An animated cartoon is a film for the cinema, television or computer screen, made using sequential drawings, as opposed to animation in general, which include films made using clay, puppets, 3D modeling and other means. Animated cartoons are still created for entertainment, commercial and personal purposes. Early examples of attempts to capture the phenomenon of motion into a still drawing can be found in paleolithic cave paintings, where animals are depicted with multiple legs in superimposed positions attempting to convey the perception of motion. A 5,200-year old pottery bowl discovered in Shahr-e Sukhteh, has five sequential images painted around it that seem to show phases of a goat leaping up to nip at a tree; the phenakistoscope and praxinoscope, as well as the common flip book, were early animation devices to produce movement from sequential drawings using technological means, but did not develop further until the advent of motion picture film. The first person to make animated movies was a French science teacher named, Charles-Emile Reynaud.
The first animated projection was created in France, by Charles-Émile Reynaud, a French science teacher. Reynaud created the Praxinoscope in 1877 and the Théâtre Optique in December 1888. On 28 October 1892, he projected the first animation in public, Pauvre Pierrot, at the Musée Grévin in Paris; this film is notable as the first known instance of film perforations being used. His films were not drawn directly onto the transparent strip. In 1900, more than 500,000 people had attended these screenings; the first animated projection was Humorous Phases of Funny Faces by newspaper cartoonist J. Stuart Blackton, one of the co-founders of the Vitagraph Company arrived. In the film, a cartoonist's line drawings of two faces were'animated' on a blackboard; the two faces smiled and winked, the cigar-smoking man blew smoke in the lady's face. The first animated projection in the traditional sense was Fantasmagorie by the French director Émile Cohl in 1908; this was followed by two more films, Le Cauchemar du fantoche and Un Drame chez les fantoches, all completed in 1908.
One of the first successful animated cartoons was Gertie the Dinosaur by Winsor McCay. It is considered the first example of true character animation. At first, animated cartoons were silent. Felix the Cat and Oswald the Lucky Rabbit are notable examples. From the 1920s to 1960s, theatrical cartoons were produced in huge numbers, shown before a feature film in a movie theater. Disney, Warner Bros. MGM, UPA were the largest studios producing these 5- to 10-minute "shorts." Other studios included Walter Lantz, DePatie-Freleng, Van Beuren Studios, ComiColor Cartoons, Charles Mintz Studios, Famous Studios, Terrytoons. The first cartoon to use a soundtrack was in 1926 with Max Fleischer's My Old Kentucky Home; however the Fleischers used a De Forest sound system and the sound was not synchronized with the film. Walt Disney's 1928 cartoon Steamboat Willie starring Mickey Mouse was the first to use a click track during the recording session, which produced better synchronism. "Mickey Mousing" became a term for any movie action, synchronized with music.
The music used is original most of the time, but musical quotation is employed. Animated characters performed the action in "loops," i.e. drawings were repeated over and over. Although other producers had made films earlier using 2-strip color, Disney produced the first cartoon in 3-strip Technicolor and Trees, in 1932. Technicians at the Fleischer studio invented rotoscoping, in which animators trace live action in order to make animation look more realistic. However, rotoscoping made the animation look stiff and the technique was used more for studying human and animal movement, rather than directly tracing and copying filmed movements. Other movie technologies were adapted for use in animation, such as multiplane cameras with The Old Mill, stereophonic sound in Fantasia, widescreen processes with the feature-length Lady and the Tramp, 3D with Lumber Jack-Rabbit. Today, traditional animation is aided by computers in certain areas; this gives the animator new tools not available. In 1917, Italian-Argentine cartoonist Quirino Cristiani created the first animated feature made, El Apóstol, utilizing cutout animation.
In 1937, Disney created the first sound and color animated feature film, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. The name "animated cartoon" is not used when referring to full-length animated productions, since the term more or less implies a "short." Huge numbers of animated feature films were, are still, produced. Competition from television drew audiences away from movie theaters in the late 1950s, the theatrical cartoon began its decline. Tod
Warner Bros. Cartoons
Warner Bros. Cartoons, Inc. was the in-house division of Warner Bros. during the Golden Age of American animation. One of the most successful animation studios in American media history, it was responsible for the Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies theatrical cartoon short subjects; the characters featured in these cartoons, including Bugs Bunny, Daffy Duck, Porky Pig and Tweety, are among the most famous and recognizable characters in the world. Many of the creative staff members at the studio, including directors and animators such as Chuck Jones, Friz Freleng, Robert McKimson, Tex Avery, Robert Clampett, Arthur Davis and Frank Tashlin, are considered major figures in the art and history of traditional animation; the Warner animation division was founded in 1933 as Leon Schlesinger Productions, an independent company which produced the popular Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies animated short subjects for release by Warner Bros. Pictures. In 1944, Schlesinger sold the studio to Warner Bros.. Cartoons, Inc. until 1963.
Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies were subcontracted to Freleng's DePatie–Freleng Enterprises studio from 1964 until 1967. The Warner Bros. Cartoons studio re-opened in 1967 before shutting its doors for good two years later. A successor company, Warner Bros. Animation, was established in 1980. Hugh Harman and Rudolf Ising originated the Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies series of animated short subjects in 1930 and 1931, respectively. Both cartoon series were produced for Leon Schlesinger at the Harman-Ising Studio on Hollywood Boulevard in Hollywood, with Warner Bros. Pictures releasing the films to theaters; the first Looney Tunes character was the Harman-Ising creation The Talk-ink Kid. Despite the fact that Bosko was popular among theater audiences, he could never match the popularity of Walt Disney's Mickey Mouse, or Max Fleischer's Betty Boop. In 1933, Harman and Ising parted company with Schlesinger over financial disputes, took Bosko with them to Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer; as a result, Schlesinger set up his own studio on the Warner Bros. lot on Sunset Boulevard in Hollywood.
The Schlesinger studio got off to a slow start, continuing their one-shot Merrie Melodies and introducing a Bosko replacement named Buddy into the Looney Tunes. Disney animator Tom Palmer was the studio's first senior director, but after the three cartoons he made were deemed to be of unacceptable quality and rejected by the studio, former Harman-Ising animator/musical composer Isadore "Friz" Freleng was called in to replace Palmer and rework his cartoons where every cartoon Freleng directed from 1933 to 1963 was created/directed by Freleng's musical compositions and methods; the studio formed the three-unit structure that it would retain throughout most of its history, with one of the units headed by Ben "Bugs" Hardaway, the other by Earl Duvall, replaced by Jack King a year later. In 1935, Freleng helmed the Merrie Melodies cartoon I Haven't Got a Hat, which introduced the character Porky Pig. Hardaway and King departed, a new arrival at Schlesinger's, Fred "Tex" Avery, took Freleng's creation and ran with it.
Avery directed a string of cartoons starring Porky Pig that established the character as the studio's first bona fide star. Schlesinger gradually moved the Merrie Melodies cartoons from black and white, to two-strip Technicolor in 1934, to full three-strip Technicolor in 1936; the Looney Tunes series would be produced in black-and-white for much longer, until 1943. Because of the limited spacing conditions in the Schlesinger building at 1351 N. Van Ness on the Warner Sunset lot and his unit – including animators Robert Clampett and Chuck Jones – were moved into a small building elsewhere on the Sunset lot, which Avery and his team affectionately dubbed "Termite Terrace." Although the Avery unit moved out of the building after a year, "Termite Terrace" became a metonym for the classic Warner Bros. animation department in general for years after the building was abandoned and torn down. During this period, four cartoons were outsourced to the Ub Iwerks studio. Schlesinger was so impressed by Clampett's work on these shorts that he opened a fourth unit for Clampett to head, although for tax reasons this was technically a separate studio headed by Schlesinger's brother-in-law, Ray Katz.
From 1936 until 1944, animation directors and animators such as Freleng, Clampett, Arthur Davis, Robert McKimson, Frank Tashlin worked at the studio. During this period, these creators introduced several of the most popular cartoon characters to date, including Daffy Duck, Elmer Fudd, Bugs Bunny, Tweety. Avery left the studio in 1941 following a series of disputes with Schlesinger, who shortly after closed the studio for two weeks due to a minor strike similar to the better known one that occurred at Disney. A few months earlier he banished all unionized employees in what became known in retrospect as the "Looney Tune Lockout". Clampett and several of his key animators took over Avery's former unit, while Clampett's own position as director of the Schlesinger-Katz studio was taken by Norm McCabe, a Clampett animator whose cartoons focused in war-related humor. By 1942, the
Hanna-Barbera Productions, Inc. was an American animation studio, founded in 1957 by Tom and Jerry creators and former Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer animation directors William Hanna and Joseph Barbera, in partnership with film director George Sidney. The studio was a prominent force and a leader in American television animation for over three decades in the mid-20th century as it created a wide variety of popular animated characters and produced a succession of cartoon series, including The Flintstones, The Yogi Bear Show, The Jetsons, Wacky Races, Scooby-Doo, Where Are You! and Smurfs. Hanna and Barbera's cartoons won them seven Academy Awards, eight Emmy Awards, a Governors Award and a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. With their studio now established as a successful company, the two men and original investor Sidney sold it to Taft Broadcasting on December 29, 1966. Taft would run it for the next quarter-century. By the mid-1980s, when the profitability of Saturday-morning cartoons was eclipsed by weekday afternoon syndication, Hanna-Barbera's fortunes had declined.
