Clifton Heights, Pennsylvania
Clifton Heights is a borough in Delaware County, United States, located on Darby Creek 8 miles west of downtown Philadelphia. As of the 2010 census the population was 6,652, the Lower Swedish Cabin was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1980. The population of the borough was 1,820 in 1890,3,155 in 1910, Clifton Heights is located in eastern Delaware County at 39°55′45″N 75°17′45″W. It is bordered to the northeast by the borough of Lansdowne, to the southeast by the borough of Aldan, the community of Drexel Hill in Upper Darby Township is to the north of Clifton Heights, across Darby Creek. The main road through the borough is Baltimore Avenue, which leads northeast into Philadelphia, according to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 0.62 square miles, all of it land. As of 2015, the makeup of the borough was 70. 0% Non-Hispanic White,18. 3% Black or African American,6. 1% Asian,2. 1% Some other race. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 3. 1% of the population,14. 5% of the boroughs population was foreign born.
As of the census of 2000, there were 6,779 people,2,714 households, the population density was 10,882.5 people per square mile. There were 2,883 housing units at a density of 4,628.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 94. 22% White,2. 92% African American,0. 06% Native American,1. 50% Asian,0. 38% from other races, hispanic or Latino of any race were 0. 99% of the population. 31. 9% of all households were made up of individuals, the average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 3.20. In the borough the population was out, with 25. 8% under the age of 18,7. 9% from 18 to 24,32. 9% from 25 to 44,18. 6% from 45 to 64. The median age was 36 years, for every 100 females there were 95.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.8 males, the median income for a household in the borough was $39,291, and the median income for a family was $48,919. Males had an income of $36,534 versus $32,210 for females. The per capita income for the borough was $20,534, about 11. 2% of families and 11. 1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18. 1% of those under age 18 and 6. 4% of those age 65 or over.
Clifton Heights borough is served by the Upper Darby School District
Pennsylvania State University
The Pennsylvania State University is a public, land-grant, research-intensive university with campuses and facilities throughout Pennsylvania. Founded in 1855, the university has a threefold mission of teaching, research. Its instructional mission includes undergraduate, graduate and continuing education offered through resident instruction and its University Park campus, the flagship campus, lies within the Borough of State College and College Township. It has two law schools, Penn State Law, on the schools University Park campus, and Dickinson Law, the College of Medicine is located in Hershey. Penn State has another 19 commonwealth campuses and 5 special-mission campuses located across the state, Penn State has been labeled one of the Public Ivies, a publicly funded university considered as providing a quality of education comparable to those of the Ivy League. Annual enrollment at the University Park campus totals more than 46,800 graduate and undergraduate students and it has the worlds largest dues-paying alumni association.
The universitys total enrollment in 2015–16 was approximately 97,500 across its 24 campuses, the university offers more than 160 majors among all its campuses and administers $3.62 billion in endowment and similar funds. The universitys research expenditures totaled $836 million during the 2016 fiscal year, the university hosts the Penn State IFC/Panhellenic Dance Marathon, which is the worlds largest student-run philanthropy. This event is held at the Bryce Jordan Center on the University Park campus, in 2014, THON raised a program record of $13.3 million. The universitys athletics teams compete in Division I of the NCAA and are known as the Penn State Nittany Lions. They compete in the Big Ten Conference for most sports, centre County, became the home of the new school when James Irvin of Bellefonte, donated 200 acres of land – the first of 10,101 acres the school would eventually acquire. George W. Atherton became president of the school in 1882, shortly after he introduced engineering studies, Penn State became one of the ten largest engineering schools in the nation.
