John C. Frémont
John Charles Frémont or Fremont was an American explorer and soldier who, in 1856, became the first candidate of the Republican Party for the office of President of the United States. During the 1840s, when he led five expeditions into the American West, that era's penny press and admiring historians accorded Frémont the sobriquet The Pathfinder. During the Mexican–American War, Frémont, a major in the U. S. Army, took control of California from the California Republic in 1846. Frémont was convicted in court-martial for mutiny and insubordination over a conflict of, the rightful military governor of California. After his sentence was commuted and he was reinstated by President Polk, Frémont resigned from the Army. Frémont led a private fourth expedition, which cost ten lives, seeking a rail route over the mountains around the 38th parallel in the winter of 1849. Afterwards, Frémont settled in California at Monterey while buying cheap land in the Sierra foothills; when gold was found on his Mariposa ranch, Frémont became a wealthy man during the California Gold Rush, but he was soon bogged down with lawsuits over land claims, between the dispossession of various land owners during the Mexican–American War and the explosion of Forty-Niners immigrating during the Rush.
These cases were settled by the U. S. Supreme Court allowing Frémont to keep his property. Frémont's fifth and final funded expedition, between 1853 and 1854, surveyed a route for a transcontinental railroad. Frémont became one of the first two U. S. senators elected from the new state of California in 1850. Frémont was the first presidential candidate of the new Republican Party, carrying most of the North, he lost the 1856 presidential election to Democrat James Buchanan. Democrats warned. During the American Civil War, he was given command of Department of the West by President Abraham Lincoln. Although Frémont had successes during his brief tenure as Commander of the Western Armies, he ran his department autocratically, made hasty decisions without consulting Washington D. C. or President Lincoln. After Frémont's emancipation edict that freed slaves in his district, he was relieved of his command by President Lincoln for insubordination. In 1861, Frémont was the first commanding Union general who recognized in Brigadier General Ulysses S. Grant an "iron will" to fight and promoted him commander at the strategic base near Cairo, Illinois.
Defeating the Confederates at Springfield, Frémont was the only Union General in the West to have a Union victory for 1861. After a brief service tenure in the Mountain Department in 1862, Frémont resided in New York, retiring from the Army in 1864; the same year Frémont was a presidential candidate for the Radical Democracy Party, but he resigned before the election. After the Civil War, Frémont's wealth declined after investing and purchasing an unsuccessful Pacific Railroad in 1866, lost much of his wealth during the Panic of 1873. Frémont served as Governor of Arizona from 1878 to 1881 appointed by President Rutherford B. Hayes. Frémont retired from politics and died destitute in New York City in 1890. Historians portray Frémont as controversial and contradictory; some scholars regard him as a military hero of significant accomplishment, while others view him as a failure who defeated his own best purposes. The keys to Frémont's character and personality may lie in his being born illegitimately, his ambitious drive for success, self-justification, passive-aggressive behavior.
Frémont's published reports and maps produced from his explorations contributed to massive American emigration overland into the West starting in the 1840s. In June 1846, Frémont's and his army expedition's return to California, spurred the formation of the California Battalion, his military advice led to the capture of Sonoma, the formation of the Bear Flag Republic. Many people during his lifetime believed his court martial by General Kearny in 1848 was unjustified, his biographer Allan Nevins in 1939 believed that Frémont lived a dramatic lifestyle, one of remarkable successes, one of dismal failures. John Charles Frémont was born on January 21, 1813, the son of Charles Frémon, a French-Canadian immigrant school-teacher, Anne Beverley Whiting, the youngest daughter of prominent Virginia planter Col. Thomas Whiting. At age 17, Anne married a wealthy Richmond resident in his early 60s. In 1810, Pryor hired Frémon to tutor his young wife Anne. Pryor confronted Anne when he found out she was having an affair with Frémon.
