Futures studies called futurology, is the study of postulating possible and preferable futures and the worldviews and myths that underlie them. In general, it can be considered as a branch of the social sciences and parallel to the field of history. Futures studies seeks to understand what is to continue and what could plausibly change. Part of the discipline thus seeks a systematic and pattern-based understanding of past and present, to determine the likelihood of future events and trends. Unlike the physical sciences where a narrower, more specified system is studied, futurology concerns a much bigger and more complex world system; the methodology and knowledge are much less proven as compared to natural science or social science like sociology and economics. There is a debate as to whether this discipline is an art or science and sometimes described by scientists as pseudoscience. Futures studies is an interdisciplinary field that aggregates and analyzes trends, with both lay and professional methods, to compose possible futures.
It includes analyzing the sources and causes of change and stability in an attempt to develop foresight. Around the world the field is variously referred to as futures studies, strategic foresight, futures thinking and futurology. Futures studies and strategic foresight are the academic field's most used terms in the English-speaking world. Foresight was the original term and was first used in this sense by H. G. Wells in 1932. "Futurology" is a term common in encyclopedias, though it is used exclusively by nonpractitioners today, at least in the English-speaking world. "Futurology" is defined as the "study of the future." The term was coined by German professor Ossip K. Flechtheim in the mid-1940s, who proposed it as a new branch of knowledge that would include a new science of probability; this term has fallen from favor in recent decades because modern practitioners stress the importance of alternative and plural futures, rather than one monolithic future, the limitations of prediction and probability, versus the creation of possible and preferable futures.
Three factors distinguish futures studies from the research conducted by other disciplines. First, futures studies examines trends to compose possible and preferable futures along with the role "wild cards" can play on future scenarios. Second, futures studies attempts to gain a holistic or systemic view based on insights from a range of different disciplines focusing on the STEEP categories of Social, Economic and Political. Third, futures studies challenges and unpacks the assumptions behind dominant and contending views of the future; the future thus is not fraught with hidden assumptions. For example, many people expect the collapse of the Earth's ecosystem in the near future, while others believe the current ecosystem will survive indefinitely. A foresight approach would seek to highlight the assumptions underpinning such views; as a field, futures studies expands on the research component, by emphasizing the communication of a strategy and the actionable steps needed to implement the plan or plans leading to the preferable future.
It is in this regard, that futures studies evolves from an academic exercise to a more traditional business-like practice, looking to better prepare organizations for the future. Futures studies does not focus on short term predictions such as interest rates over the next business cycle, or of managers or investors with short-term time horizons. Most strategic planning, which develops goals and objectives with time horizons of one to three years, is not considered futures. Plans and strategies with longer time horizons that attempt to anticipate possible future events are part of the field; as a rule, futures studies is concerned with changes of transformative impact, rather than those of an incremental or narrow scope. The futures field excludes those who make future predictions through professed supernatural means. Johan Galtung and Sohail Inayatullah argue in Macrohistory and Macrohistorians that the search for grand patterns of social change goes all the way back to Ssu-Ma Chien and his theory of the cycles of virtue, although the work of Ibn Khaldun such as The Muqaddimah would be an example, more intelligible to modern sociology.
Early western examples include Sir Thomas More’s “Utopia,” published in 1516, based upon Plato’s “Republic,” in which a future society has overcome poverty and misery to create a perfect model for living. This work was so powerful that utopias have come to represent positive and fulfilling futures in which everyone’s needs are met; some intellectual foundations of futures studies appeared in the mid-19th century. Isadore Comte, considered the father of scientific philosophy, was influenced by the work of utopian socialist Henri Saint-Simon, his discussion of the metapatterns of social change presages futures studies as a scholarly dialogue; the first works that attempt to make systematic predictions for the future were written in the 18th century. Memoirs of the Twentieth Century written by Samuel Madden in 1733, takes the form of a series of diplomatic letters written in 1997 and 1998 from British representatives in the foreign cities of Constantinople, Rome and Moscow. However, the technology of the 20th century is identical to that of Madden's own era - the focus is instead on the political and religious state of the world in the future.
