Richard Saunders is an Australian skeptic and professional origamist. He received recognition by the Australian Skeptics with a Life Membership in 2001 for his contributions to the organisation, has twice served as their president, he founded Sydney Skeptics in the Pub. He has presented on skepticism, represented the Australian Skeptics on television and radio shows, is the co-host of the Skeptic Zone podcast. Born in Kurri Kurri, New South Wales, Saunders traveled internationally with his family in his early life, since his father, Rev. Robert H. Saunders, a Methodist preacher, took the family to live in Tribune, Canada from 1968-1969. Returning to Australia, Saunders attended a variety of primary schools in Mullumbimby and graduated from Woy Woy High School in 1984. After graduating from high school, Saunders joined educational publisher Ashton Scholastic and sold educational software for Apple II and Commodore 64 home computers. In 1988 he began authoring over twenty books on origami, which subsequently were featured on the Australian children's television program Wombat, The ABC Afternoon Show, similar programs.
He worked as a web designer for The Advance Bank of Australia and Commonwealth Bank and in 1999 was transferred to EDS, where he designed the interface for netBank online banking and worked for two years before joining GreenStone Pty Ltd as a web designer for three years. Saunders works as a part-time actor and a film and TV extra, appearing in the background in such feature films as Superman Returns and Australia as well as in the background in the TV shows All Saints and Home and Away. In 2013 he was invited to be a member of the "World Competition Jury" at Academia Film Olomouc's 48th International Festival of Science Documentary Films or AFO48 in the Czech Republic, he gave a lecture on the claims of water divining as part of the "Pseudoscience" block and a lecture and workshops on origami as part of the "Beauty of Numbers" block. In 2008 he and Gary Clark produced "DVD Origami," an instructional DVD with step-by-step instructions on how to fold 20 paper models. Saunders has over 10 years of experience researching claims of the paranormal.
As a teenager he was inspired by Channel 7's Great Mysteries of the World with Scott Lambert. A TV documentary called, he joined the committee of the Australian Skeptics in 2001 and has been President and Vice President of the organization. He was granted a Life Membership in the organization in recognition of his work on The Great Skeptic CD, he went on to create the Great Water Divining DVD and the "card carrying skeptic card." He founded Sydney Skeptics in the Pub, initiated "The Skeptic Tank" radio show on Net. FM with Stefan Sojka, produced The Australian Skeptics collection on "Theories of Everything" for TVS local Sydney TV, created several of the Australians Skeptics convention DVDs, he was the acting artistic director and layout manager for The Skeptic Magazine from Australian Skeptics until Tim Mendham was appointed the new editor in June 2009. In 2003 Saunders co-founded The Mystery Investigators Show with Ian Bryce; the program teaches students to use science and critical thinking to investigate claims of the paranormal, such as water divining, spoon bending, firewalking.
In 2008 Brown was replaced by biologist Dr. Rachael Dunlop. In 2013 the show celebrated 10 years of performing. In 2010 he helped organize the first The Amaz!ng Meeting Australia in Sydney. The meeting featured presentations by several high-profile members of the skeptical community, including James Randi, Brian Dunning, Eugenie Scott, he has used his expertise in origami to design an origami Pigasus in honour of the mascot of the James Randi Educational Foundation. He authored instructions for a dragon for Skeptic, he recorded a YouTube instructional video of the Pigasus. 2001 Made "Life Member" of Australian Skeptics, Inc. 2011 Made CSI Fellow Saunders was producer and host of The Tank Vodcast. In 2008 this podcast became The Skeptic Zone podcast, which has had its 500th episode in May 19, 2018, it appears weekly and is billed as "The Podcast from Australia for Science and Reason." Saunders has produced every episode of The Skeptic Zone podcast. He has appeared as a guest on many other podcasts and vodcasts including The Skeptics' Guide to the Universe, Dragon*Pod, The Reason Driven Podcast, The Amateur Scientist Podcast, Bad Psychics TV, Meet The Skeptics!