Anne and Frémon fled to Williamsburg on July 10, 1811 settling in Norfolk, taking with them household slaves Anne had inherited. The couple settled in Savannah, where she gave birth to their son Frémont out of wedlock. Pryor published a divorce petition in the Virginia Patriot, charged that his wife had "for some time past indulged in criminal intercourse"; when the Virginia House of Delegates refused Anne's divorce petition, it was impossible for the couple to marry. In Savannah, Anne took in boarders while Frémon taught dancing. A woman enslaved in the household, Black Hannah, helped raise young John. On December 8, 1818, Frémont's father Frémon died in Norfolk, leaving Anne a widow to take care of John and several young children alone on a limited inherited income. Anne and her family moved to South Carolina. Frémont, knowing his origins and coming from modest means, grew up a proud, restless loner who although self-disciplined, was ready to prove himself and unwilling to play by the rules.
The young Frémont was considered to be "precious and daring," having the a
James A. Garfield
James Abram Garfield was the 20th president of the United States, serving from March 4, 1881 until his death by assassination six and a half months later. He was the first sitting member of Congress to be elected to the presidency, remains the only sitting House member to gain the White House. Garfield entered politics as a Republican in 1857, he served as a member of the Ohio State Senate from 1859 to 1861. Garfield opposed Confederate secession, served as a major general in the Union Army during the American Civil War, fought in the battles of Middle Creek and Chickamauga, he was first elected to Congress in 1862 to represent Ohio's 19th District. Throughout Garfield's extended congressional service after the Civil War, he supported the gold standard and gained a reputation as a skilled orator. Garfield agreed with Radical Republican views regarding Reconstruction, but favored a moderate approach for civil rights enforcement for freedmen. At the 1880 Republican National Convention, Senator-elect Garfield attended as campaign manager for Secretary of the Treasury John Sherman, gave the presidential nomination speech for him.
When neither Sherman nor his rivals – Ulysses S. Grant and James G. Blaine – could get enough votes to secure the nomination, delegates chose Garfield as a compromise on the 36th ballot. In the 1880 presidential election, Garfield conducted a low-key front porch campaign and narrowly defeated Democrat Winfield Scott Hancock. Garfield's accomplishments as president included a resurgence of presidential authority against senatorial courtesy in executive appointments, purging corruption in the Post Office, appointing a U. S. Supreme Court justice, he enhanced the powers of the presidency when he defied the powerful New York senator Roscoe Conkling by appointing William H. Robertson to the lucrative post of Collector of the Port of New York, starting a fracas that ended with Robertson's confirmation and Conkling's resignation from the Senate. Garfield advocated agricultural technology, an educated electorate, civil rights for African Americans, he proposed substantial civil service reforms. On July 2, 1881, Garfield was shot at the Baltimore and Potomac Railroad Station in Washington D.
C. by Charles J. Guiteau, a disappointed office seeker; the wound was not fatal for Garfield, but he succumbed on September 19, 1881. Guiteau was executed for the murder of Garfield in June 1882. Historians forgo listing Garfield in rankings of U. S. presidents due to the short duration of his presidency. James Garfield was born the youngest of five children on November 19, 1831, in a log cabin in Orange Township, now Moreland Hills, Ohio. Orange Township had been in the Western Reserve until 1800, like many who settled there, Garfield's ancestors were from New England, his ancestor, Edward Garfield immigrating from Hillmorton, England, to Massachusetts in around 1630. James' father Abram had been born in Worcester, New York, came to Ohio to woo his childhood sweetheart, Mehitabel Ballou, only to find her married, he instead wed her sister Eliza, born in New Hampshire. James was named for an older brother. In early 1833, Abram and Eliza Garfield joined the Church of Christ, a decision that would help shape their youngest son's life.
Abram Garfield died that year. James was her favorite child, the two remained close for the rest of his life. Eliza Garfield remarried in 1842, but soon left her second husband, Warren Belden, a then-scandalous divorce was awarded against her in 1850. James took his mother's side and when Belden died in 1880, noted the fact in his diary with satisfaction. Garfield enjoyed his mother's stories about his ancestry his Welsh great-great-grandfathers and his ancestor who served as a knight of Caerffili Castle. Poor and fatherless, Garfield was mocked by his fellow boys, throughout his life was sensitive to slights, he escaped through reading. He left home at age 16 in 1847. Rejected by the only ship in port in Cleveland, Garfield instead found work on a canal boat, responsible for managing the mules that pulled it; this labor would be used to good effect by Horatio Alger, who penned Garfield's campaign biography in 1880. After six weeks, illness forced Garfield to return home and, during his recuperation, his mother and a local education official got him to promise to postpone his return to the canals for a year and go to school.