Turner Broadcasting System purchased the studio from Taft in late 1991 and used much of its back catalog as programming for its new channel, Cartoon Network. After Turner purchased the company and Barbera continued to serve as creative consultants and mentors; the studio became a subsidiary of Warner Bros. Animation in 1996 following Turner Broadcasting's merger with Time Warner, was absorbed into Warner Bros. Animation in 2001; as of 2019, Warner Bros. now distributes subsequent Hanna-Barbera cartoons, as well as now owning the rights to its back catalogue. William Hanna, a native of Melrose, New Mexico and Joseph Barbera, born of Italian heritage in New York City, first met at the Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer studio in 1939, while working at its animation division and thus began a partnership that would last for six decades, their first cartoon together, the Oscar-nominated Puss Gets the Boot, featuring a cat named Jasper and an unnamed mouse, was released to theaters in 1940 and served as the pilot for the long-running short subject theatrical series Tom and Jerry.
Hanna and Barbera served as directors of the shorts for over 20 years, with Hanna supervising the animation and Barbera in charge of the stories and pre-production. Hanna did the screams, yelps and yells of Tom. In addition being nominated for twelve Oscars, seven of the cartoons won seven Academy Awards for Best Short Subject between 1943 and 1953, awarded to producer Fred Quimby, not involved in the creative development of the shorts; the pair served as animation directors for the hybrid animated/live-action musical sequences in MGM's feature films Anchors Aweigh, Dangerous When Wet and Invitation to the Dance and wrote and directed a handful of one-shot cartoons for MGM: Gallopin' Gals, Officer Pooch, War Dogs and Good Will to Men, a 1955 remake of the 1939 MGM cartoon Peace on Earth. With Quimby's retirement in 1955, Hanna and Barbera became the producers in charge of the MGM animation studio's output, supervising the last seven shorts of Tex Avery's Droopy series and directing and producing a short-lived Tom and Jerry spin-off series and Tyke, which ran for two entries.
In addition to their work on the cartoons, the two men moonlighted on outside projects, including the original title sequences and commercials for the CBS sitcom I Love Lucy. With the rise of television, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer decided in early 1957 to close its cartoon studio, as it felt it had acquired a reasonable backlog of shorts for re-release. While contemplating their future and Barbera began producing animated television commercials and during their last year at Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, they had developed a concept for a new animated TV program about a dog and cat duo in various misadventures. After they failed to convince the studio to back their venture, live-action director George Sidney, who had worked with Hanna and Barbera on several of his theatrical features for MGM, offered to serve as their business partner and convinced Screen Gems, a television production subsidiary of Columbia Pictures, to make a deal with the producers. A coin toss would determine. Harry Cohn and head of Columbia Pictures, took an 18% ownership in Hanna and Barbera's new company, H-B Enterprises, provided working capital.
Screen Gems became the new studio's distributor and its licensing agent, handling merchandizing of the characters from the animated programs. The duo's cartoon firm opened for business in rented offices on the lot of Kling Studios on July 7, 1957, two months after the Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer animation studio closed down. Sidney and several Screen Gems alumni became members of the studio's board of directors and much of the former MGM animation staff — including animators Carlo Vinci, Kenneth Muse, Lewis Marshall, Michael Lah and Ed Barge and layout artists Ed Benedict and Richard Bickenbach — became the new production staff for the H-B studio. Conductor and composer Hoyt Curtin was in charge of providing the music while many voice actors came on board, such as Daws Butler, Don Messick, Julie Bennett, Mel Blanc, Howard Morris, John Stephenson, Hal Smith and Doug Young. H-B Enterprises was the first major animation studio to produce cartoons for television. Animated programming was rebroadcasts of theatrical cartoons.