He has made many appearances on radio and television in his role as a skeptic, including on Today Tonight, Radio 2GB, Radio 2UE, Nova 106.9, 702 ABC, the pilot show for "Curiosity Aroused". In 2007 he did a recurring segment for the Mike Williams Saturday Night Live radio program called Myths and Mysteries. In 2011 and 2012 he was a regular on The Dirty Disbelievers a radio program on the Australian Broadcasting Corporation radio network. In July and August 2008 and in 2011, he appeared as the resident skeptic judge on The One, an Australian reality television program on the Seven Network that tested the powers of several alleged psychics, he has spoken at many skeptic meetings including the Australian Skeptics National Convention in 2003, 2004, 2008. In the United States he appeared at The Amaz!ng Adventure North to Alaska in 2007, The Amaz!ng Meeting 6 and the Skeptrack at Dragon*Con, both in 2008. Saunders produced the Vaccination Chronicles in 2014; the film is a 30-minute documentary collec
The Groote Schuur Zoo was a 2-hectare zoo in Cape Town, South Africa. Established in 1931 at the request of deceased Cecil Rhodes, it was free of charge and a popular attraction in Cape Town until its closure sometime between 1975 and 1985; the zoo shut down due to a combination of the financial burden that the Apartheid government faced and an increase in animal welfare standards. During its operation, it housed many animals including lions, emus and tahrs; the zoo can still be visited today, as it left open to the public. The most prominent feature of the zoo is the Lion's Den, both when it was open and today where it still stands, full of overgrown vegetation. In 1893, Cecil Rhodes purchased the Rhodes Estate, he had a herbivorous menagerie on his estate and in 1896 he was gifted two lions and a leopard, for which he built an extension onto the menagerie to house the creatures. He had elaborate designs for the house, but only a small house was built. Upon his death he bequeathed his estate to the state, in 1930 the Lion house was torn down.
The following year new enclosures were built to house the animals and the site became known as Groote Schuur Zoo. In 1974, three students attempted to kidnap a lion cub in a drunken escapade following a University of Cape Town rugby win. One of the students, a winger on the team, was bitten by one of the lionesses and rushed to hospital, where he fought infection for six months before recovering, it is alleged that the remains of a body of a drifter was found one morning at the bottom of the pit in an unrelated incident, but that it was covered up. While today the only physical remains are the abandoned buildings, the zoo has a notable legacy. At one point during its operation, two tahrs, a breed of Himalayan mountain goat, escaped up Table Mountain; these goats bred a significant population. In 2000, the decision was made to control the population through culling due to the environmental damage they caused, while they are rare, there is still a population of goats on the mountain. Another notable escapee that flourished was the common starling, which can now still be found in South Africa
Local elections were held in Gabon on April 27–30, 2008, with 1,990 municipal and departmental councillors being elected. Prior to the election, a victory for the ruling Gabonese Democratic Party was expected. There were a total of about 850 lists presented in the elections, campaigning ended at midnight on April 26. Results given by the Interior Minister, André Mba Obame, on May 3 showed the PDG winning 1,154 seats, while the opposition Gabonese Union for Democracy and Development won 161 seats; the Union of the Gabonese People won about 90 seats. According to Mba Obame, the PDG majority confirmed the voters' "commitment to the implementation of the political project" of President Omar Bongo; the results still proclaimed by the Constitutional Court. The councillors were to elect mayors within eight days of the formal proclamation of results. Obame placed voter turnout at between 65% and 70%. Although reported high in most of the country, it was said to be low in Libreville, the capital, where it was estimated at about 17%.
There were 119 constituencies in the election, the PDG was the only party to present candidate lists in all of them. In Libreville, the PDG won a plurality of seats but failed to win a majority, taking 42 of the 98 seats and winning in three of the six arrondissements; the PDG's best result in Libreville was obtained in the fifth arrondissement, where its list was headed by former Prime Minister Jean-Francois Ntoutoume Emane and it obtained 12 out of 16 seats. In the country's second city, Port-Gentil, the PDG won only 15 out the 63 seats, while the independent list of Mayor Séraphin Ndaot Rembogo won 28. Following Obame's announcement of results, the Rally for Gabon, part of the presidential majority, held a protest against the results, alleging that various means were used to skew the vote in favor of the PDG, it demanded that the electoral system be reformed. The President of the Constitutional Court, Marie Madeleine Mborantsuo, announced final results on May 7, confirming the PDG's victory, with its numbers unchanged from those given by Mba Obame a few days earlier.