Madden went on to write The Reign of George VI, 1900 to 1925, where (in th
Lancaster University is a collegiate public research university in Lancaster, England. The university was established by Royal Charter in 1964, one of several new universities created in the 1960s; the university was based in St Leonard's Gate in the city centre, before moving in 1968 to a purpose-built 300 acres campus at Bailrigg, 4 km to the south. The campus buildings are arranged around a central walkway known as the Spine, connected to a central plaza, named Alexandra Square in honour of its first chancellor, Princess Alexandra. Lancaster is one of only six collegiate universities in the UK; the eight undergraduate colleges are named after places in the historic county of Lancashire, each have their own campus residence blocks, common rooms, administration staff and bar. Lancaster is ranked in the top ten in all three national league tables, received a Gold rating in the Government's inaugural Teaching Excellence Framework. In 2018 it was awarded University of the Year by The Times and Sunday Times Good University Guide, achieved its highest national ranking of 6th place within the guide's national table.
The annual income of the institution for 2016–17 was £267.0 million of which £37.7 million was from research grants and contracts, with an expenditure of £268.7 million. Along with the universities of Durham, Liverpool, Newcastle and York, Lancaster is a member of the N8 Group of research universities. Elizabeth II, Duke of Lancaster, is the visitor of the University; the current chancellor is Alan Milburn, since 2015. After the Second World War higher education became an important concern of government as it tried to cope with the demands of an expanding population and the advent of a new technological age. Between 1958 and 1961 seven new plate glass universities were announced including Lancaster; the choice of Lancaster as the site of the fourth new university was announced on 23 November 1961 in a written answer in the House of Commons. The university was established by royal charter in 1964; the charter stipulated. She was inaugurated in 1964; the ceremony saw the granting of various honorary degrees to dignitaries including the Prime Minister, Harold Wilson.
Princess Alexandra retired as chancellor in 2004 and was the longest serving chancellor of any British university. On her departure, she gave approval for the Chancellor's Medal to be awarded for academic merit to the highest-performing undergraduates and postgraduates; each year presentations are made to up to five graduates of taught masters' courses and up to six to the highest-performing undergraduates. The university accepted its first students in October 1964 and there were 13 professors, 32 additional members of teaching and research staff, 8 library staff and 14 administrators on academic grades; the motto, "patet omnibus veritas", was adopted. The first science students were admitted in 1965; the university was temporarily based in the city. A lecture theatre and the university's first Junior Common Room were based in Centenary Church, a former Congregational church beside the old factory premises of Waring & Gillow, which were used to accommodate the new students. Many new students were housed in Morecambe.
The Grand Theatre was leased as a main lecture room and 112 and 114 in the St Leonard's Gate area became teaching and recreational rooms. The library occupied the old workshops of Hunt on Castle Hill. Bowland and Lonsdale were founded as the University's first two colleges, all staff and students were allocated to one of the two, although the first college buildings would not be completed until 1966; the first students moved into residence and set up the first JCRs in October 1968. The University moved from the city to the new campus at Bailrigg between 1966 and 1970. In 2014, Lancaster University celebrated its 50th anniversary with a series of events throughout the year, involving alumni, staff and local community members; the purpose-built campus occupies Bailrigg, a 360-acre site donated by Lancaster City Council in 1963. The campus buildings are located on a hilltop, the lower slopes of which are landscaped parkland which includes "Lake Carter" duck pond and the university playing fields.
Lake Carter is named after Charles Carter, the first Vice Chancellor of the university, it was built in the early 1900s. The site is three miles south of the city centre. Construction of the Bailrigg campus began in November 1965, with the first building completed a year later; the first on-campus student residences opened in 1968. In contrast to some of the other campus universities, Bailrigg was designed to integrate social and teaching areas. Another major feature of the design was that there would not be a large central Students' Union building, but that the individual colleges would be the centre of social and recreational facilities. Vehicular and pedestrian traffic is separated: this is achieved by restricting motor vehicles to a peripheral road with a linking underpass running east-west beneath Alexandra Square; the underpass accommodates the Bailrigg bus station and was refurbished in autumn 2010. Car parking is arranged in cul-de-sacs running off the peripheral road; the campus buildings are arranged around a central walkway known as "The Spine".