Atherton expanded the arts and agriculture programs, for which the school began receiving regular appropriations from the state in 1887. A major road in State College has been named in Athertons honor, Penn States Atherton Hall, a well-furnished and centrally located residence hall, is named not after George Atherton himself, but after his wife, Frances Washburn Atherton. His grave is in front of Schwab Auditorium near Old Main, in the years that followed, Penn State grew significantly, becoming the states largest grantor of baccalaureate degrees and reaching an enrollment of 5,000 in 1936. In 1953, President Milton S. Eisenhower, brother of then-U. S, President Dwight D. Eisenhower and won permission to elevate the school to university status as The Pennsylvania State University. Under his successor Eric A. Walker, the university acquired hundreds of acres of surrounding land, and enrollment nearly tripled. In addition, in 1967, the Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, in the 1970s, the university became a state-related institution
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American daily newspaper and continuously published in New York City since September 18,1851, by The New York Times Company. The New York Times has won 119 Pulitzer Prizes, more than any other newspaper, the papers print version in 2013 had the second-largest circulation, behind The Wall Street Journal, and the largest circulation among the metropolitan newspapers in the US. The New York Times is ranked 18th in the world by circulation, following industry trends, its weekday circulation had fallen in 2009 to fewer than one million. Nicknamed The Gray Lady, The New York Times has long been regarded within the industry as a newspaper of record. The New York Times international version, formerly the International Herald Tribune, is now called the New York Times International Edition, the papers motto, All the News Thats Fit to Print, appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. On Sunday, The New York Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T, some other early investors of the company were Edwin B.
Morgan and Edward B. We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or exactly wrong, —what is good we desire to preserve and improve, —what is evil, to exterminate. In 1852, the started a western division, The Times of California that arrived whenever a mail boat got to California. However, when local California newspapers came into prominence, the effort failed, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times in 1857. It dropped the hyphen in the city name in the 1890s, One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials it published alone. At Newspaper Row, across from City Hall, Henry Raymond and editor of The New York Times, averted the rioters with Gatling guns, in 1869, Raymond died, and George Jones took over as publisher. Tweed offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story, in the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned gradually from editorially supporting Republican Party candidates to becoming more politically independent and analytical.
In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign, while this move cost The New York Times readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper eventually regained most of its lost ground within a few years. However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, the paper slowly acquired a reputation for even-handedness and accurate modern reporting, especially by the 1890s under the guidance of Ochs. Under Ochs guidance and expanding upon the Henry Raymond tradition, The New York Times achieved international scope, circulation, in 1910, the first air delivery of The New York Times to Philadelphia began. The New York Times first trans-Atlantic delivery by air to London occurred in 1919 by dirigible, airplane Edition was sent by plane to Chicago so it could be in the hands of Republican convention delegates by evening. In the 1940s, the extended its breadth and reach. The crossword began appearing regularly in 1942, and the section in 1946
University of Pennsylvania
The University of Pennsylvania is a private Ivy League research university located in Philadelphia, United States. Incorporated as The Trustees of the University of Pennsylvania, Penn is one of 14 founding members of the Association of American Universities, the university coat of arms features a dolphin on the red chief, adopted directly from the Franklin familys own coat of arms. Penn was one of the first academic institutions to follow a multidisciplinary model pioneered by several European universities and it was home to many other educational innovations. The first school of medicine in North America, the first collegiate school. With an endowment of $10.72 billion, Penn had the seventh largest endowment of all colleges in the United States, all of Penns schools exhibit very high research activity. In fiscal year 2015, Penns academic research budget was $851 million, over its history, the university has produced many distinguished alumni. S. House of Representatives,8 signers of the United States Declaration of Independence, in addition, some 30 Nobel laureates,169 Guggenheim Fellows, and 80 members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, have been affiliated with Penn.
In addition, Penn has produced a significant number of Fortune 500 CEOs, in 1740, a group of Philadelphians joined together to erect a great preaching hall for the traveling evangelist George Whitefield, who toured the American colonies delivering open air sermons. The building was designed and built by Edmund Woolley and was the largest building in the city at the time and it was initially planned to serve as a charity school as well, however, a lack of funds forced plans for the chapel and school to be suspended. According to Franklins autobiography, it was in 1743 when he first had the idea to establish an academy, Peters declined a casual inquiry from Franklin and nothing further was done for another six years. Unlike the other Colonial colleges that existed in 1749—Harvard and Mary, Franklin assembled a board of trustees from among the leading citizens of Philadelphia, the first such non-sectarian board in America. At the first meeting of the 24 members of the Board of Trustees the issue of where to locate the school was a prime concern.