Emile Moussavou Moundziegou, a PDG deputy, accused of destroying a ballot box, was penalized by being barred from office for five years. Additionally, the Court ordered an investigation of violence that occurred in Lemboumbi-Leyou Department in the south-east and in the commune of Mitzic in the north, noting that any elected candidates who were involved in this violence would lose their mandates. On May 8, the government set the election for mayors of municipalities and for the presidents and vice-presidents of departmental councils for May 20; the election for mayors of municipalities and for the presidents of departmental councils was held on May 23, Ntoutoume Emane was elected unopposed as Mayor of Libreville. He received 84 votes. Four deputy mayors were elected: Michel Teale of the PDG, Christian Odou Mba of the Rally of the Gabonese People, Eloi Ndzondo of the Circle of Liberal Reformers, Léandre Zué of the PDG
Shielding gases are inert or semi-inert gases that are used in several welding processes, most notably gas metal arc welding and gas tungsten arc welding. Their purpose is to protect the weld area from oxygen, water vapour. Depending on the materials being welded, these atmospheric gases can reduce the quality of the weld or make the welding more difficult. Other arc welding processes use alternative methods of protecting the weld from the atmosphere as well – shielded metal arc welding, for example, uses an electrode covered in a flux that produces carbon dioxide when consumed, a semi-inert gas, an acceptable shielding gas for welding steel. Improper choice of a welding gas can lead to excessive spatter. Shielding gases fall into two categories -- semi-inert. Only two of the noble gases and argon, are cost effective enough to be used in welding; these inert gases are used in gas tungsten arc welding, in gas metal arc welding for the welding of non-ferrous metals. Semi-inert shielding gases, or active shield gases, include carbon dioxide, oxygen and hydrogen.
These active gases are used with GMAW on ferrous metals. Most of these gases, in large quantities, would damage the weld, but when used in small, controlled quantities, can improve weld characteristics; the important properties of shielding gases are their thermal conductivity and heat transfer properties, their density relative to air, the ease with which they undergo ionization. Gases require lower flow rates than gases lighter than air. Heat transfer is important for heating the weld around the arc. Ionizability influences how easy the arc starts, how high voltage is required. Shielding gases can be used pure, or as a blend of three gases. In laser welding, the shielding gas has an additional role, preventing formation of a cloud of plasma above the weld, absorbing significant fraction of the laser energy; this is important for CO2 lasers. Helium plays this role best due to its high ionization potential. Argon is the common shielding gas used as the base for the more specialized gas mixes. Carbon dioxide is the least expensive shielding gas, providing deep penetration, however it negatively affects the stability of the arc and enhances the molten metal's tendency to create droplets.
Carbon dioxide in concentration of 1-2% is used in the mix with argon to reduce the surface tension of the molten metal. Another common blend is 25% carbon dioxide and 75% argon for GMAW. Helium is lighter than air, it is an inert gas, not reacting with the molten metals. Its thermal conductivity is high, it is not easy to ionize. Due to higher ionization potential it produces hotter arc at higher voltage, provides wide deep bead. Other gases are added. Blends of helium with addition of 5–10% of argon and 2–5% of carbon dioxide can be used for welding of stainless steel. Used for aluminium and other non-ferrous metals for thicker welds. In comparison with argon, helium provides less stable arc. Helium and carbon dioxide were the first shielding gases used, since the beginning of World War 2. Helium is used as a shield gas in laser welding for carbon dioxide lasers. Helium is more expensive than argon and requires higher flow rates, so despite its advantages it may not be a cost-effective choice for higher-volume production.
Pure helium is not used for steel, as it provides erratic arc and encourages spatter. Oxygen is used in small amounts as an addition to other gases, it enhances arc stability and reduces the surface tension of the molten metal, increasing wetting of the solid metal. It is used for spray transfer welding of low alloy and stainless steels, its presence increases the amount of slag. Argon-oxygen blends are being replaced with argon-carbon dioxide ones. Argon-carbon dioxide-oxygen blends are used. Oxygen causes oxidation of the weld,so it is not suitable for welding aluminium, magnesium and some exotic metals. Increased oxygen makes the shielding gas oxidize the electrode, which can lead to porosity in the deposit if the electrode does not contain sufficient deoxidizers. Excessive oxygen when used in application for which it is not prescribed, can lead to brittleness in the heat affected zone. Argon-oxygen blends with 1–2% oxygen are used for austenitic stainless steel where argon-CO2 can not be used due to required low content of carbon in the weld.
Hydrogen is used for welding of nickel and some stainless steels thicker pieces. It improves the molten metal fluidity, enhances cleanness of the surface, it is added to argon in amounts under 10%. It can be added to argon-carbon dioxide blends to counteract the oxidizing effects of carbon dioxide, its addition increases the arc temperature, leading to better weld penetration. In higher concentrations, it may be used for welding conductive materials such as copper. However, it should not be used on steel, aluminum or magnesium because it can cause porosity and hydrogen embrittlement.
