. Joshua D. Blank is the faculty director of the program. Tax LL. M. Students are permitted to enroll in a general course of study or specialize in specific areas such as business taxation or estate planning. Many of the program's professors are practitioners in their respective fields. NYU has implemented a jointly granted NYU/Osgoode LLB/LLM program in which graduates are granted the LLB as well as an LLM from NYU in only 3 and a half years instead of the required four. More the NYU School of Law has entered into similar dual degree agreements with the National University of Singapore Faculty of Law and the University of Melbourne Law School. Oxford University has a program of academic exchanges with New York University School of Law involving faculty members and research students working in areas of shared interest.
NYU Law offers a dual-degree program with Harvard's John F. Kennedy School of Government. Students may earn a JD/MPA or a JD/MPP. NYU Law offers a dual-degree program with Princeton's Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs. Students may earn a JD/MPA. There is a limited amount of cross-registration permitted with Columbia Law School; each year, a limited number of students are permitted to take classes at each other's schools. Columbia Law and NYU Law play a basketball game every spring, the Deans' Cup, to raise money for their public interest and community service organizations. Graduates of the law school obtain employment in elite public and private-sector positions. NYU Law ranks 2nd among all law schools in terms of the number of alumni working in the nation's top 50 law firms, 6th in Supreme Court clerkship placement. According to New York University School of Law's 2013 ABA-required disclosures, 93.7% of the Class of 2013 obtained full-time, long-term, JD-required employment nine months after graduation.
More than 7,000 applicants compete for 450 seats at the law school. The latest edition of University of Chicago Professor Brian Leiter's ranking of the top law schools by student quality places NYU Law 4th out of the 144 accredited schools in the United States. Admission to the New York University School of Law is competitive; the 25th and 75th LSAT percentiles for the 2018 entering class were 167 and 172, respectively
Latin honors are Latin phrases used to indicate the level of distinction with which an academic degree has been earned. This system is used in the United States, many countries of continental Europe, some Southeastern Asian countries with European colonial history, such as Indonesia and the Philippines, although some institutions use translations of these phrases rather than the Latin originals; the honors distinction should not be confused with the honors degrees offered in some countries. A college's or university's regulations set out definite criteria to be met in order for a student to obtain a given honors distinction. For example, the student might be required to achieve a specific grade point average, to submit an honors thesis for evaluation, to be part of an honors program, or to graduate early; each university sets its own standards. Since these standards may vary it is possible for the same level of Latin honors conferred by different institutions to represent contrasting levels of academic achievement.
Some institutions may grant equivalent non-Latin honors to undergraduates. The University of Wisconsin–Madison, for example, has a series of plain English grading honors based on class standing; these honors, when they are used, are always awarded to undergraduates earning their bachelor's, with the exception of law school graduates, much more to graduate students receiving their master's or doctorate degree. The honor is indicated on the diploma. Latin honors are conferred upon law school students graduating as a Juris Doctor or J. D. in which case they are based upon class rank or grade point average. In North America, Latin honors are awarded by colleges and universities for undergraduates degrees, such as the Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science, by law schools for the Juris Doctor degree. Latin honors are not used with other graduate degrees, such as M. D. or Ph. D. degrees. Most institutions use two or three levels of Latin honors, listed below in ascending order: cum laude, meaning "with praise".
This honor is awarded to graduates in the top 20%, top 25%, or top 30% of their class, depending on the institution. Magna cum laude, meaning "with great praise"; this honor is awarded to graduates in the top 10% or top 15% of their class, depending on the institution. Summa cum laude, meaning "with greatest praise"; this honor is awarded to graduates in the top 1%, top 2%, or top 5% of their class, depending on the institution. Not all institutions award the summa cum laude distinction; some institutions have additional distinctions. For example, at a few universities maxima cum laude, meaning "with great praise", is an intermediary honor between the magna and the summa honors, it is sometimes used when the summa honor is reserved only for students with perfect academic records. A further used distinction is that of egregia cum laude which means "with outstanding praise," and if used may be for either students achieving summa cum laude honors in a difficult subject area or recipients of a non-standard Bachelor's degree.
