Norton Abrasives of Worcester, Massachusetts, USA is the world's largest manufacturer and supplier of abrasives for commercial applications and automotive refinishing usage. Norton Company was founded in 1885 by a group of ceramists and entrepreneurs from Worcester, Massachusetts; the group set out to manufacture the first mass-produced, precision-made grinding wheel to fulfill the burgeoning U. S. manufacturing industry's growing need for abrasives. In 1990 it was purchased by Saint-Gobain of France. Norton specializes in the manufacture of abrasive products for applications in the autobody, welding/industry, marine/composite markets as well as for contractors and DIY consumers; the roots of the Norton Company begin with in a pottery shop Worcester, opened in 1858 by Franklin Norton and his older cousin Frederick Hancock. The shop specialized in redware and stoneware pottery. In 1873, an employee of the shop, Sven Pulson, invented a Grinding wheel, superior to most on the market at that time.
This new grinding wheel was made by mixing clay with water. As the need for grinding wheels was expanding, Frank Norton patented Pulson's invention and began manufacturing it. By 1885, Frank Norton's discouraging health and Frederick Hancock's lack of interest in the new product resulted in the need to sell the wheel manufacturing business. Pulson left the pottery shop in 1880, replaced by his brother-in-law John Jeppson; when Frank Norton's business came on the market, he was quick to purchase it. Partnering with co-workers, Walter Messer and Charles Allen; the partners built a new factory in the Greendale neighborhood. The factory was not only important to the company for its innovation but for its proximity to two major railways for shipping; the Greendale factory stands to this day. During the late the 1890s, corporate decision-making proved conservative until it was assured the company would succeed; until that time, dividends were forgone and many of the owners declined to draw a salary. Pivotal to Norton's early growth was a focus on marketing.
The company introduced a series of pamphlets and related literature, which detailed the intricacies of each wheel and advised users on benefits for desired applications. By the mid-1890s, Norton stocked the largest inventory of grinding wheels in the world, subsequently beginning distribution in Chicago, New York City, soon after, across Europe. One of the largest keys to the growth of the company was Norton's 1900 expansion into the machine tools industry. Through partnership with Charles H. Norton, the company founded the Norton Grinding Company division; the company specialized in the production of stationary grinding machines, an alternative to expensive workmen, which were capable of producing high volume, working with heavy materials, grinding with an unbelievable tolerance. With minimal product need, Norton's Grinding division saw little success, but the American industrial needs of World War I and the American automobile industry boom began a period of explosive growth. In 1904, Norton employee Aldus Higgins invented a water-cooled furnace, crucial to the commpany's success at the time.
In 1914, Henry Ford's purchase of thirty-five Norton Grinders prompted Ford to remark that "the abrasive processes are responsible for our ability to produce cars to sell for less than a thousand dollars. Were it not for these processes these same cars would cost at least five thousand dollars, if indeed they could be made at all." With 95 percent of an automobile's moving parts requiring grinding, the automotive industry soon became Norton's biggest customer. With a resistance to grinding innovation, Norton lost most of its industry market share by the mid-1950s. In 1931, Norton completed its first acquisition, when it purchased the Behr-Manning company of Watervliet, New York; this purchase added coated abrasives and sandpaper to Norton's line, going forward, would be two of Norton's more successful products. In the mid-1950s, with sales over $30 million, Behr-Manning was absorbed into Norton. In 1962, Norton became a Publicly-held company. Descendants of founders John Jeppson and Milton Higgins managed the company until the 1970s, including John Jeppson II.
Since 2009, Norton has been a chief sponsor and abrasive supplier for both the United States Men's and Women's Olympic luge teams. Both teams competed under Norton sponsorship in the 2010 Vancouver Winter Games. Norton was a leader in the design and building of grinding machines for mass production. Norton's key areas of manufacture in the abrasives market are bonded abrasives, coated abrasives, non-woven abrasives and specialty non-Abrasive products. In 1988, Norton instituted an industrial recycling plan for which it has received a number of awards. Norton's retail abrasive products are packaged with 100% recycled materials containing 25% post consumer waste. In 2009, Saint-Gobain was recognized with an Energy Star Partner of the Year award by the U. S. EPA as well as a Global 100 Sustainable Company designation by the World Economic Forum. In day-to-day operations, a number of Saint-Gobain Abrasive plants have completed or are in the process of completing ISO 9000 quality certification and use FSC paper from managed forests.