The walkway is covered for most of its length. The main architect was Gabriel Epstein of Epstein. On a barren hilltop on a windswept day in 1963 the two architectural partners surveyed the future site of the university, Peter Shepheard re
Global warming is a long-term rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system, an aspect of climate change shown by temperature measurements and by multiple effects of the warming. Though earlier geological periods experienced episodes of warming, the term refers to the observed and continuing increase in average air and ocean temperatures since 1900 caused by emissions of greenhouse gasses in the modern industrial economy. In the modern context the terms global warming and climate change are used interchangeably, but climate change includes both global warming and its effects, such as changes to precipitation and impacts that differ by region. Many of the observed warming changes since the 1950s are unprecedented in the instrumental temperature record, in historical and paleoclimate proxy records of climate change over thousands to millions of years. In 2013, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fifth Assessment Report concluded, "It is likely that human influence has been the dominant cause of the observed warming since the mid-20th century."
The largest human influence has been the emission of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide. Climate model projections summarized in the report indicated that during the 21st century, the global surface temperature is to rise a further 0.3 to 1.7 °C to 2.6 to 4.8 °C depending on the rate of greenhouse gas emissions and on climate feedback effects. These findings have been recognized by the national science academies of the major industrialized nations and are not disputed by any scientific body of national or international standing. Future climate change effects are expected to include rising sea levels, ocean acidification, regional changes in precipitation, expansion of deserts in the subtropics. Surface temperature increases are greatest in the Arctic, with the continuing retreat of glaciers and sea ice. Predicted regional precipitation effects include more frequent extreme weather events such as heat waves, wildfires, heavy rainfall with floods, heavy snowfall. Effects directly significant to humans are predicted to include the threat to food security from decreasing crop yields, the abandonment of populated areas due to rising sea levels.
Environmental impacts appear to include the extinction or relocation of ecosystems as they adapt to climate change, with coral reefs, mountain ecosystems, Arctic ecosystems most threatened. Because the climate system has a large "inertia" and greenhouse gases will remain in the atmosphere for a long time, climatic changes and their effects will continue to become more pronounced for many centuries if further increases to greenhouse gases stop. Possible societal responses to global warming include mitigation by emissions reduction, adaptation to its effects, possible future climate engineering. Most countries are parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, whose ultimate objective is to prevent dangerous anthropogenic climate change. Parties to the UNFCCC have agreed that deep cuts in emissions are required and that global warming should be limited to well below 2.0 °C compared to pre-industrial levels, with efforts made to limit warming to 1.5 °C. Some scientists call into question climate adaptation feasibility, with higher emissions scenarios, or the two degree temperature target.
Public reactions to global warming and concern about its effects are increasing. A 2015 global survey showed that a median of 54% of respondents consider it "a serious problem", with significant regional differences: Americans and Chinese are among the least concerned. Multiple independently produced datasets confirm that between 1880 and 2012, the global average surface temperature increased by 0.85 °C. Since 1979 the rate of warming has doubled. Climate proxies show the temperature to have been stable over the one or two thousand years before 1850, with regionally varying fluctuations such as the Medieval Warm Period and the Little Ice Age. Although the increase of the average near-surface atmospheric temperature is used to track global warming, over 90% of the additional energy stored in the climate system over the last 50 years has accumulated in the oceans; the rest warmed the continents and the atmosphere. The warming evident in the instrumental temperature record is consistent with a wide range of observations, as documented by many independent scientific groups.
Examples include sea level rise, widespread melting of snow and land ice, increased heat content of the oceans, increased humidity, the earlier timing of spring events, e.g. the flowering of plants. Global warming refers with the amount of warming varying by region. Since 1979, global average land temperatures have increased about twice as fast as global average ocean temperatures; this is due to the larger heat capacity of the oceans and because oceans lose more heat by evaporation. Where greenhouse gas emissions occur does not impact the location of warming because the major greenhouse gases persist long enough to diffuse across the planet, although localized black carbon deposits on snow and ice do contribute to Arctic warming; the Northern Hemisphere and North Pole have heated much faster than the South Pole and Southern Hemisphere. The Northern Hemisphere not only has much more land, its arrangement around the Arctic Ocean has resulted in the maximum surface area flipping from reflective snow and ice cover to ocean and land surfaces that absorb more sunlight.