For undergraduate degrees, Latin honors are used in only a few countries such as the United States, Indonesia, the Dominican Republic, the Philippines and Canada. Most countries use a different scheme, such as the British undergraduate degree classification, more used with varying criteria and nomenclature depending on country, including Australia, Barbados, Colombia, Hong Kong, Ireland, Kenya, New Zealand, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, South Africa and Tobago, the United Kingdom and many other countries. Malta shows the Latin honors on the degree certificates, but the UK model is shown on the transcript. In Austria, the only Latin honor in use is sub auspiciis Praesidentis rei publicae for doctoral degrees. Candidates must have excellent grades throughout high school and university, making it difficult to attain: only about 20 out of a total of 2,500 doctoral graduates per year achieve a sub auspiciis degree. In Belgium, the university degree awarded is limited to: Satisfaction cum laude magna cum laude summa cum laude In Brazil, the Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica awards the cum laude honor for graduates with every individual grade above 8.5, the magna cum laude honor for graduates with average grade above 8.5 and more than 50% of individual grades above 9.5, the summa cum laude honor for graduates with average grade above 9.5.
As of 2009, only 22 graduates have received the summa cum laude honor at ITA. The Federal University of Rio de Janeiro awards the cum laude honor for graduates with average grade from 8.0 to 8.9, the magna cum laude honor for graduates with average grade from 9.0 to 9.4, the summa cum laude honor for graduates with average grade from 9.5 to 10.0. The Federal University of Ceará awards the magna cum laude honor for undergraduates who have never failed a course, achieved an average grade from 8.5 and have received a fellowship of both Academic Extension and Teaching Initiation. In Estonia, up until 2010 both summa cum laude and cum laude were used. Summa cum laude was awarded only for exceptional work. Since 1 September 2010, only cum laude is used. It
Environmental law known as environmental and natural resources law, is a collective address environmental pollution. A related but distinct set of regulatory regimes, now influenced by environmental legal principles, focus on the management of specific natural resources, such as forests, minerals, or fisheries. Other areas, such as environmental impact assessment, may not fit neatly into either category, but are nonetheless important components of environmental law. Early examples of legal enactments designed to consciously preserve the environment, for its own sake or human enjoyment, are found throughout history. In the common law, the primary protection was found in the law of nuisance, but this only allowed for private actions for damages or injunctions if there was harm to land, thus smells emanating from pig sties, strict liability against dumping rubbish, or damage from exploding dams. Private enforcement, was limited and found to be woefully inadequate to deal with major environmental threats threats to common resources.
During the "Great Stink" of 1858, the dumping of sewerage into the River Thames began to smell so ghastly in the summer heat that Parliament had to be evacuated. The Metropolitan Commission of Sewers Act 1848 had allowed the Metropolitan Commission for Sewers to close cesspits around the city in an attempt to "clean up" but this led people to pollute the river. In 19 days, Parliament passed a further Act to build the London sewerage system. London suffered from terrible air pollution, this culminated in the "Great Smog" of 1952, which in turn triggered its own legislative response: the Clean Air Act 1956; the basic regulatory structure was to set limits on emissions for households and business while an inspectorate would enforce compliance. Notwithstanding early analogues, the concept of "environmental law" as a separate and distinct body of law is a twentieth-century development; the recognition that the natural environment was fragile and in need of special legal protections, the translation of that recognition into legal structures, the development of those structures into a larger body of "environmental law," and the strong influence of environmental law on natural resource laws, did not occur until about the 1960s.
At that time, numerous influences - including a growing awareness of the unity and fragility of the biosphere. While the modern history of environmental law is one of continuing controversy, by the end of the twentieth century environmental law had been established as a component of the legal landscape in all developed nations of the world, many developing ones, the larger project of international law; these are studied in environmental studies Water quality laws govern the release of pollutants into water resources, including surface water, ground water, stored drinking water. Some water quality laws, such as drinking water regulations, may be designed with reference to human health. Many others, including restrictions on the alteration of the chemical, physical and biological characteristics of water resources, may reflect efforts to protect aquatic ecosystems more broadly. Regulatory efforts may include identifying and categorizing water pollutants, dictating acceptable pollutant concentrations in water resources, limiting pollutant discharges from effluent sources.
Regulatory areas include sewage treatment and disposal and agricultural waste water management, control of surface runoff from construction sites and urban environments. Waste management laws govern the transport, treatment and disposal of all manner of waste, including municipal solid waste, hazardous waste, nuclear waste, among many other types. Waste laws are designed to minimize or eliminate the uncontrolled dispersal of waste materials into the environment in a manner that may cause ecological or biological harm, include laws designed to reduce the generation of waste and promote or mandate waste recycling. Regulatory efforts include identifying and categorizing waste types and mandating transport, treatment and disposal practices. Environmental cleanup laws govern the removal of pollution or contaminants from environmental media such as soil, surface water, or ground water. Unlike pollution control laws, cleanup laws are designed to respond after-the-fact to environmental contamination, must define not only the necessary response actions, but the parties who may be responsible for undertaking such actions.