Rolt, L. T. C. A Short History of Machine Tools, Massachusetts, USA: MIT Press, OCLC 250074. Co-edition published as Rolt, L. T. C. Tools for the Job: a Short History of Machine Tools, London: B. T. Batsford, LCCN 65080822. Cheape, Charles. Family Firm To Modern Multinational Norton Company a Ne
National Academy of Sciences
The National Academy of Sciences is a United States nonprofit, non-governmental organization. NAS is part of the National Academies of Sciences and Medicine, along with the National Academy of Engineering and the National Academy of Medicine; as a national academy, new members of the organization are elected annually by current members, based on their distinguished and continuing achievements in original research. Election to the National Academy is one of the highest honors in the scientific field. Members serve pro bono as "advisers to the nation" on science and medicine; the group holds a congressional charter under Title 36 of the United States Code. Founded in 1863 as a result of an Act of Congress, approved by Abraham Lincoln, the NAS is charged with "providing independent, objective advice to the nation on matters related to science and technology. … to provide scientific advice to the government'whenever called upon' by any government department. The Academy receives no compensation from the government for its services."
As of 2016, the National Academy of Sciences includes about 2,350 members and 450 foreign associates. It employed about 1,100 staff in 2005; the current members annually elect new members for life. Up to 84 members who are US citizens are elected every year. 190 members have won a Nobel Prize. By its own admission in 1989, the addition of women to the Academy "continues at a dismal trickle", at which time there were 1,516 male members and 57 female members; the National Academy of Sciences is a member of the International Council for Science. The ICSU Advisory Committee, in the Research Council's Office of International Affairs, facilitates participation of members in international scientific unions and serves as a liaison for U. S. national committees for individual scientific unions. Although there is no formal relationship with state and local academies of science, there is informal dialogue; the National Academy is governed by a 17-member Council, made up of five officers and 12 Councilors, all of whom are elected from among the Academy membership.
About 85 percent of funding comes from the federal government through contracts and grants from agencies and 15 percent from state governments, private foundations, industrial organizations, funds provided by the Academies member organizations. The Council has the ability ad-hoc to delegate certain tasks to committees. For example, the Committee on Animal Nutrition has produced a series of Nutrient requirements of domestic animals reports since at least 1944, each one being initiated by a different sub-committee of experts in the field for example on dairy cattle; the National Academy of Sciences meets annually in Washington, D. C., documented in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, its scholarly journal. The National Academies Press is the publisher for the National Academies, makes more than 5,000 publications available on its website. From 2004 to 2017, the National Academy of Sciences administered the Marian Koshland Science Museum to provide public exhibits and programming related to its policy work.
The museum's exhibits focused on infectious disease. In 2017 the museum closed and made way for a new science outreach program called LabX; the National Academy of Sciences maintains multiple buildings around the United States. The National Academy of Sciences Building is located at 2101 Constitution Avenue, in northwest Washington, D. C.. S. State Department; the building has a neoclassical architectural style and was built by architect Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue. The building is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Goodhue engaged a team of artists and architectural sculptors including Albert Herter, Lee Lawrie, Hildreth Meiere to design interior embellishments celebrating the history and significance of science; the building is used for lectures, symposia and concerts, in addition to annual meetings of the NAS, NAE, NAM. The 2012 Presidential Award for Math and Science Teaching ceremony was held here on March 5, 2014. 150 staff members work at the NAS Building. In June 2012, it reopened to visitors after a major two-year restoration project which restored and improved the building's historic spaces, increased accessibility, brought the building's aging infrastructure and facilities up to date.