The original sponsors of the dormant building still owed considerable construction debts and asked Franklins group to assume their debts and, accordingly, on February 1,1750 the new board took over the building and trusts of the old board. On August 13,1751, the Academy of Philadelphia, using the hall at 4th and Arch Streets. A charity school was chartered July 13,1753 in accordance with the intentions of the original New Building donors, June 16,1755, the College of Philadelphia was chartered, paving the way for the addition of undergraduate instruction. All three schools shared the same Board of Trustees and were considered to be part of the same institution, the institution of higher learning was known as the College of Philadelphia from 1755 to 1779. In 1779, not trusting then-provost the Rev. William Smiths Loyalist tendencies, the result was a schism, with Smith continuing to operate an attenuated version of the College of Philadelphia. In 1791 the Legislature issued a new charter, merging the two institutions into a new University of Pennsylvania with twelve men from each institution on the new Board of Trustees
A boarding school is a school at which most or all of the students live during the part of the year that they go to lessons. The word boarding is used in the sense of bed and board, i. e. lodging, some boarding schools have day students who attend the institution by day and return to their families in the evenings. Many independent schools are boarding schools, Boarding school pupils normally return home during the school holidays and often weekends, but in some cultures may spend most of their childhood and adolescent life away from their families. In the United States, boarding schools comprise various grades, most commonly grades seven or nine through grade twelve—the high school years, other schools are for younger children, grades two through eight. A military school, or military academy, features military education, in the former Soviet Union schools were introduced, these sometimes are known as Internat-schools. Some schools were a type of specialized school with a focus in a particular field or fields such as mathematics, language, sports.
Other schools were associated with orphanages after all children enrolled in Internat-school automatically. Also, separate boarding schools were established for children with special needs, general schools offered extended stay programs featuring cheap meals for children and preventing them from coming home too early before parents were back from work. In post-soviet countries, the concept of boarding school differs from country to country, the term boarding school often refers to classic British boarding schools and many boarding schools around the world are modeled on these. A typical boarding school has separate residential houses, either within the school grounds or in the surrounding area. Pupils generally need permission to go outside defined school bounds, they may be allowed to travel off-campus at certain times, depending on country and context, boarding schools generally offer one or more options, weekly, or on a flexible schedule. Each may be assisted in the management of the house by a housekeeper often known as matron.
In the U. S. boarding schools often have a resident family that lives in the dorm and they have janitorial staff for maintenance and housekeeping, but typically do not have tutors associated with an individual dorm. Nevertheless, older pupils are often unsupervised by staff, and a system of monitors or prefects gives limited authority to senior pupils, houses readily develop distinctive characters, and a healthy rivalry between houses is often encouraged in sport. Houses may have common rooms for television and relaxation and kitchens for snacks, some facilities may be shared between several houses or dorms. In others, separate houses accommodate needs of different years or classes, in some schools, day pupils are assigned to a dorm or house for social activities and sports purposes. Each student has a timetable, which in the early years allows little discretion. Boarders and day students are taught together in school hours and in most cases continue beyond the day to include sports and societies
Delaware is a state located in the Mid-Atlantic and/or Northeastern regions of the United States. It is bordered to the south and west by Maryland, to the northeast by New Jersey, the state takes its name from Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr, an English nobleman and Virginias first colonial governor. Delaware occupies the portion of the Delmarva Peninsula and is the second smallest, the sixth least populous. Delaware is divided into three counties, the lowest number of counties of any state, from north to south, the three counties are New Castle and Sussex. While the southern two counties have historically been agricultural, New Castle County has been more industrialized. Before its coastline was explored by Europeans in the 16th century, Delaware was inhabited by groups of Native Americans, including the Lenape in the north. It was initially colonized by Dutch traders at Zwaanendael, near the present town of Lewes, Delaware was one of the 13 colonies participating in the American Revolution.
On December 7,1787, Delaware became the first state to ratify the Constitution of the United States, the Delaware Indians, a name used by Europeans for Lenape people indigenous to the Delaware Valley, derive their name from the same source. The surname de La Warr comes from Sussex and is of Anglo-Norman origin and it came probably from a Norman lieu-dit La Guerre. This toponymic could derive from the Latin word ager, from the Breton gwern or from the Late Latin varectum, the toponyms Gara, Gaire appear in old texts cited by Lucien Musset, where the word gara means gore. It could be linked with a patronymic from the Old Norse verr, Delaware is 96 miles long and ranges from 9 miles to 35 miles across, totaling 1,954 square miles, making it the second-smallest state in the United States after Rhode Island. Delaware is bounded to the north by Pennsylvania, to the east by the Delaware River, Delaware Bay, New Jersey and the Atlantic Ocean, small portions of Delaware are situated on the eastern side of the Delaware River sharing land boundaries with New Jersey.