Accordingly, in 1848, he began in nearby Chester Township. Garfield said of his childhood, "I lament that I was born to poverty, in this chaos of childhood, seventeen years passed before I caught any inspiration... a precious 17 years when a boy with a father and some wealth might have become fixed in manly ways." At Geauga Academy, which he attended from 1848 to 1850, Garfield learned academic subjects he had not had time for. He shone as a student, was interested in languages and elocution, he began to appreciate the power a speaker had over an audience, writing that the speaker's platform "creates some excitement. I love agitation and investigation and glory in defending unpopular truth against popular error." Geauga was co-educational, Garfield was attracted to one of his fellow students, Lucretia Rudolph, whom he married. To support himself at Geauga, he worked as a teacher; the need to go from town to town to find a place as a teacher disguste
1868 Republican National Convention
The 1868 Republican National Convention of the Republican Party of the United States was held in Crosby's Opera House, Cook County, Illinois, on May 20 to May 21, 1868. Commanding General of the U. S. Army Ulysses S. Grant was the unanimous choice of the Republicans for President. At the convention he was chosen by acclamation on the first ballot. For Vice-President the delegates chose the Republican Speaker of the House of Representatives Schuyler Colfax, Grant's choice. In Grant's acceptance telegram he said "Let us have peace", which captured the imagination of the American people. Benjamin F. Wade John A. J. Creswell Andrew G. Curtin Reuben E. Fenton Hannibal Hamlin James Harlan William D. Kelley Samuel C. Pomeroy James Speed Henry Wilson United States presidential election, 1868 1868 Democratic National Convention History of the United States Republican Party List of Republican National Conventions U. S. presidential nomination convention Presidential election, 1868.: Proceedings of the National union Republican convention, held at Chicago, May 20 and 21, 1868./ reported by Ely, Burnham & Bartlett, official reporters of the convention.
Republican Party Platform of 1868 at The American Presidency Project
James G. Blaine
James Gillespie Blaine was an American statesman and Republican politician who represented Maine in the U. S. House of Representatives from 1863 to 1876, serving as Speaker of the U. S. House of Representatives from 1869 to 1875, in the United States Senate from 1876 to 1881. Blaine twice served as Secretary of State, one of only two persons to hold the position under three separate presidents, unsuccessfully sought the Republican nomination for President in 1876 and 1880 before being nominated in 1884. In the general election, he was narrowly defeated by Democrat Grover Cleveland. Blaine was one of the late 19th century's leading Republicans and champion of the moderate reformist faction of the party known as the "Half-Breeds". Blaine was born in the western Pennsylvania town of West Brownsville and after college moved to Maine, where he became a newspaper editor. Nicknamed "the Magnetic Man", he was a charismatic speaker in an era, he began his political career as an early supporter of Abraham Lincoln and the Union war effort in the American Civil War.
In Reconstruction, Blaine was a supporter of black suffrage, but opposed some of the more coercive measures of the Radical Republicans. A protectionist, he worked for a reduction in the tariff and an expansion of American trade with foreign countries. Railroad promotion and construction were important issues in his time, as a result of his interest and support, Blaine was suspected of corruption in the awarding of railroad charters; as Secretary of State, Blaine was a transitional figure, marking the end of an isolationist era in foreign policy and foreshadowing the rise of the American Century that would begin with the Spanish–American War. His efforts at expanding the United States' trade and influence began the shift to a more active American foreign policy. Blaine urged greater involvement in Latin American affairs. An expansionist, Blaine's policies would lead in less than a decade to the establishment of the United States' acquisition of Pacific colonies and dominance of the Caribbean.