More than 1,000 National Academies staff members work at The Keck Center of the National Academies at 500 Fifth Street in northwest Washington, D. C; the Keck Center houses the National Academies Press Bookstore. The Marian Koshland Science Museum of the National Academy of Sciences – located at 525 E St. N. W. – hosted visits from the public, school field trips, traveling exhibits, permanent science exhibits. The NAS maintains conference centers in California and Massachusetts; the Arnold and Mabel Beckman Center is located on 100 Academy Drive in Irvine, near the campus of the University of California, Irvine. The J. Erik Jonsson Conference Center located at 314 Quissett Avenue in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, is another conference facility; the Act of Incorporation, signed by President Abraham Lincoln on March 3, 1863, created the National Academy of Sciences and named 50 charter members. Many of the original NAS members came from the so-called "Scientific Lazzaroni," an informal network of phy
Worcester Polytechnic Institute
Worcester Polytechnic Institute is a private research university in Worcester, focusing on the instruction and research of technical arts and applied sciences. Founded in 1865 in Worcester, WPI was one of the United States' first engineering and technology universities and now has 14 academic departments with over 50 undergraduate and graduate degree programs in science, technology, the social sciences, the humanities and arts, leading to bachelor's, master's and PhD degrees. WPI's faculty works with students in a number of research areas, including biotechnology, fuel cells, information security, surface metrology, materials processing, nanotechnology. Worcester Polytechnic Institute was founded by self-made tinware manufacturer, John Boynton, Ichabod Washburn, owner of the world's largest wire mill. Boynton envisioned science schooling that would elevate the social position of the mechanic and manufacturer, but not teach the skills needed to become either. Washburn, on the other hand, wanted to teach technical skills through a sophisticated apprenticeship approach.
Boynton consulted a pastor, for ways to realize his vision. By chance it happened that Ichabod Washburn had consulted Sweetser about the proper way to actualize his own vision. Washburn was disappointed to learn of Boynton's offer to create a college, although Washburn claimed, "I prefer to be imposed upon by others rather than by myself in withholding where I ought to give," with the help of Sweetser's diplomacy and wisdom, he agreed to build and endow a "Department of Practical Mechanics" at Boynton's school, he specified, that every student should blend theory learned in the classroom with practice in the shops. Sweetser drafted a letter expressing Boynton's and Washburn's wish to other significant men within Worcester County; the document was sent to 30 Worcester businessmen. It told of a "liberal proposal to found a Free School for Industrial Science" in Worcester and called for a meeting in the month. After that meeting the following notice appeared in the Worcester Palladium: "A Gentleman, who for the present withholds his name from the public, offers a fund of $100,000 for the establishment of a scientific school in Worcester, upon the condition that our citizens shall furnish the necessary land and buildings."
Further funding and land grants for the university were given by Stephen Salisbury II, an influential merchant and served as the first president of the Institute's board of directors. In response to this anonymous request, more than 225 Worcester citizens and the workers at 20 of the city's factories and machine shops contributed to the construction of the original building. On May 10, 1865, after House and Senate approval, the secretary of the commonwealth recorded the Institute as a legal corporation, it came into formal existence. Both Boynton and Washburn died before the opening of the college on November 11, 1868. On that day, Charles O. Thompson, the first president of the Institute stood before WPI's first two buildings named Boynton Hall and Washburn Shops in honor of their respective donors, with their distinctive towers that then symbolized the institution's two educational objectives of theory and practice, inaugurated the Worcester County Free Institute of Industrial Science. WPI was led in its early years by professor of chemistry Charles O. Thompson.
Early graduates of WPI went on to become mechanical and civil engineers, as well as artisans and enter other prominent occupations. WPI continuously expanded its campus and programs throughout the early twentieth century including graduate studies and a program in electrical engineering. During World War II, WPI offered defense engineering courses and was selected as one of the colleges to direct the V-12 Navy College Training Program. During this time, WPI suffered from the lack of a unified library system, well-maintained buildings, national recognition; this changed under the leadership of president Harry P. Storke from 1962 to 1969. Storke brought significant change to the school in; the Plan called for the creation of three projects and drastically redesigned the curriculum to address how a student learns. The Storke administration launched a capital campaign that resulted in the creation of the George C. Gordon Library, added residence halls, an auditorium, a modern chemistry building. Furthermore, women were first allowed to enter WPI in February 1968.