The state of Delaware, together with the Eastern Shore counties of Maryland, the definition of the northern boundary of the state is unusual. Most of the boundary between Delaware and Pennsylvania was originally defined by an arc extending 12 miles from the cupola of the courthouse in the city of New Castle and this boundary is often referred to as the Twelve-Mile Circle. This is the only nominally circular state boundary in the United States, to the west, a portion of the arc extends past the easternmost edge of Maryland. The remaining western border runs slightly east of due south from its intersection with the arc, the Wedge of land between the northwest part of the arc and the Maryland border was claimed by both Delaware and Pennsylvania until 1921, when Delawares claim was confirmed. Delaware is on a plain, with the lowest mean elevation of any state in the nation. Its highest elevation, located at Ebright Azimuth, near Concord High School, the northernmost part of the state is part of the Piedmont Plateau with hills and rolling surfaces
Bolivia, officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia, is a landlocked country located in western-central South America. It is bordered to the north and east by Brazil, to the southeast by Paraguay, to the south by Argentina, to the southwest by Chile, and to the northwest by Peru. One-third of the country is the Andean mountain range, with one of its largest cities and principal economic centers, El Alto, Bolivia is one of two landlocked countries that lie outside Afro-Eurasia. Bolivia is geographically the largest landlocked country in the Americas, but remains a small country in economic. Before Spanish colonization, the Andean region of Bolivia was part of the Inca Empire, Spanish conquistadors arriving from Cuzco and Asunción took control of the region in the 16th century. During the Spanish colonial period Bolivia was administered by the Royal Audiencia of Charcas, spain built its empire in great part upon the silver that was extracted from Bolivias mines. After the first call for independence in 1809,16 years of war followed before the establishment of the Republic, named for Simón Bolívar, on 6 August 1825.
Since independence, Bolivia has endured periods of political and economic instability, including the loss of peripheral territories to its neighbors, such as Acre. The countrys population, estimated at 11 million, is multiethnic, including Amerindians, the racial and social segregation that arose from Spanish colonialism has continued to the modern era. Spanish is the official and predominant language, although 36 indigenous languages have official status, of which the most commonly spoken are Guarani, modern Bolivia is constitutionally a unitary state, divided into nine departments. Its geography varies from the peaks of the Andes in the West, to the Eastern Lowlands and it is a developing country, with a medium ranking in the Human Development Index and a poverty level of 53 percent. Its main economic activities include agriculture, fishing and manufacturing such as textiles, refined metals. Bolivia is very wealthy in minerals, especially tin, Bolivia is named after Simón Bolívar, a leader in the Spanish American wars of independence.
Sucre opted to create a new nation and, with local support. The original name was Republic of Bolívar, some days later, congressman Manuel Martín Cruz proposed, If from Romulus comes Rome, from Bolívar comes Bolivia. The name was approved by the Republic on 3 October 1825, the region now known as Bolivia had been occupied for over 2,500 years when the Aymara arrived. However, present-day Aymara associate themselves with the ancient civilization of the Tiwanaku culture which had its capital at Tiwanaku, the capital city of Tiwanaku dates from as early as 1500 BC when it was a small, agriculturally based village. The community grew to urban proportions between AD600 and AD800, becoming an important regional power in the southern Andes
Engineers design materials and systems while considering the limitations imposed by practicality, regulation and cost. The word engineer is derived from the Latin words ingeniare and ingenium, the work of engineers forms the link between scientific discoveries and their subsequent applications to human and business needs and quality of life. His/her work is predominantly intellectual and varied and not of a mental or physical character. It requires the exercise of original thought and judgement and the ability to supervise the technical, he/she is thus placed in a position to make contributions to the development of engineering science or its applications. In due time he/she will be able to give authoritative technical advice, much of an engineers time is spent on researching, locating and transferring information. Indeed, research suggests engineers spend 56% of their time engaged in various information behaviours, Engineers must weigh different design choices on their merits and choose the solution that best matches the requirements.