Its first animated TV original The Ruff and Reddy Show, premiered on NBC in December 1957. The
An animator is an artist who creates multiple images, known as frames, which give an illusion of movement called animation when displayed in rapid sequence. Animators can work in a variety of fields including film and video games. Animation is related to filmmaking and like filmmaking is labor-intensive, which means that most significant works require the collaboration of several animators; the methods of creating the images or frames for an animation piece depend on the animators' artistic styles and their field. Other artists who contribute to animated cartoons, but who are not animators, include layout artists, storyboard artists, background artists. Animated films share some film crew positions with regular live action films, such as director, sound engineer, editor, but differ radically in that for most of the history of animation, they did not need most of the crew positions seen on a physical set. In hand-drawn Japanese animation productions, such as in Hayao Miyazaki's films, the key animator handles both layout and key animation.
Some animators in Japan such as Mitsuo Iso take full responsibility for their scenes, making them become more than just the key animator. Animators specialize. One important distinction is between special effects animators. In large-scale productions by major studios, each animator has one or more assistants, "inbetweeners" and "clean-up artists", who make drawings between the "key poses" drawn by the animator, re-draw any sketches that are too made to be used as such. A young artist seeking to break into animation is hired for the first time in one of these categories, can advance to the rank of full animator; the creation of animation was a long and arduous process. Each frame of a given scene was hand-drawn transposed onto celluloid, where it would be traced and painted; these finished "cels" were placed together in sequence over painted backgrounds and filmed, one frame at a time. Animation methods have become far more varied in recent years. Today's cartoons could be created using any number of methods using computers to make the animation process cheaper and faster.
These more efficient animation procedures have made the animator's job less tedious and more creative. Audiences find animation to be much more interesting with sound. Voice actors and musicians, among other talent, may contribute vocal or music tracks; some early animated films asked the vocal and music talent to synchronize their recordings to already-extant animation. For the majority of animated films today, the soundtrack is recorded first in the language of the film's primary target market and the animators are required to synchronize their work to the soundtrack. Animation is the art of creating moving images; this line of work is all about creating a series of individual ‘frames’, which make images come to life when they are flicked through in rapid succession. Animation was done manually, with animators drawing multiple frames to depict a single action, i.e. the kind of animation that you witnessed during a typical scene from the Hanna-Barbera cartoon and Jerry. Today, computer-generated imagery has replaced manual animation, but a significant amount of artistic talent is still required.
Animators are employed in various segments of the entertainment industry,including film and video games. As a result of the ongoing transition from traditional 2D to 3D computer animation, the animator's traditional task of redrawing and repainting the same character 24 times a second has now been superseded by the modern task of developing dozens of movements of different parts of a character in a virtual scene; because of the transition to computer animation, many additional support positions have become essential, with the result that the animator has become but one component of a long and specialized production pipeline. Nowadays, visual development artists will design a character as a 2D drawing or painting hand it off to modelers who build the character as a collection of digital polygons. Texture artists "paint" the character with colorful or complex textures, technical directors set up rigging so that the character can be moved and posed. For each scene, layout artists set up rough blocking.
When a character's bugs have been worked out and its scenes have been blocked, it is handed off to an animator who can start developing the exact movements of the character's virtual limbs and facial expressions in each specific scene. At that point, the role of the modern computer animator overlaps in some respects with that of his or her predecessors in traditional animation: namely, trying to create scenes storyboarded in rough form by a team of story artists, synchronizing lip or mouth movements to dialogue prepared by a screenwriter and recorded by vocal talent. Despite those constraints, the animator is still capable of exercising significant artistic skill and discretion in developing the character's movements to accomplish the objective of each scene. There is an obvious analogy here between the art of animation and the art of acting
Wile E. Coyote and the Road Runner
Wile E. Coyote and the Road Runner are a duo of cartoon characters from the Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies series of cartoons. In each episode, the Coyote attempts to catch and subsequently eat the Road Runner, a fast-running ground bird, but is never successful. Instead of his animal instincts, the Coyote uses absurdly complex contraptions to try to catch his prey, which comically "backfire", with the Coyote getting injured in slapstick fashion. Many of the items for these contrivances are mail-ordered from a variety of companies that are all named Acme. One running gag involves the Coyote trying to shield himself with a little parasol against a great falling boulder, about to crush him. Another running gag involves the Coyote falling from a high cliff. After he goes over the edge, the rest of the scene, shot from a bird’s-eye view, shows him falling into a canyon so deep, that his figure is lost to sight; this is followed, a second or two by the rising of a dust cloud from the canyon floor as the Coyote hits.