Swinburne University of Technology
Swinburne University of Technology is an Australian public university based in Melbourne, Victoria. It was founded in 1908 as the Eastern Suburbs Technical College by George Swinburne in order to serve those without access to further education in Melbourne’s eastern suburbs, its main campus is located in Hawthorn, a suburb of Melbourne, located 7.5 km from the Melbourne central business district. In addition to its main Hawthorn campus, Swinburne has campuses in the Melbourne metropolitan area at Wantirna and Croydon as well as has a campus in Sarawak, Malaysia. In the 2016 QS World University Rankings, making it one of the top art and design schools in Australia and the world. Swinburne University of Technology has its origins in the Eastern Suburbs Technical College, established in 1908 in the Melbourne suburb of Hawthorn by George Swinburne. In 1913, the institution changed its name to Swinburne Technical College, it attained university status on 1 July 1992 with the passage of the Swinburne University of Technology Act.
As a consequence of the Dawkins reforms to Australian higher education in the early 1990s, the university began teaching in the suburb of Prahran through a merger in 1992 with Victoria College, which stood on the site of Victoria's first training institute, the Prahran Mechanics' Institute. In 1997, Swinburne opened a campus at Victoria. In 1998, it merged with the Outer East Institute of TAFE and began operating from campuses at Croydon and Wantirna. In 1999, Swinburne established the National Institute of Circus Arts. In 2000, the university opened a campus in Sarawak, Malaysia, as a partnership between the university and the Sarawak State Government. In February 2011, the university opened the Advanced Technologies Centre, a 22,000 square metre building of modern architectural design at its Hawthorn campus, known locally as "the cheese grater building". Following a series of funding cuts announced by the Victorian Government to vocational education in May 2012, Swinburne announced that it would close its Lilydale and Prahran campuses.
Lilydale campus closed on 1 July 2013. The university sold its Prahran campus to the Northern Melbourne Institute of TAFE in 2014. In 2015, Swinburne launched its law school and became the first university in Victoria to enable students to complete their practical legal training during the final year of their law degree; the Hawthorn campus is Swinburne’s main campus. It hosts a range of vocational and postgraduate programs. Wantirna is a TAFE-specific campus; the campus offers courses in areas including health and community services, visual arts and accounting. The university's Croydon campus is a TAFE-specific campus, with a focus on training in trades such as building, carpentry and plumbing. While Swinburne no longer operates at the Prahran campus, the National Institute of Circus Arts continues to be based there; the Swinburne University of Technology Sarawak Campus is located in Kuching, Malaysia. The university's joint venture with SEEK Limited led to the creation of Swinburne Online in 2011.
Swinburne is internationally recognized for the output from international partnership researches. Swinburne was ranked top 75 in the field of physics by the Academic Ranking of World Universities in the 2014. Swinburne was ranked 32nd in the world for art and design in the 2016 QS World University Rankings, making it one of the top art and design schools. Swinburne has been placed in the top 75 for civil engineering and physics in the top 100 in Shanghai Ranking's Global Ranking of Academic Subjects by the 2016; the university was listed in the top 40 for the art and design subject area by the 2018 QS World Rankings of Universities by Subject. Another STEM has debuted new subjects in the Times Higher Education World University Rankings 2019, other education top 200, psychology top 300, business and economics top 500. Swinburne Business School ranked in the top 25% Economists and Institutions in Australia and 265th Business School in the world as of October 2018. There were three Swinburne Master programs that ranked in top 200 worldwide by Eduniversal in 2018.
The university operates Swinburne College, a provider of pathway education courses which prepare students for university study. Programs offered by Swinburne College include English language, foundation studies and professional year programs. Swinburne College had collaborated with Kyoto Consortium for Japanese Studies. Swinburne Student Union is the independent student representative body of Swinburne University of Technology in Melbourne, Australia. Membership is opt-in for all students. Andrew Dominik: film director. Chopper, The Assassination of Jesse James by the Coward Robert Ford, Killing Them Softly, the documentary One More Time with Feeling. Mark Hartley: film director, Not Quite Hollywood: The Wild, Untold Story of Ozploitation! Richard Lowenstein: film director, "Autoluminescent", He Died With A Felafel In His Hand, Dogs In Space, "Strikebound" L. Scott Pendlebury: landscape and portrait artist.