Regulatory requirements may include rules for emergency response, liability allocation, site assessment, remedial investigation, feasibility studies, remedial action, post-remedial monitoring, site reuse. Chemical safety laws govern the use of chemicals in human activities man-made chemicals in modern industrial applications; as contrasted with media-oriented environmental laws, chemical control laws seek to manage the pollutants themselves. Regulatory efforts include banning specific chemical constituents in consumer products, regulating pesticides. Environmental impact assessment is the assessment of the environmental consequences of a plan, program, or actual projects prior to the decision to move forward with the proposed action. In this context, the term "environmental impac
Harry Andrew Blackmun was an American lawyer and jurist who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1970 until 1994. Appointed by Republican President Richard Nixon, Blackmun became one of the most liberal justices on the Court, he is best known as the author of the Court's opinion in Roe v. Wade, which prohibits many state and federal restrictions on abortion. Raised in Saint Paul, Blackmun graduated from Harvard Law School in 1932, he practiced law in Minneapolis, representing clients such as the Mayo Clinic. In 1959, he was appointed to the United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit by President Dwight D. Eisenhower. After the defeat of two previous nominees, President Richard Nixon nominated Blackmun to the Supreme Court to replace Associate Justice Abe Fortas. Blackmun and his close friend, conservative Chief Justice Warren Burger, were referred to as the "Minnesota Twins," but Blackmun drifted away from Burger during their tenure on the court.
Blackmun retired from the Court during the administration of President Bill Clinton, was succeeded by Stephen Breyer. Aside from Roe v. Wade, notable majority opinions written by Blackmun include Bates v. State Bar of Arizona, Bigelow v. Commonwealth of Virginia, Stanton v. Stanton, he joined part of Justice Sandra Day O'Connor's opinion in Planned Parenthood v. Casey but filed a separate opinion, warning that Roe was in jeopardy, he wrote dissenting opinions in notable cases such as Furman v. Georgia, Bowers v. Hardwick, DeShaney v. Winnebago County. Harry Blackmun was born in Illinois, to Theo Huegely and Corwin Manning Blackmun. Three years his baby brother, Corwin Manning Blackmun, Jr. died soon after birth. Blackmun grew up in Dayton's Bluff, a working-class neighborhood in Saint Paul, Minnesota, he attended the same grade school as future Chief Justice Warren E. Burger, with whom he served on the Supreme Court for some sixteen years, he attended Harvard University on scholarship, earning an Artium Baccalaureus degree summa cum laude in mathematics and graduating Phi Beta Kappa in 1929.
While at Harvard, Blackmun sang with the Harvard Glee Club. He attended Harvard Law School, graduating with a Bachelor of Laws in 1932, he served in a variety of positions including private counsel, law clerk, adjunct faculty at the University of Minnesota Law School and William Mitchell College of Law. Blackmun's practice as an attorney at the law firm now known as Dorsey & Whitney focused in its early years on taxation and estates, civil litigation, he married Dorothy Clark in 1941 and had three daughters with her, Nancy and Susan. Between 1950 and 1959, Blackmun served as resident counsel for the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, he would describe his time at Mayo as "his happiest time". In the late 1950s, Blackmun's close friend Warren E. Burger an appellate judge on the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit encouraged Blackmun to seek a judgeship. Judge John B. Sanborn Jr. of the Eighth Circuit, whom Blackmun had clerked for after graduating from Harvard, told Blackmun of his plans to assume senior status.
He said that he would suggest Blackmun's name to the Eisenhower administration if Blackmun wished to succeed him. After much urging by Sanborn and Burger, Blackmun agreed to accept the nomination, duly offered by Eisenhower and members of the Justice Department. Blackmun was nominated by President Dwight D. Eisenhower on August 18, 1959, to a seat on the United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit vacated by Judge John B. Sanborn Jr; the American Bar Association Standing Committee on the Federal Judiciary gave him an high rating of "exceptionally well qualified", he was confirmed by the United States Senate on September 14, 1959, received his commission on September 21, 1959. Over the next decade, Blackmun would author 217 opinions for the Eighth Circuit, his service terminated on June 1970, due to his elevation to the Supreme Court. Blackmun was nominated to the Supreme Court by President Richard Nixon on April 14, 1970, was confirmed by the United States Senate on May 12, 1970, by a 94–0 vote.