The characters were created by animation director Chuck Jones and writer Michael Maltese in 1948 for Warner Bros. while the template for their adventures was the work of writer Michael Maltese. The characters star in a long-running series of theatrical cartoon shorts and occasional made-for-television cartoons, it was meant to parody chase cartoons like Tom and Jerry, but became popular in its own right. The Coyote appears separately as an occasional antagonist of Bugs Bunny in five shorts from 1952 to 1963: Operation: Rabbit, To Hare Is Human, Rabbit's Feat, Compressed Hare, Hare-Breadth Hurry. While he is silent in the Coyote-Road Runner shorts, he speaks with a refined accent in these solo outings, beginning with 1952's Operation: Rabbit, introducing himself as "Wile E. Coyote—Genius", voiced with an upper-class accent by Mel Blanc; the Road Runner vocalizes only with a signature sound, "Beep, Beep", recorded by Paul Julian, an accompanying "popping-cork" tongue noise. To date, 49 cartoons have been made featuring the majority by Chuck Jones.
TV Guide included Wile E. Coyote in its 2013 list of "The 60 Nastiest Villains of All Time". Jones based the Coyote on Mark Twain's book Roughing It, in which Twain described the coyote as "a long, slim and sorry-looking skeleton", "a living, breathing allegory of Want, he is always hungry." Jones said he created the Coyote-Road Runner cartoons as a parody of traditional "Cat and mouse" cartoons such as MGM's Tom and Jerry, which Jones would work on as a director in his career. Jones modelled the Coyote's appearance on fellow animator Ken Harris; the Coyote's name of Wile E. is a pun of the word "wily." The "E" stands for "Ethelbert" in one issue of a Looney Tunes comic book. The Coyote's surname is pronounced with a long "e", but in one cartoon short, To Hare Is Human, Wile E. is heard pronouncing it with a diphthong. Early model sheets for the character prior to his initial appearance identified him as "Don Coyote", a pun of the name Don Quixote; the series consists of: 49 shorts about 6 to 7 minutes long, but including three web cartoons which are "three-minute, three-dimensional cartoons in widescreen".
One half-hour special, released theatrically. One feature-length film that combines live animation. 1 Re-edited from Adventures of the Road-Runner, by Chuck Jones, with new music direction from Bill Lava. 2 Re-edited from Adventures of the Road-Runner, by DePatie-Freleng Enterprises 3 These cartoons were shown with a feature-length film. Chariots of Fur was shown with Richie Rich, Coyote Falls was shown with Cats & Dogs: The Revenge of Kitty Galore, Fur of Flying was shown with Legend of the Guardians: The Owls of Ga'Hoole, Rabid Rider was shown with Yogi Bear. Flash in the Pain was shown at the Annecy International Animated Film Festival on June 10, 2014; the desert scenery in the first three Road Runner cartoons and Furry-ous, Beep and Going! Going! Gosh!, were designed by Robert Gribbroek and was quite realistic. In most cartoons the scenery was designed by Maurice Noble and was far more abstract. Wile E. Coyote obtains various complex and ludicrous devices from a mail-order company, the fictitious Acme Corporation, which he hopes will help him catch the Road Runner.
The devices invariably fail in spectacular fashion. Whether this is a result of operator error or faulty merchandise is debatable; the coyote ends up burnt to a crisp, squashed flat, or at the bottom of a canyon. Acme products do work quite well. In this case, their success works against the coyote. For example, the Dehydrated Boulder, upon hydration, becomes so large that it crushes him, or the Coyote finds out that the Earthquake Pills bottle label's fine print states that the pills aren’t effective on road runners, right after he swallows the whole bottle, thinking they're ineffective. Other times he uses items that are implausible, such as a superhero outfit, thinking he could fly wearing it. How the coyote acquires these products without money is not explained until the 2003 movie Looney Tunes: Back in Action, in which he is shown to be an employee of Acme. In a Tiny Toon Adventures episode, Wile E. makes ment
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of several national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. Discussion about having a common international authority started in the late 1990s. After a series of failed attempts to come up with a unique common authority file, the new idea was to link existing national authorities; this would present all the benefits of a common file without requiring a large investment of time and expense in the process. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library and the OCLC on August 6, 2003; the Bibliothèque nationale de France joined the project on October 5, 2007. The project transitioned to being a service of the OCLC on April 4, 2012; the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, refers to the original authority records.