Peak oil is the theorized point in time when the maximum rate of extraction of petroleum is reached, after which it is expected to enter terminal decline. Peak oil theory is based on the observed rise, peak and depletion of aggregate production rate in oil fields over time, it is confused with oil depletion. The concept of peak oil is credited to geologist M. King Hubbert whose 1956 paper first presented a formal theory; some observers, such as petroleum industry experts Kenneth S. Deffeyes and Matthew Simmons, predicted there would be negative global economy effects after a post-peak production decline and subsequent oil price increase because of the continued dependence of most modern industrial transport and industrial systems on the low cost and high availability of oil. Predictions vary as to what these negative effects would be. While the notion that petroleum production must peak at some point is not controversial, the assertion that this must coincide with a serious economic decline, or that the decline in production will be caused by an exhaustion of available reserves, is not universally accepted.
Oil production forecasts on which predictions of peak oil are based are sometimes made within a range which includes optimistic and pessimistic scenarios. According to the International Energy Agency, conventional crude oil production peaked in 2006. A 2013 study concluded that peak oil "appears probable before 2030", that there was a "significant risk" that it would occur before 2020, assumed that major investments in alternatives will occur before a crisis, without requiring major changes in the lifestyle of oil-consuming nations. Pessimistic predictions of future oil production made after 2007 state either that the peak has occurred, that oil production is on the cusp of the peak, or that it will occur soon; these pessimistic predictions have proven false as world oil production has risen and hit a new high in 2018. Hubbert's original prediction that US peak oil would occur in about 1970 appeared accurate for a time, as US average annual production peaked in 1970 at 9.6 million barrels per day and declined for more than 3 decades after.
However, the use of hydraulic fracturing caused US production to rebound during the 2000s, challenging the inevitability of post-peak decline for the US oil production. In addition, Hubbert's original predictions for world peak oil production proved premature; the rate of discovery of new petroleum deposits peaked worldwide during the 1960s and has never approached these levels since. The idea that the rate of oil production would peak and irreversibly decline is an old one. In 1919, David White, chief geologist of the United States Geological Survey, wrote of US petroleum: "... the peak of production will soon be passed within 3 years." In 1953, Eugene Ayers, a researcher for Gulf Oil, projected that if US ultimate recoverable oil reserves were 100 billion barrels production in the US would peak no than 1960. If ultimate recoverable were to be as high as 200 billion barrels, which he warned was wishful thinking, US peak production would come no than 1970. For the world, he projected a peak somewhere between 1985 and 2000.
Ayers made his projections without a mathematical model. He wrote: "But if the curve is made to look reasonable, it is quite possible to adapt mathematical expressions to it and to determine, in this way, the peak dates corresponding to various ultimate recoverable reserve numbers"By observing past discoveries and production levels, predicting future discovery trends, the geoscientist M. King Hubbert used statistical modelling in 1956 to predict that United States oil production would peak between 1965 and 1971; this prediction appeared accurate for a time however during 2018 daily production of oil in the United States was exceeding daily production in 1970, the year, the peak. Hubbert used a semi-logistical curved model, he assumed the production rate of a limited resource would follow a symmetrical distribution. Depending on the limits of exploitability and market pressures, the rise or decline of resource production over time might be sharper or more stable, appear more linear or curved.
That model and its variants are now called Hubbert peak theory. The same theory has been applied to other limited-resource production. More the term "peak oil" was popularized by Colin Campbell and Kjell Aleklett in 2002 when they helped form the Association for the Study of Peak Oil and Gas. In his publications, Hubbert used the term "peak production rate" and "peak in the rate of discoveries". In a 2006 analysis of Hubbert theory, it was noted that uncertainty in real world oil production amounts and confusion in definitions increases the uncertainty in general of production predictions. By comparing the fit of various other models, it was found that Hubbert's methods yielded the closest fit over all, but that none of the models were accurate. In 1956 Hubbert himself recommended using "a family of possible production curves" when predicting a production peak and decline curve. A comprehensive 2009 study of oil depletion by the UK Energy Research Centre noted: Few analysts now adhere to a symmetrical bell-shaped production curve.