The WPI Plan is the guiding principle behind undergraduate education at the Institute today, is arguably the most notable contribution WPI has made towards science and engineering education. In 2016, the National Academy of Engineering awarded their prestigious Bernard M. Gordon Prize for Innovation in Engineering and Technology Innovation to WPI, recognizing the Institute's groundbreaking approach to engineering education. Today, WPI is an undergraduate focused institution, though expansion of graduate and research programs is a long-term goal; the WPI Bioengineering Institute is a significant contributor to Worcester's growing biotechnology industry. Significant research in other fields such as robotics, untethered health care, fuel cells, the learning sciences, applied mathematics and fire protection help establish WPI as an important, specialized research university. Set in an urban context in New England's largest city after Boston, WPI's main campus is owned and uninterrupted by public roads.
The campus sits on Boynton Hill, apart from the adjacent neighborhood, which includes restaurants and stores on Highland Street. Once a laboratory for electromagnetic research, the "Skull tomb" was built entire
A glider or sailplane is a type of glider aircraft used in the leisure activity and sport of gliding. This unpowered aircraft uses occurring currents of rising air in the atmosphere to remain airborne. Gliders are aerodynamically streamlined and are capable of gaining altitude and remaining airborne, maintaining forward motion. Gliders benefit from producing the least drag for any given amount of lift, this is best achieved with long, thin wings, a faired narrow cockpit and a slender fuselage. Aircraft with these features are able to soar - climb efficiently in rising air produced by thermals or hills. In still air, gliders can glide long distances at high speed with a minimum loss of height in between. Gliders have either skids or undercarriage. In contrast hang gliders and paragliders use the pilot's feet for the start of the launch and for the landing; these latter types are described in separate articles, though their differences from gliders are covered below. Gliders are launched by winch or aerotow, though other methods: auto tow and bungee, are used.
Some gliders do not soar and are engineless aircraft towed by another aircraft to a desired destination and cast off for landing. Military gliders are single-use only, are abandoned after landing, having served their purpose. Motor gliders are gliders with engines which can be used for extending a flight and in some cases, for take-off; some high-performance motor gliders may have an engine-driven retractable propeller which can be used to sustain flight. Other motor gliders have enough thrust to launch themselves before the engine is retracted and are known as "self-launching" gliders. Another type is the self-launching "touring motor glider", where the pilot can switch the engine on and off in flight without retracting their propellers. Sir George Cayley's gliders achieved brief wing-borne hops from around 1849. In the 1890s, Otto Lilienthal built gliders using weight shift for control. In the early 1900s, the Wright Brothers built gliders using movable surfaces for control. In 1903, they added an engine.
After World War I gliders were first built for sporting purposes in Germany. Germany's strong links to gliding were to a large degree due to post-WWI regulations forbidding the construction and flight of motorised planes in Germany, so the country's aircraft enthusiasts turned to gliders and were encouraged by the German government at flying sites suited to gliding flight like the Wasserkuppe; the sporting use of gliders evolved in the 1930s and is now their main application. As their performance improved, gliders began to be used for cross-country flying and now fly hundreds or thousands of kilometres in a day if the weather is suitable. Early gliders had the pilot sat on a small seat located just ahead of the wing; these were known as "primary gliders" and they were launched from the tops of hills, though they are capable of short hops across the ground while being towed behind a vehicle. To enable gliders to soar more than primary gliders, the designs minimized drag. Gliders now have smooth, narrow fuselages and long, narrow wings with a high aspect ratio and winglets.