Their crucial and unique task is to identify, Engineers apply techniques of engineering analysis in testing, production, or maintenance. Analytical engineers may supervise production in factories and elsewhere, determine the causes of a process failure and they estimate the time and cost required to complete projects. Supervisory engineers are responsible for major components or entire projects, Engineering analysis involves the application of scientific analytic principles and processes to reveal the properties and state of the system, device or mechanism under study. Most engineers specialize in one or more engineering disciplines, numerous specialties are recognized by professional societies, and each of the major branches of engineering has numerous subdivisions. Civil engineering, for example, includes structural and transportation engineering and materials engineering include ceramic, mechanical engineering cuts across just about every discipline since its core essence is applied physics.
Engineers may specialize in one industry, such as vehicles, or in one type of technology. Several recent studies have investigated how engineers spend their time, that is, research suggests that there are several key themes present in engineers’ work, technical work, social work, computer-based work, information behaviours. Amongst other more detailed findings, a recent work sampling study found that engineers spend 62. 92% of their time engaged in work,40. 37% in social work. The time engineers spend engaged in activities is reflected in the competencies required in engineering roles. There are many branches of engineering, each of which specializes in specific technologies, typically engineers will have deep knowledge in one area and basic knowledge in related areas. When developing a product, engineers work in interdisciplinary teams. For example, when building robots an engineering team will typically have at least three types of engineers, a mechanical engineer would design the body and actuators
Mechanical engineering is the discipline that applies the principles of engineering and materials science for the design, analysis and maintenance of mechanical systems. It is the branch of engineering that involves the design, production and it is one of the oldest and broadest of the engineering disciplines. The mechanical engineering field requires an understanding of areas including mechanics, thermodynamics, materials science, structural analysis. Mechanical engineering emerged as a field during the Industrial Revolution in Europe in the 18th century, Mechanical engineering science emerged in the 19th century as a result of developments in the field of physics. The field has evolved to incorporate advancements in technology, and mechanical engineers today are pursuing developments in such fields as composites, mechatronics. Mechanical engineers may work in the field of biomedical engineering, specifically with biomechanics, transport phenomena, bionanotechnology. Mechanical engineering finds its application in the archives of various ancient, in ancient Greece, the works of Archimedes deeply influenced mechanics in the Western tradition and Heron of Alexandria created the first steam engine.
In China, Zhang Heng improved a water clock and invented a seismometer, during the 7th to 15th century, the era called the Islamic Golden Age, there were remarkable contributions from Muslim inventors in the field of mechanical technology. Al-Jazari, who was one of them, wrote his famous Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices in 1206 and he is considered to be the inventor of such mechanical devices which now form the very basic of mechanisms, such as the crankshaft and camshaft. Newton was reluctant to publish his methods and laws for years, gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz is credited with creating Calculus during the same time frame. On the European continent, Johann von Zimmermann founded the first factory for grinding machines in Chemnitz, education in mechanical engineering has historically been based on a strong foundation in mathematics and science. Degrees in mechanical engineering are offered at universities worldwide. In Spain and most of South America, where neither B. Sc. nor B.
Tech, programs have been adopted, the formal name for the degree is Mechanical Engineer, and the course work is based on five or six years of training. In Italy the course work is based on five years of education, and training, in Greece, the coursework is based on a five-year curriculum and the requirement of a Diploma Thesis, which upon completion a Diploma is awarded rather than a B. Sc. In Australia, mechanical engineering degrees are awarded as Bachelor of Engineering or similar nomenclature although there are a number of specialisations. The degree takes four years of study to achieve. To ensure quality in engineering degrees, Engineers Australia accredits engineering degrees awarded by Australian universities in accordance with the global Washington Accord, before the degree can be awarded, the student must complete at least 3 months of on the job work experience in an engineering firm. Similar systems are present in South Africa and are overseen by the Engineering Council of South Africa
A spring is an elastic object used to store mechanical energy. Springs are usually out of spring steel. There are a number of spring designs, in everyday usage the term often refers to coil springs. When a spring is compressed or stretched from its resting position, the rate or spring constant of a spring is the change in the force it exerts, divided by the change in deflection of the spring. That is, it is the gradient of the force versus deflection curve, an extension or compression springs rate is expressed in units of force divided by distance, for example lbf/in or N/m. A torsion spring is a spring that works by twisting, when it is twisted about its axis by an angle, a torsion springs rate is in units of torque divided by angle, such as N·m/rad or ft·lbf/degree. The inverse of spring rate is compliance, that is, if a spring has a rate of 10 N/mm, the stiffness of springs in parallel is additive, as is the compliance of springs in series. Springs are made from a variety of materials, the most common being spring steel.