Hawkwind in Your Area is the twenty-second live/studio album by the English space rock group Hawkwind. The live side was recorded during the group's 1997 tour to promote the Distant Horizons album; the studio tracks were recorded during 1998. The group had ceased business dealings with former manager Douglas Smith, running the record label Emergency Broadcast System Records, as a consequence found themselves without an outlet in Europe for their recordings, they had, however, a long-standing deal with Griffin Music in North America for licensing the EBS material, so this album received a North American release in January 1999, but no European equivalent. In 2000, as Brock started to make archive material available for release in the UK through Voiceprint Records, it received a belated UK release. "Brainstorm" / "Hawkwind In Your Area" / "Alchemy" – 11:08 "Love in Space" – 2:46 "Rat Race" – 5:51 "Aerospace Age Inferno" – 5:32 "First Landing on Medusa" – 1:41 "I Am the Reptoid" – 3:19 "The Nazca" – 0:44 "Hippy" – 5:45 "Prairie" – 2:39 "Your Fantasy" – 5:04 "Luxotica" – 3:09 "Diana Park" – 4:21 Dave Brock – electric guitar, vocals Jerry Richards – electric guitar Ron Tree – vocals, bass guitar Richard Chadwick – drumswith: Captain Rizz – vocals Crum – Keyboards Tracks 1-6 recorded live at Ancienne Belgique, Belgium – 20 November 1997 1999: Griffin Music, GCD740-2, USA 2000: Voiceprint, HAWKVP17CD, UK
Beaumont Road is a housing estate located in Leyton in East London. It is the largest housing estate in the borough of Waltham Forest, is now the last high rise estate in Leyton. All neighbouring high rise estates have been demolished, it is situated just south on Leyton High Road. The Beaumont Road Estate was built in two stages. Stage 1, approved in 1963, consisted of one 20-storey tower called All Saints' Tower, while an extension to Stage 1 approved in 1965 consisted of another 20-storey tower called St Paul's Tower. Stage 2, approved in 1966, consisted of one 20-storey tower called St Catherine's Tower Altogether. In addition 23 low rise blocks were approved in 1966. Beaumont road contained many elderly homes, Victorian houses and bungalows. Beaumont road when completed contained. Complete with 898 flats with a population of 4,490; the original estate comprised: All Saints Tower St Cathrine's Tower St Paul's Tower St Thomas Court St Elizabeth Court St Edward's Court St Josephs Court St Mathews Court St Mark's Court St Lukes Court Flack Court Emanuel Court Ayerst Court Muriel Court Russel Court Osbourne Court Howell Court Kings Close Dare Court Staton Court Shelly Court Emmanuel Court Atkinson Court Shop CourtWith Beaumont bungalows Beaumont House Beaumont Primary school Beaumont newsagents Beaumont Community centre Beaumont Cyber centre Leyton Community support centre The Six Bells pub Demolition of the original Beaumont road housing, including the two towers, began during early 2006.
The estate is due to be redeveloped as part of a regeneration programme set to last three years and cost over £40 million. Planned to replace the 40-year-old estate are a series of "squares and neighbourhoods around a central, tree-lined avenue on Beaumont Road and reinstated the road's pre-war route.". Some of the squares will be on the sites of the original towers. A total of 306 new properties will be built in three phases over the projects three years, of which some will be social housing; the towers themselves have dominated the skyline in and around Bakers Arms and their demolition will mean Waltham Forest will have only one remaining high-rise over 20 floors, Northwood Tower. This is down from a peak of 20 in 1971.'Home' was the maiden production of site-specific theatre company Offstage and received vast media coverage on TV with news reports on Channel 4, ITN, BBC London as well as most national and some international papers. Directed by Cressida Brown,'Home' was performed promenade in St Catherines Tower prior to its demolition in January 2006.
The play text was inspired from interviews with the residents on the estate while Flat 14 on the 9th floor was designed with installations of found objects as well as the competition pictures of the local primary children, painted murals of the early teen crews, graffiti of local tagger Edge. It was written by Gbolahan Obisesan to give the community of Beaumont estate a chance to "document what the area means to them." Rap, video projections of climbing the towers and acted scenes were used to recount stories of life in Beaumont in one flat in the tower with the audience moving from room to room to follow the story. "A bird's eye view about to be changed forever" By Sarah Cosgrove Waltham Forest Guardian, Friday 11 August 2006. "New London Play To Be Pulled Down" by'Hazel' The Londonist, January 17, 2006. "Stage 4 Planning Approval". Democracy.walthamforest.gov.uk. Democracy at Waltham Forest. Retrieved 18 June 2017