James Gillespie Blaine was born January 31, 1830 in West Brownsville, the third child of Ephraim Lyon Blaine and his wife Maria Blaine. He had two older sisters and Margaret. Blaine's father was a western Pennsylvania businessman and landowner, the family lived in relative comfort. On his father's side, Blaine was descended from Scotch-Irish settlers who first emigrated to Pennsylvania in 1745, his great-grandfather Ephraim Blaine served as a Commissary-General under George Washington in the American Revolutionary War. Blaine's mother and her forebears were Irish Catholics. Blaine's parents were married in 1820 in a Roman Catholic ceremony, although Blaine's father remained a Presbyterian. Following a common compromise of the era, the Blaines agreed that their daughters would be raised in their mother's Catholic faith while their sons would be brought up in their father's religion. In politics, Blaine's father supported the Whig party. Blaine's biographers describe his childhood as "harmonious," and note that the boy took an early interest in history and literature.
At the age of thirteen, Blaine enrolled in his father's alma mater, Washington College, in nearby Washington, Pennsylvania. There, he was a member of the Washington Literary Society, one of the college's debating societies. Blaine succeeded academically, graduating near the top of his class and delivering the salutatory address in June 1847. After graduation, Blaine considered attending law school at Yale Law School, but decided against it, instead moving west to find a job. In 1848, Blaine was hired as a professor of mathematics and ancient languages at the Western Military Institute in Georgetown, Kentucky. Although he was only eighteen years old and younger than many of his students, Blaine adapted well to his new profession. Blaine became an admirer of Kentucky Senator Henry Clay, he made the acquaintance of Harriet Stanwood, a teacher at the nearby Millersburg Female College and native of Maine. On June 30, 1850, the two were married. Blaine once again considered taking up the study of law, but instead took his new bride to visit his family in Pennsylvania.
They next lived with Harriet Blaine's family in Augusta, Maine for several months, where their first child, Stanwood Blaine, was born in 1851. The young family soon moved again, this time to Philadelphia where Blaine took a job at the Pennsylvania Institution for the Instruction of the Blind in 1852, teaching science and literature. Philadelphia's law libraries gave Blaine the chance to at last begin to study the law, but in 1853 he received a more tempting offer: to become editor and co-owner of the Kennebec Journal. Blaine had spent several vacations in his wife's native state of Maine and had become friendly with the Journal's editors; when the newspaper's founder, Luther Severance, Blaine was invited to purchase the publication along with co-editor Joseph Baker. He accepted, borrowing the purchase price from his wife's brothers. Baker soon sold his share to John L. Stevens, a local minister, in 1854; the Journal had been a staunchly Whig newspaper, which coincided with Blaine's and Stevens' political opinions.
The decision to become a newspaperman, unexpected as it was, started Blaine on the road to a lifelong career in politics. Blaine's purchase of the Journal coincided with the demise of the Whig party and birth of the Republican party
1880 Republican National Convention
The 1880 Republican National Convention convened from June 2 to June 8, 1880, at the Interstate Exposition Building in Chicago, United States, nominated Representative James A. Garfield of Ohio and Chester A. Arthur of New York as the official candidates of the Republican Party for President and Vice President in the 1880 presidential election. Of the 14 men in contention for the Republican nomination, the three strongest candidates leading up to the convention were Ulysses S. Grant, James G. Blaine, John Sherman. Grant had served two terms as President from 1869 to 1877, was seeking an unprecedented third term in office, he was backed by the Stalwart faction of the Republican Party, which supported political machines and patronage. Blaine was a senator and former representative from Maine, backed by the Half-Breed faction of the Republican Party. Sherman, the brother of Civil War General William Tecumseh Sherman, was serving as Secretary of the Treasury under President Rutherford B. Hayes. A former senator from Ohio, he was backed by delegates who did not support the Stalwarts or Half-Breeds.
On the first ballot, Sherman received 93 votes, while Grant and Blaine had 304 and 285, respectively. With 379 votes required to win the nomination, none of the candidates was close to victory, the balloting continued. After the thirty-fifth ballot and Sherman switched their support to a new "dark horse" candidate, James Garfield. On the next ballot, Garfield won the nomination by receiving 399 votes, 93 higher than Grant's total. Garfield's Ohio delegation chose Chester A. Arthur, a Stalwart, as Garfield's vice-presidential running mate. Arthur won the nomination by capturing 468 votes, the longest-ever Republican National Convention was subsequently adjourned; the Garfield–Arthur Republican ticket defeated Democrats Winfield Scott Hancock and William Hayden English in the close 1880 presidential election. As President of the United States, Rutherford B. Hayes had caused heated tensions within the Republican Party. Hayes had moved away from party patronage by offering government jobs to Southern Democrats instead of Northern Republicans.