The early gliders were made of wood with metal fastenings and control cables. Fuselages made of fabric-covered steel tube were married to wood and fabric wings for lightness and strength. New materials such as carbon-fiber, fiber glass and Kevlar have since been used with computer-aided design to increase performance; the first glider to use glass-fiber extensively was the Akaflieg Stuttgart FS-24 Phönix which first flew in 1957. This material is still used because of its high strength to weight ratio and its ability to give a smooth exterior finish to reduce drag. Drag has been minimized by more aerodynamic shapes and retractable undercarriages. Flaps are fitted to the trailing edges of the wings on some gliders to minimize the drag from the tailplane at all speeds. With each generation of materials and with the improvements in aerodynamics, the performance of gliders has increased. One measure of performance is the glide ratio. A ratio of 30:1 means that in smooth air a glider can travel forward 30 meters while losing only 1 meter of altitude.
Comparing some typical gliders that might be found in the fleet of a gliding club – the Grunau Baby from the 1930s had a glide ratio of just 17:1, the glass-fiber Libelle of the 1960s increased that to 39:1, modern flapped 18 meter gliders such as the ASG29 have a glide ratio of over 50:1. The largest open-class glider, the eta, has a span of 30.9 meters and has a glide ratio over 70:1. Compare this to the Gimli Glider, a Boeing 767 which ran out of fuel mid-flight and was found to have a glide ratio of 12:1, or to the Space Shuttle with a glide ratio of 4.5:1. Due to the critical role that aerodynamic efficiency plays in the performance of a glider, gliders have aerodynamic features found in other aircraft; the wings of a modern racing glider have a specially designed low-drag laminar flow airfoil. After the wings' surfaces have been shaped by a mold to great accuracy, they are highly polished. Vertical winglets at the ends of the wings are computer-designed to decrease drag and improve handling performance.
Special aerodynamic seals are used at the ailerons and elevator to prevent the flow of air through control surface gaps. Turbulator devices in the form of a zig-zag tape or multiple blow holes positioned in a span-wise line along the wing are used to trip laminar flow air into turbulent flow at a desired location on the wing; this flow control prevents the formation of laminar flow bubbles and ensures t
The Collier Trophy is an annual aviation award administered by the U. S. National Aeronautic Association, presented to those who have made "the greatest achievement in aeronautics or astronautics in America, with respect to improving the performance and safety of air or space vehicles, the value of, demonstrated by actual use during the preceding year." Robert J. Collier, publisher of Collier's Weekly magazine, was an air sports pioneer and president of the Aero Club of America, he commissioned Baltimore sculptor Ernest Wise Keyser to make the 525 pound trophy in 1911, it was named the Aero Club of America Trophy. Collier was the owner of a Wright Model B biplane which he purchased in 1911. After presenting it several times, Collier died in 1918 after the end of World War I, it was renamed in his honor in 1922 when the Aero Club dissolved, the award was taken over in 1923 by its replacement the NAA. The name became official in 1944, the award presented once a year by the NAA president, with the trophy on permanent display at the U.
S. National Air and Space Museum; as such, the trophy was in the custody of its 1969 co-recipient Michael Collins during his directorship of the museum. The trophy was stolen in 1978, but was recovered. 1911 – Glenn H. Curtiss, for successful development of the hydro-aeroplane; the first award. 1912 – Glenn H. Curtiss, for the invention of the single-pontoon seaplane and development of the flying boat. 1913 – Orville Wright, for development of his automatic stabilizer. 1914 – Elmer Sperry, for his invention of gyroscopic control. 1915 – W. Starling Burgess, for the Burgess-Dunne BD series of semi-flying wing seaplanes. 1921 – Grover Loening, for development of the Loening Flying Yacht. 1922 – United States Air Mail Service, for the first transcontinental air mail route. 1923 – United States Air Mail Service, for the first transcontinental air mail route involving night flight. 1925 – Sylvanus Albert Reed, for the metal propeller. 1926 – Major Edward L. Hoffman, for the development of a practical parachute 1928 – Aeronautics branch of the United States Department of Commerce for development of airways and navigation facilities.