This is correct, as there is no natural physical reason why the production of a resou
Integral theory (Ken Wilber)
Integral theory is Ken Wilber's attempt to place a wide diversity of theories and thinkers into one single framework. It is portrayed as a "theory of everything", trying "to draw together an existing number of separate paradigms into an interrelated network of approaches that are mutually enriching."Wilber's integral theory has been applied by some in a limited range of domains. The Integral Institute publishes the Journal of Integral Theory and Practice, SUNY Press has published nine books in the "SUNY series in Integral Theory." Wilber's ideas have attracted attention in specific subcultures, have been ignored in academia. Ken Wilber's "Integral Theory" started as early as the 1970s, with the publication of The Spectrum of Consciousness, that attempted to synthesize eastern religious traditions with western structural stage theory, models of psychology development that describe human development as following a set course of stages of development. Wilber's ideas have grown more and more inclusive over the years, incorporating ontology and methodology.
Wilber, drawing on both Aurobindo's and Gebser's theories, as well as on the writings of many other authors, created a theory which he calls AQAL, "All Quadrants All Levels". The adjective integral was first used in a spiritual context by Sri Aurobindo from 1914 onward to describe his own spiritual teachings, which he referred to as Purna Yoga, it appeared in The Synthesis of Yoga, a book, first published in serial form in the journal Arya and was revised several times since. Sri Aurobindo's work has been described as Integral Vedanta and psychology, as well as Integral Psychology and the psychotherapy that emerges from it, his writings influenced others who used the term "integral" in more philosophical or psychological contexts. In the teachings of Sri Aurobindo, integral yoga refers to the process of the union of all the parts of one's being with the Divine, the transmutation of all of their jarring elements into a harmonious state of higher divine consciousness and existence; as described by Sri Aurobindo and his co-worker The Mother, this spiritual teaching involves an integral divine transformation of the entire being, rather than the liberation of only a single faculty such as the intellect or the emotions or the body.
According to Sri Aurobindo, he Divine is in his essence infinite and his manifestation too is multitudinously infinite. If, so, it is not that our true integral perfection in being and in nature can come by one kind of realisation alone, it cannot be reached by the exclusive pursuit of a single line of identity till, raised to its absolute. An integral consciousness with a multiform dynamic experience is essential for the complete transformation of our nature. — Sri Aurobindo, The Synthesis of Yoga, p. 114 Aurobindo's ideas were further explored by Indra Sen in the 1940s and 1950s, a psychologist, devotee of Sri Aurobindo and The Mother. He was the first to coin the term "Integral psychology" to describe the psychological observations he found in Sri Aurobindo's writings, developed themes of "Integral Culture" and "Integral Man"; these ideas were further developed by Haridas Chaudhuri, a Bengali philosopher and academic who founded in 1968 the California Institute of Integral Studies. The word integral was independently suggested by Jean Gebser, a Swiss phenomenologist and interdisciplinary scholar, in 1939 to describe his own intuition regarding the next stage of human consciousness.
Gebser was the author of The Ever-Present Origin, which describes human history as a series of mutations in consciousness. He only afterwards discovered the similarity between his own ideas and those of Sri Aurobindo and Teilhard de Chardin. In his book The Ever-Present Origin, Gebser distinguished between five structures of consciousness: archaic, mythical and integral. Gebser wrote that he was unaware of Sri Aurobindo's prior usage of the term "integral", which coincides to some extent with his own; the German indologist Georg Feuerstein first wrote about Integralism in "Wholeness or Transcendence? Ancient Lessons for the Emerging Global Civilization". Feuerstein used this term to refer to a particular outlook on spirituality which he saw present in the Indian tantric traditions. Feuerstein outlined three major approaches to life in Indian spirituality: nivritti-marga, pravritti-marga and purna-marga; the path of cessation is the traditional path of renunciation and asceticism practiced by sanyasins with the goal of liberation from this world, while the path of activity is the pursuit of worldly goods and happiness.