His actions drew heavy criticism from those inside his party, such as Roscoe Conkling of New York and James G. Blaine of Maine. Hayes had known since the dispute over the 1876 election that he was unlikely to win in 1880, had announced at his 1877 inauguration that he would not run for a second term. Without an incumbent president in the race, the rival factions within the Republican Party, the Stalwarts and the Half-Breeds, eagerly anticipated the 1880 presidential election. At the close of Grant's two terms as president in 1877, the Republican-controlled Congress suggested that Grant not return to the White House for a third term. Grant did not seem to mind and told his wife Julia, "I do not want to be here another four years. I do not think I could stand it." After Grant left the White House, he and his wife decided to use their US$85,000 of savings to travel around the world. A biographer from the New York Herald, John Russell Young, traveled with the Grants and documented their journey to exotic places around the world in a book published called Around the World with General Grant.
Young saw that Grant's popularity was soaring, as he was treated with splendid receptions at his arrival in Tokyo and Peking, China. After Hayes' falling-out with the Republican Party and a perceived desire on the part of the United States' electorate for a strong man in the White House, Grant returned to the United States ahead of schedule, in hopes of seeking a third term in office. With the backing of the Stalwarts and calls for a "man of iron" to replace the "man of straw" in the White House, Grant was confident that he would receive the Republican nomination for the presidency. Roscoe Conkling, the leader of the Stalwart faction, formed a "triumvirate" with J. Donald Cameron of Pennsylvania and John A. Logan of Illinois to lead the campaign for Grant's return to the White House. With a Grant victory and other Stalwarts would have great influence in the White House. Grant knew he could count on the Stalwart leaders to solidify their respective states in order to guarantee a Grant victory.
Conkling was so confident in Grant's nomination that he said, "Nothing but an act of God could prevent Grant's nomination." An aide to the ex-president, Adam Badeau, commented that Grant had become "extremely anxious to receive the nomination" and did not think that there was any chance of failure. However, close friends of Grant saw. John Russell Young took Grant aside and told him that he would lose the election, should withdraw to avoid embarrassment. Young argued that Grant was being attacked by opponents, who were against the concept of a presidential third term. Young criticized the handling of the campaign and told Grant that if he won the election, he would be indebted to the "triumvirate". Grant felt that his Stalwart friends had been of great assistance in his election bid, they deserved political patronage in his administration. Grant, listened to Young's advice and wrote a letter to J. Donald Cameron, authorizing his name to be withdrawn from the nomination contest after consultation with his other Stalwart backers.
Upon hearing of his letter, Julia Grant was insistent that her husband should not withdraw his name from the contest. She said, "If General Grant were not nominated let it be so, but he must not withdraw his name – no, never." Young delivered the letter to the "triumvirate" in Chicago on May 31, but no action was taken to remove Grant's name. The other main contender for the Republican nomination was James G. Blaine. Blaine, a senator from Maine who had served in the United States
1860 Republican National Convention
The 1860 Republican National Convention known as the 2nd Republican National Convention, was a nominating convention of the Republican Party of the United States, held in Chicago, from May 16 to 18, 1860. The gathering nominated former U. S. Representative Abraham Lincoln of Illinois for President of the United States and Senator Hannibal Hamlin of Maine for Vice President. Lincoln's nomination was a surprise, as the favorite before the convention had been former Governor of New York and U. S. Senator William H. Seward. Lincoln's campaign manager, David Davis, is credited for Lincoln's victory over Thurlow Weed, Seward's campaign manager. Lincoln-Hamlin went on to defeat three other major tickets that year, including Democratic nominee Stephen A. Douglas, U. S. Senator from Illinois. By 1860 the dissolution of the Whig Party in America had become an accomplished fact, with establishment Whig politicians, former Free Soilers, a certain number of anti-Catholic populists from the Know Nothing movement flocking to the banner of the fledgling anti-slavery Republican Party.