1929 - Fred Weick, for design of the NACA cowling which revolutionized civil air transport by making aircraft faster and more profitable. It found application on the bombers and fighters of World War II. 1930 - Harold Frederick Pitcairn and associates for development of the autogyro. 1931 - Packard Motor Car Co. for the design/development of the first, practical diesel aircraft engine, the DR-980 radial engine. 1932 - Glenn L. Martin for the design of the Martin B-10 bomber. 1933 - Frank W. Caldwell of Hamilton Standard for the hydraulically controllable propeller. 1934 - Albert Francis Hegenberger for the first blind flying landing system. 1935 - Donald W. Douglas and his technical and production personnel. 1936 - Pan American Airways for establishment of a transpacific airline and the successful execution of extended overwater navigation in regular operations. 1937 - Army Air Corps for the design and development of the Lockheed XC-35. 1938 - Howard Hughes 1945 - Luis W. Alvarez for the Ground Controlled Approach which allowed radar operators to talk a pilot down.
1946 - Lewis A. Rodert of NACA, for the design and development of an aircraft anti-icing system 1947 - Chuck Yeager for piloting the Bell X-1, the first aircraft to break the sound barrier. 1950 - The Helicopter Industry, the Military Services, the Coast Guard – for development and use of rotary-wing aircraft for air rescue operations. 1951 - John Stack for the Langley transonic wind tunnel 1952 - Leonard S. Hobbs of United Aircraft Corp. for the design and production of the J-57 jet engine. 1954 - Richard T. Whitcomb for his discovery of the area rule, a design method for supersonic aircraft. 1958 - Clarence "Kelly" Johnson of Lockheed Skunk Works, Gerhard Neumann and Neil Burgess of GE, for leadership in the development of the F-104 Starfighter and its J79 engine. 1960 - Vice Adm William F Raborn for directing the creation of the Polaris fleet ballistic missile system. 1961 - Scott Crossfield, Joseph A. Walker, Robert Michael White and Forrest S. Petersen, X-15 test pilots. 1962 - Mercury Seven, group of first 7 astronauts 1963 - Clarence "Kelly" Johnson, for his leadership at Lockheed's Skunk Works in the development of the SR-71 Blackbird.
1967 - Lawrence "Pat" Hyland, President and CEO of Hughes Aircraft: for placing the eyes, ears & hand of the United States on the Moon. 1968 - The crew of Apollo 8: Col. Frank Borman, USAF. 1971 - David Scott, James Irwin, Alfred Worden, Robert Gilruth of the Apollo 15 mission. 1972 - The Officers and Men of the 7th Air Force and 8th Air Force of the United States Air Force and Task Force 77 of the United States Navy for their work on Operation Linebacker II. 1973 - The Skylab program 1974 - Dr. John F. Clark, NASA, Daniel J. Fink, General Electric Company, representing the NASA/Industry Team responsible for the Earth Resources Technology Satellite Program, LANDSAT for proving the value of U. S. space technology in the management of the Earth's resources and environment for the benefit of all mankind, with Special Recognition to Hughes Aircraft Company and RCA. 1975 - David S. Lewis, Jr. of General Dynamics Corporation and the F-16 Air Force Industry Team 1977 - Robert J. Dixon for his work on Red Flag.
1978 - Sam B. Williams for development of the small, high-efficiency turbofan. 1979 - Paul MacCready for the MacCready Gossamer Albatross. 1980 - The Voyager mission team 1981 - NASA, Rockwell International, Martin Marietta, a
Convair F-102 Delta Dagger
The Convair F-102 Delta Dagger was an American interceptor aircraft, built as part of the backbone of the United States Air Force's air defenses in the late 1950s. Entering service in 1956, its main purpose was to intercept invading Soviet strategic bomber fleets during the Cold War. Designed and manufactured by Convair, 1,000 F-102s were built. A member of the Century Series, the F-102 was the USAF's first operational supersonic interceptor and delta-wing fighter, it used an internal weapons bay to carry both guided rockets. As designed, it could not achieve Mach 1 supersonic flight until redesigned with area ruling; the F-102 replaced subsonic fighter types such as the Northrop F-89 Scorpion, by the 1960s, it saw limited service in the Vietnam War in bomber escort and ground-attack roles. It was supplemented by McDonnell F-101 Voodoos and by McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom IIs. Many of the F-102s were transferred from the active duty Air Force to the Air National Guard by the mid-to-late 1960s, with the exception of those examples converted to unmanned QF-102 Full Scale Aerial Target drones, the type was retired from operational service in 1976.