Small springs can be wound from pre-hardened stock, while larger ones are made from annealed steel, some non-ferrous metals are used including phosphor bronze and titanium for parts requiring corrosion resistance and beryllium copper for springs carrying electrical current. Simple non-coiled springs were used throughout history, e. g. the bow. In the Bronze Age more sophisticated spring devices were used, as shown by the spread of tweezers in many cultures, coiled springs appeared early in the 15th century, in door locks. The first spring powered-clocks appeared in that century and evolved into the first large watches by the 16th century, in 1676 British physicist Robert Hooke discovered Hookes law which states that the force a spring exerts is proportional to its extension. Compression spring – is designed to operate with a compression load, flat spring – this type is made of a flat spring steel. Machined spring – this type of spring is manufactured by machining bar stock with a lathe and/or milling operation rather than a coiling operation, since it is machined, the spring may incorporate features in addition to the elastic element.
Machined springs can be made in the load cases of compression/extension, torsion. Serpentine spring - a zig-zag of thick wire - often used in modern upholstery/furniture, the most common types of spring are, Cantilever spring – a spring which is fixed only at one end. Coil spring or helical spring – a spring is of two types, Tension or extension springs are designed to become longer under load and their turns are normally touching in the unloaded position, and they have a hook, eye or some other means of attachment at each end. Compression springs are designed to become shorter when loaded and their turns are not touching in the unloaded position, and they need no attachment points
Slinky is a toy, a precompressed helical spring invented by Richard James in the early 1940s. These interesting characteristics have contributed to its success as a toy in its country of United States. The Slinky was invented and developed by naval engineer Richard T. James in 1943, the toy was a hit, selling its entire inventory of 400 units in ninety minutes. James and his wife Betty formed James Industries in Clifton Heights, Pennsylvania to manufacture Slinky and several related toys such as the Slinky Dog and Suzie, the Slinky Worm. In 1960, Jamess wife Betty became president of James Industries, in 1998, Betty James sold the company to Poof Products, Inc. Slinky has seen other than as a toy in the playroom, it has appeared in the classroom as a teaching tool, in wartime as a radio antenna. Slinky was inducted into the National Toy Hall of Fame at The Strong in Rochester, New York, in 2002, Slinky became Pennsylvanias official state toy, and, in 2003, was named to the Toy Industry Associations Century of Toys List.
In its first 60 years Slinky has sold 300 million units, Jamess wife Betty recalled, He came home and said, I think if I got the right property of steel and the right tension, I could make it walk. James experimented with different types of steel wire over the next year, Betty was dubious at first, but changed her mind after the toy was fine-tuned and neighborhood children expressed an excited interest in it. She dubbed the toy Slinky, after finding the word in a dictionary, with a US$500 loan, the couple formed James Industries, had 400 Slinky units made by a local machine shop, hand-wrapped each in yellow paper, and priced them at $1 a piece. Each was 2 1⁄2 tall, and included 98 coils of high-grade blue-black Swedish steel, Slinky was a hit, and the first 400 units were sold within ninety minutes. In 1946, Slinky was introduced at the American Toy Fair, Richard James opened shop in Albany, New York, after developing a machine that could produce a Slinky within seconds. The toy was packaged in a box, and advertising saturated America.
James often appeared on television shows to promote Slinky, in 1952, the Slinky Dog debuted. In its first 2 years, James Industries sold 100 million Slinkys, in 1960 Richard James left the company after his wife filed for divorce and he became an evangelical missionary in Bolivia with Wycliffe Bible Translators. Betty James managed the company, juggled creditors, and in 1964 moved the company to Hollidaysburg, the company and its product line expanded under Betty James’s leadership. In 1995, she explained the success to the Associated Press by saying. Betty James insisted upon keeping the original Slinky affordable, in 1996, when the price ranged from $1.89 to $2.69, she told The New York Times, “So many children can’t have expensive toys, and I feel a real obligation to them