He received his commission on May 14, 1970 and took the oath of office on June 9, 1970. Blackmun was Nixon's third choice to fill the vacancy created by the resignation of Abe Fortas on May 14, 1969, his confirmation followed contentious battles over two previous, failed nominations forwarded by Nixon in 1969–1970, those of Clement Haynsworth and G. Harrold Carswell. Nixon's original choice, Lewis F. Powell Jr. turned him down but joined the Court in 1972. Blackmun served as Circuit Justice for the Eighth Circuit from June 9, 1970 to August 2, 1994 and for the First Circuit from August 7, 1990 to October 8, 1990. Blackmun, a lifelong Republican, was expected to adhere to a conservative interpretation of the Constitution; the Court's Chief Justice at the time, Warren Burger, a long-time friend of Blackmun's and best man at his wedding, had recommended Blackmun for the job to Nixon. The two were referred to as the "Minnesota Twins" because of their common history in Minnesota and because they so voted together.
Indeed, Blackmun voted with
United States Environmental Protection Agency
The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection. President Richard Nixon proposed the establishment of EPA on July 9, 1970 and it began operation on December 2, 1970, after Nixon signed an executive order; the order establishing the EPA was ratified by committee hearings in the Senate. The agency is led by its Administrator, appointed by the President and approved by Congress; the current Administrator is former Deputy Administrator Andrew R. Wheeler, acting administrator since July 2018; the EPA is not a Cabinet department, but the Administrator is given cabinet rank. The EPA has its headquarters in Washington, D. C. regional offices for each of the agency's ten regions, 27 laboratories. The agency conducts environmental assessment and education, it has the responsibility of maintaining and enforcing national standards under a variety of environmental laws, in consultation with state and local governments. It delegates some permitting and enforcement responsibility to U.
S. states and the federally recognized tribes. EPA enforcement powers include fines and other measures; the agency works with industries and all levels of government in a wide variety of voluntary pollution prevention programs and energy conservation efforts. In 2018, the agency had 14,172 full-time employees. More than half of EPA's employees are engineers and environmental protection specialists; the Environmental Protection Agency can only act under statutes, which are the authority of laws passed by Congress. Congress must approve the statute and they have the power to authorize or prohibit certain actions, which the EPA has to implement and enforce. Appropriations statutes authorize how much money the agency can spend each year to carry out the approved statutes; the Environmental Protection Agency has the power to issue regulations. A regulation is a standard or rule written by the agency to interpret the statute, apply it in situations and enforce it. Congress allows the EPA to write regulations in order to solve a problem, but the agency must include a rationale of why the regulations need to be implemented.
The regulations can be challenged by the Courts, where the regulation is confirmed. Many public health and environmental groups advocate for the agency and believe that it is creating a better world. Other critics believe that the agency commits government overreach by adding unnecessary regulations on business and property owners. Beginning in the late 1950s and through the 1960s, Congress reacted to increasing public concern about the impact that human activity could have on the environment. Senator James E. Murray introduced a bill, the Resources and Conservation Act of 1959, in the 86th Congress; the 1962 publication of Silent Spring by Rachel Carson alerted the public about the detrimental effects on the environment of the indiscriminate use of pesticides. In the years following, similar bills were introduced and hearings were held to discuss the state of the environment and Congress's potential responses. In 1968, a joint House–Senate colloquium was convened by the chairmen of the Senate Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, Senator Henry M. Jackson, the House Committee on Science and Astronautics, Representative George P. Miller, to discuss the need for and means of implementing a national environmental policy.
In the colloquium, some members of Congress expressed a continuing concern over federal agency actions affecting the environment. The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 was modeled on the Resources and Conservation Act of 1959. RCA would have established a Council on Environmental Quality in the office of the President, declared a national environmental policy, required the preparation of an annual environmental report. President Nixon signed NEPA into law on January 1, 1970; the law created the Council on Environmental Quality in the Executive Office of the President. NEPA required that a detailed statement of environmental impacts be prepared for all major federal actions affecting the environment; the "detailed statement" would be referred to as an environmental impact statement. On July 9, 1970, Nixon proposed an executive reorganization that consolidated many environmental responsibilities of the federal government under one agency, a new Environmental Protection Agency; this proposal included merging antipollution programs from a number of departments, such as the combination of pesticide programs from the United States Department of Agriculture, Department of Interior, U.
S. Department of Interior. After conducting hearings during that summer, the House and Senate approved the proposal; the EPA was created 90 days before it had to operate, opened its doors on December 2, 1970. The agency's first Administrator, William Ruckelshaus, took the oath of office on December 4, 1970. In its first year, the EPA had 5,800 employees. At its start, the EPA was a technical assistance agency that set goals and standards. Soon, new acts and amendments passed by Congress gave the agency its regulatory authority. EPA staff recall that in the early days there was "an enormous sense of purpose and excitement" and the expectation that "there was this agency, going to do something about a problem, on the minds of a lot of people in this country," leading to tens of thousands of resumes from those eager to participate in the mighty effort to clean up America's environment; when EPA first began operation, members of the private sector felt that the environ