The follow-on replacement was the Mach-2 Convair F-106 Delta Dart, an extensive redesign of the F-102. On 8 October 1948, the board of senior officers of the U. S. Air Force made recommendations that the service organize a competition for a new interceptor scheduled to enter service in 1954. Four months on 4 February 1949, the USAF approved the recommendation and prepared to hold the competition the following year. In November 1949, the Air Force decided that the new aircraft would be built around a fire-control system; the FCS was to be designed before the airframe to ensure compatibility. The airframe and FCS together were called the weapon system. In January 1950, the USAF Air Materiel Command issued request for proposals to 50 companies for the FCS, of which 18 responded. By May, the list was revised downward to 10. Meanwhile, a board at the U. S. Department of Defense headed by Major General Gordon P. Saville reviewed the proposals, distributed some to the George E. Valley-led Air Defense Engineering Committee.
Following recommendations by the committee to the Saville Board, the proposals were further reduced to two competitors, Hughes Aircraft and North American Aviation. Although the Valley Committee thought it was best to award the contract to both companies, Hughes was chosen by Saville and his team on 2 October 1950. Proposals for the airframe were issued on 18 June 1950, in January 1951 six manufacturers responded. On 2 July 1954, three companies, Convair and Lockheed won the right to build a mockup; until Convair had done research into delta-winged aircraft, experimenting with different designs, two of which fell under the name P-92. Of the three, the best design was to win the production contract under the name "Project MX-1554". In the end, Convair emerged as the victor with its design, designated "XF-102", after Lockheed dropped out and Republic built only a mockup; the development of three different designs was too expensive and in November, only Convair was allowed to continue with its Model 8-80.
To speed development, it was proposed to equip the prototypes and pre-production aircraft with the less-powerful Westinghouse J40 turbojet. Continued delays to the J67 and MA-1 FCS led to the decision to place an interim aircraft with the J40 and a simpler fire control system into production as the F-102A; the failure of the J40 led to the Pratt & Whitney J57 turbojet with afterburner, rated with 10,000 pounds-force of thrust being substituted for the prototypes and F-102As. This aircraft was intended to be temporary, pending the development of the F-102B, which would employ the more advanced Curtiss-Wright J67, a licensed derivative of the Bristol-Siddeley Olympus, still in development; the F-102B would evolve to become the F-106A, dubbed the "Ultimate Interceptor". The prototype YF-102 made its first flight on 23 October 1953, at Edwards AFB, but was lost in an accident nine days later; the second aircraft flew on 11 January 1954. Transonic drag was much higher than expected, the aircraft was limited to Mach 0.98, with a ceiling of 48,000 ft, far below the requirements.
To solve the problem and save the F-102, Convair embarked on a major redesign, incorporating the discovered area rule, while at the same time simplifying production and maintenance. The redesign entailed lengthening the fuselage by 11 ft, being "pinched" at the midsection, with two large fairings on either side of the engine nozzle, with revised intakes and a new, narrower canopy. A more powerful model of the J57 was fitted, the aircraft structure was lightened; the first revised aircraft, designated YF-102A flew on 20 December 1954, 118 days after the redesign started, exceeding Mach 1 the next day. The revised design demonstrated a speed of Mach 1.22 and a ceiling of 53,000 ft. These improvements were sufficient for the Air Force to allow production of the F-102, with a new production contract signed in March 1954; the production F-102A had the Hughes MC-3 fire control system upgraded in service to the MG-10. It had a three-segment internal weapons bay under the fuselage for air-to-air missiles.