While the Republican Presidential effort on behalf of the 43-year-old Colonel John C. Frémont in the 1856 election had met with failure, party gains were made throughout the Northern United States as the sectional crisis over slavery intensified. Party leaders sought to hold their 1860 nominating convention in the burgeoning Middle Western trade center of Chicago a city of some 110,000 people; the city had no sufficiently large meeting hall, so an appropriation was made for a temporary wood-frame assembly hall – known as the "Wigwam" – to seat ten thousand delegates and observers. The designed and constructed building proved well fit for the purpose, featuring excellent lines of sight and stellar acoustics, allowing an ordinary speaker to be heard throughout the room; the Convention commanded the interest and attention of a multitude of curious citizens who crowded the "Wigwam" to the rafters. Delegations were seated by state and the gathering was devoid of Southern participation, with no delegations attending from the slave states of North Carolina, South Carolina, Arkansas, Alabama, Mississippi and Florida.
Delegation voting strength was loosely based upon the size of each state's congressional delegation, subject to some modification by the Credentials Committee, with the Northeastern delegations of New York, Pennsylvania and New Jersey constituting the largest regional block, surpassing the Midwestern states of Ohio, Indiana and Iowa. Some 86 votes were apportioned to the six states of New England. Slave and border states with substantial delegations under the rules included Kentucky and Missouri; the total of all credentialed delegate votes was 466. With the convention called to order on May 16, former U. S. Representative David Wilmot of Pennsylvania was elected temporary chairman of the gathering, he had been the author in 1848 of the Wilmot Proviso which would have banned slavery from new states incorporated into the Union. Upon his election, Wilmot delivered the keynote speech to the Convention, in which he declared that: A great sectional and aristocratic party, or interest, has for years dominated with a high hand over the political affairs of this country.
That interest has wrested, is now wresting, all the great powers of this government to the one object of the extension and nationalization of slavery. It is our purpose, gentlemen, it is the mission of the Republican Party and the basis of its organization, to resist this policy of a sectional interest.... It is our purpose and our policy to resist these new constitutional dogmas that slavery exists by virtue of the constitution wherever the banner of the Union floats. Organizational tasks filled the rest of the first day's activities, including the appointment of a Credentials Committee and a Resolutions Committee. There were no contested seats although a delegation purporting to represent the state of Texas was ruled ineligible by the Credentials Committee. A Platform Committee was named, including one delegate from every state and territory in attendance; this committee began its work at once and completed its task with a report on the evening of the second day, May 17. The reading of the platform, as drafted by the Platform Committee chaired by Judge William Jessup of Pennsylvania, was received with stormy applause and an immediate move followed to adopt the document unanimously and without amendments.
An effort followed to amend the platform after adoption with insertion of famous language from the Declaration of Independence that "All men are created equal. This Amendment was rejected by the convention, prompting a walkout by its proposer, long time Ohio Congressman Joshua Reed Giddings; the matter was hastily reconsidered by the Convention, with the addition of the amendment the disgruntled Mr. Giddings returned to his seat, crisis resolved; the 1860 Republican platform consisted of 17 declarations of principle, of which 10 dealt directly with the issues of free soil principles, the Fugitive Slave Act, the preservation of the Union, while the remaining 7 dealing with other issues. Clauses 12 through 16 of the platform called for a protective tariff, enactment of the Homestead Act, freedom of immigration into the United States and full rights to all immigrant citizens, internal improvements, the construction of a Pacific railroad. In addition to the preservation of the Union, all five of these additional promises were enacted by the Thirty-seventh Congress and implemented by Abraham Lincoln or the presidents who succ
1908 Republican National Convention
The 1908 Republican National Convention was held in Chicago Coliseum, Illinois on June 16 to June 19, 1908. It convened to nominate a successor to the popular GOP President, Theodore Roosevelt and his Vice President, Charles W. Fairbanks. U. S. Secretary of War William H. Taft of Ohio received the nomination; the convention nominated New York Representative James S. Sherman to be his running mate; the Republican platform celebrated the Roosevelt administration's economic policies such as the keeping of the protective tariff, establishment of a permanent currency system, additional government supervision and control over trusts. It championed enforcement of railroad rate laws, giving the Interstate Commerce Commission authority to investigate interstate railroads, reduction of work hours for railroad workers, as well as general reduction in the work week. In foreign policy, it supported a buildup of the armed forces, protection of American citizens abroad, extension of foreign commerce, vigorous arbitration and the Hague treaties, a revival of the U.