Feuerstein ties this integral approach to the tantric tradition. According to Feuerstein the integral or wholeness approach: "implies a total cognitive shift by which the phenomenal world is rendered transparent through superior wisdom. No longer are things seen as being separated from one another, as if they were insular realities in themselves, but everything is seen together, understood together, lived together. Whatever distinctions there may be, these are variations or manifestations of and within the selfsame Being." An integral worldview leads to body and sex positivism and anti-asceticism. Negative experiences such as pain and disgust are seen as integral to our life and world and thus are not rejected by the integral approach, but used skillfully. After completing SES
Monash University is a public research university based in Melbourne, Australia. Founded in 1958, it is the second oldest university in the State of Victoria; the university has a number of campuses, four of which are in Victoria, one in Malaysia. Monash has a research and teaching centre in Prato, Italy, a graduate research school in Mumbai, India and a graduate school in Suzhou, China. Monash University courses are delivered at other locations, including South Africa. Monash is home to major research facilities, including the Monash Law School, the Australian Synchrotron, the Monash Science Technology Research and Innovation Precinct, the Australian Stem Cell Centre, 100 research centres and 17 co-operative research centres. In 2016, its total revenue was over $2.2 billion dollars, with external research income around $282 million. In 2016, Monash enrolled over 22,000 graduate students, it has more applicants than any other university in the state of Victoria. Monash is a member of Australia's Group of Eight, a coalition of Australia's eight leading research Universities, a member of the ASAIHL, is the only Australian member of the M8 Alliance of Academic Health Centers and National Academies.
Monash is one of two Australian universities to be ranked in the École des Mines de Paris ranking on the basis of the number of alumni listed among CEOs in the 500 largest worldwide companies. The original campus was in the City of Clayton; the university was granted an expansive site of 100 hectares of open land in Clayton. The 100 hectares of land consists of the former Talbot Epileptic Colony. From its first intake of 357 students at Clayton on 13 March 1961, the university grew in size and student numbers so that by 1967, it had enrolled more than 21,000 students since its establishment. In its early years, it offered undergraduate and postgraduate degrees in engineering, science, economics, politics and law, it was a major provider for international student places under the Colombo Plan, which saw the first Asian students enter the Australian education system. In its early years of teaching and administration, Monash was not disadvantaged by entrenched traditional practices. Monash was able to adopt modern approaches without resistance from those who preferred the status quo.
A modern administrative structure was set up. The university was named after the prominent Australian general Sir John Monash; this was the first time in Australia that a university had been named after a person, rather than a city or state. From the mid-1960s to the early 1970s, Monash became the centre of student radicalism in Australia, it was the site of many mass student demonstrations concerning Australia's role in Vietnam War and conscription. By the late 1960s, several student organisations, some of which were influenced by or supporters of communism, turned their focus to Vietnam, with numerous blockades and sit-ins. In one extraordinary event that came to be known as the Monash Siege, students forced Prime Minister Malcolm Fraser to hide in a basement at the Alexander Theatre, in a major protest over the Whitlam dismissal. In the late 1970s and 1980s, some of Monash's most publicised research came through its pioneering of in-vitro fertilisation. Led by Carl Wood and Alan Trounson, the Monash IVF Program achieved the world's first clinical IVF pregnancy in 1973.
In 1980, they delivered the first IVF baby in Australia. This became a massive source of revenue for the university at a time when university funding in Australia was beginning to slow down. In the late 1980s, the Dawkins Reforms changed the landscape of higher education in Australia. Under the leadership of Vice-Chancellor Mal Logan, Monash transformed dramatically. In 1988, Monash University had only one campus in Clayton, with around 15,000 students. Just over a decade it had 8 campuses, a European research and teaching centre, more than 50,000 students, making it the largest and most internationalised Australian university. Expansion of the university began in 1990 with a series of mergers between Monash, the Chisholm Institute of Technology, the Gippsland Institute of Advanced Education. In 1991 a merger with the Victorian College of Pharmacy created a new faculty of the university; this continued with the establishment of the Berwick campus. In 1998, the university opened the Malaysia campus, its first overseas campus and the first foreign university in Malaysia.
In 2001, Monash South Africa opened its doors in Johannesburg, making Monash the first foreign university in South Africa. The same year, the university secured an 18th-century Tuscan palace to open a research and teaching centre in Prato, Italy. At the same time, Australian universities faced unprecedented demand for international student places, which Monash met on a larger scale than most. Today, around 30% of its students are from outside Australia. Monash students come from over 100 different countries, speak over 90 different languages; the increase in international students, combined with the university's expansion, meant that Monash's income increased throughout the 1990s, it is now one of Australia's top 200 exporters. In recent years, the university has been prominent in medical research. A highlight of this came in 2000, when Alan Trounson led the team of scientists which announced to the world that nerve stem cells could be derived from embryonic stem cells, a discovery which led to a dramatic increase in interest in the potential of stem cells.
It has led to Monash being ranked in the top