Initial armament was three pairs of GAR-1/2/3/4 Falcon missiles, which included both infrared homing and semi-active radar homing variants. The doors of the two forward bays each had tubes for 12 FFARs (for a t
Aerospace engineering is the primary field of engineering concerned with the development of aircraft and spacecraft. It has two major and overlapping branches: astronautical engineering. Avionics engineering deals with the electronics side of aerospace engineering. Aeronautical engineering was the original term for the field; as flight technology advanced to include craft operating in outer space, the broader term "aerospace engineering" has come into common use. Aerospace engineering the astronautics branch is colloquially referred to as "rocket science". Flight vehicles are subjected to demanding conditions such as those caused by changes in atmospheric pressure and temperature, with structural loads applied upon vehicle components, they are the products of various technological and engineering disciplines including aerodynamics, avionics, materials science, structural analysis and manufacturing. The interaction between these technologies is known as aerospace engineering; because of the complexity and number of disciplines involved, aerospace engineering is carried out by teams of engineers, each having their own specialized area of expertise.
The origin of aerospace engineering can be traced back to the aviation pioneers around the late 19th to early 20th centuries, although the work of Sir George Cayley dates from the last decade of the 18th to mid-19th century. One of the most important people in the history of aeronautics, Cayley was a pioneer in aeronautical engineering and is credited as the first person to separate the forces of lift and drag, which are in effect on any flight vehicle. Early knowledge of aeronautical engineering was empirical with some concepts and skills imported from other branches of engineering. Scientists understood some key elements of aerospace engineering, like fluid dynamics, in the 18th century. Many years after the successful flights by the Wright brothers, the 1910s saw the development of aeronautical engineering through the design of World War I military aircraft. Between World Wars I and II, great leaps were made in Aeronautical Engineering; the advent of mainstream civil aviation accelerated this process.
Notable airplanes of this era include the Curtiss JN 4, the Farman F.60 Goliath, Fokker trimotor. Notable military airplanes of this period include the Mitsubishi A6M Zero, the Supermarine Spitfire and the Messerschmitt Bf 109 from Japan, Great Britain, Germany respectively. A significant development in Aerospace engineering came with the first Jet engine-powered airplane, the Messerschmitt Me 262 which entered service in 1944 towards the end of the second World War; the first definition of aerospace engineering appeared in February 1958. The definition considered the Earth's atmosphere and the outer space as a single realm, thereby encompassing both aircraft and spacecraft under a newly coined word aerospace. In response to the USSR launching the first satellite, Sputnik into space on October 4, 1957, U. S. aerospace engineers launched the first American satellite on January 31, 1958. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration was founded in 1958 as a response to the Cold War. In 1969, Apollo 11, the first manned space mission to the moon took place.
It saw three astronauts enter orbit around the Moon, with two, Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin, visiting the lunar surface. The third astronaut, Michael Collins, stayed in orbit to rendezvous with Armstrong and Aldrin after their visit to the lunar surface; some of the elements of aerospace engineering are: Radar cross-section – the study of vehicle signature apparent to Radar remote sensing. Fluid mechanics – the study of fluid flow around objects. Aerodynamics concerning the flow of air over bodies such as wings or through objects such as wind tunnels. Astrodynamics – the study of orbital mechanics including prediction of orbital elements when given a select few variables. While few schools in the United States teach this at the undergraduate level, several have graduate programs covering this topic. Statics and Dynamics – the study of movement, moments in mechanical systems. Mathematics – in particular, differential equations, linear algebra. Electrotechnology – the study of electronics within engineering.
Propulsion – the energy to move a vehicle through the air is provided by internal combustion engines, jet engines and turbomachinery, or rockets. A more recent addition to this module is ion propulsion. Control engineering – the study of mathematical modeling of the dynamic behavior of systems and designing them using feedback signals, so that their dynamic behavior is desirable; this applies to the dynamic behavior of aircraft, propulsion systems, subsystems that exist on aerospace vehicles. Aircraft structures – design of the physical configuration of the craft to withstand the forces encountered during flight. Aerospace engineering aims to keep structures lightweight and low-cost while maintaining structural integrity. Materials science – related to structures, aerospace engineering studies the materials of which the aerospace structures are to be built. New materials with specific properties are invented, or existing ones are modified to improve their performance. Solid mechanics – Closely related to material science is solid mechanics which deals with stress and strain analysis of the components of the vehicle.
Nowadays there are several Finite Element programs such as MSC