S. Merchant Marine, support of war veterans, self-government for Cuba and the Philippines with citizenship for residents of Puerto Rico. In other areas, it advocated court reform, creation of a federal Bureau of Mines and Mining, extension of rural mail delivery, environmental conservation, upholding of the rights of African-Americans and the civil service, greater efficiency in national public health agencies; the platform lastly expressed pride in U. S. involvement in the building of the Panama Canal, the admission of the New Mexico and Arizona Territories. The platform explained the differences between democracy and republicanism in which the Republicans made clear that democracy was leaning towards socialism and republicanism towards individualism, consistent with modern party critiques; the following individuals spoke at the 1908 Republican National Convention. Many spoke with the goal of nominating a specific nominee as this was before the age of the primary and the nominees were all decided at the convention.
Prayer by Rt. Rev. P. J. Muldoon V. G. Julius C. Burrows, Michigan Senator Prayer by Rev. William Otis Waters Henry Cabot Lodge, Massachusetts Senator Prayer by Rev. Dr. John Wesley Hill George Henry Williams, Former Attorney General Henry Sherman Boutell of Illinois and diplomat Joseph W. Fordney, Congressman of Michigan Frank Hanly, Governor of Indiana Charles A. Bookwalter, Mayor of Indianapolis Stewart L. Woodford, Former Congressman and Judge of New York Theodore E. Burton, Congressman of Ohio George A. Knight and Businessman C. B. M'Coy, Ohio Factory Owner W. O. Emory, Young Black Delegate from Macon, Georgia Robert S. Murphy, Lieutenant Governor of Pennsylvania James Scarlet, Prominent Attorney from Danville, Pennsylvania Henry F. Cochems, Wisconsin Football Star Charles A. A. McGee, Author of "The Truth About Money" from Wisconsin Prayer by Rabbi Tobias Schanfarber Timothy L. Woodruff and Former Politician Joseph Gurney Cannon, Speaker of the House Augustus E. Willson, Governor of Kentucky Henry Cabot Lodge Chase Osborn of Michigan James Brownlow Yellowley, Mississippi State Legislator Thomas N. McCarter, Former Attorney General of New Jersey and public servant William Warner, Senator from Missouri Julius C.
Burrows of Michigan Prior to the convention, Vice President Charles Fairbanks and New York Governor Charles Evans Hughes both seemed like plausible nominees, but Roosevelt was determined to pick his own successor. Though Roosevelt preferred Secretary of State Elihu Root, Root's age and background in corporate law made him an unpalatable nominee, so Roosevelt instead supported Secretary of War William Howard Taft. Entering the convention, buoyed by the support of the popular Roosevelt, was assured of the nomination. Taft won the presidential nomination on the first ballot, overcoming Fairbanks and the other candidates. Taft preferred a progressive running mate such as Indiana Senator Albert Beveridge or Iowa Senator Jonathan Dolliver, but Representative James S. Sherman of New York had the support of Speaker Joseph Gurney Cannon and the New York delegation. Sherman was a conservative Republican, nonetheless acceptable to the more progressive wing of the party. Sherman won the vice presidential nomination on the first ballot.
Former New Jersey Governor Franklin Murphy received 77 votes while Massachusetts Governor Curtis Guild, Jr. received 75 votes, with the remaining votes going to Governor George L. Sheldon of Nebraska and Vice President Charles Fairbanks. History of the United States Republican Party List of Republican National Conventions U. S. presidential nomination convention United States presidential election, 1908 1908 Democratic National Convention Republican Party platform of 1908 at The American Presidency Project Taft acceptance speech at The American Presidency Project