The data are available for research and data exchange and sharing. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol; the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAF's clustering algorithm is run every month; as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records. Authority control Faceted Application of Subject Terminology Integrated Authority File International Standard Authority Data Number International Standard Name Identifier Wikipedia's authority control template for articles Official website VIAF at OCLC
Biblioteca Nacional de España
The Biblioteca Nacional de España is a major public library, the largest in Spain, one of the largest in the world. It is located on the Paseo de Recoletos; the library was founded by King Philip V in 1712 as the Palace Public Library. The Royal Letters Patent that he granted, the predecessor of the current legal deposit requirement, made it mandatory for printers to submit a copy of every book printed in Spain to the library. In 1836, the library's status as Crown property was revoked and ownership was transferred to the Ministry of Governance. At the same time, it was renamed the Biblioteca Nacional. During the 19th century, confiscations and donations enabled the Biblioteca Nacional to acquire the majority of the antique and valuable books that it holds. In 1892 the building was used to host the Historical American Exposition. On March 16, 1896, the Biblioteca Nacional opened to the public in the same building in which it is housed and included a vast Reading Room on the main floor designed to hold 320 readers.
In 1931 the Reading Room was reorganised, providing it with a major collection of reference works, the General Reading Room was created to cater for students and general readers. During the Spanish Civil War close to 500,000 volumes were collected by the Confiscation Committee and stored in the Biblioteca Nacional to safeguard works of art and books held until in religious establishments and private houses. During the 20th century numerous modifications were made to the building to adapt its rooms and repositories to its expanding collections, to the growing volume of material received following the modification to the Legal Deposit requirement in 1958, to the numerous works purchased by the library. Among this building work, some of the most noteworthy changes were the alterations made in 1955 to triple the capacity of the library's repositories, those started in 1986 and completed in 2000, which led to the creation of the new building in Alcalá de Henares and complete remodelling of the building on Paseo de Recoletos, Madrid.
In 1986, when Spain's main bibliographic institutions - the National Newspaper Library, the Spanish Bibliographic Institute and the Centre for Documentary and Bibliographic Treasures - were incorporated into the Biblioteca Nacional, the library was established as the State Repository of Spain's Cultural Memory, making all of Spain's bibliographic output on any media available to the Spanish Library System and national and international researchers and cultural and educational institutions. In 1990 it was made an Autonomous Entity attached to the Ministry of Culture; the Madrid premises are shared with the National Archaeological Museum. The Biblioteca Nacional is Spain's highest library institution and is head of the Spanish Library System; as the country's national library, it is the centre responsible for identifying, preserving and disseminating information about Spain's documentary heritage, it aspires to be an essential point of reference for research into Spanish culture. In accordance with its Articles of Association, passed by Royal Decree 1581/1991 of October 31, 1991, its principal functions are to: Compile and conserve bibliographic archives produced in any language of the Spanish state, or any other language, for the purposes of research and information.
Promote research through the study and reproduction of its bibliographic archive. Disseminate information on Spain's bibliographic output based on the entries received through the legal deposit requirement; the library's collection consists of more than 26,000,000 items, including 15,000,000 books and other printed materials, 4,500,000 graphic materials, 600,000 sound recordings, 510,000 music scores, more than 500,000 microforms, 500,000 maps, 143,000 newspapers and serials, 90,000 audiovisuals, 90,000 electronic documents, 30,000 manuscripts. The current director of the Biblioteca Nacional is Ana Santos Aramburo, appointed in 2013. Former directors include her predecessors Glòria Pérez-Salmerón and Milagros del Corral as well as historian Juan Pablo Fusi and author Rosa Regàs. Given its role as the legal deposit for the whole of Spain, since 1991 it has kept most of the overflowing collection at a secondary site in Alcalá de Henares, near Madrid; the Biblioteca Nacional provides access to its collections through the following library services: Guidance and general information on the institution and other libraries.
Bibliographic information about its collection and those held by other libraries or library systems. Access to its automated catalogue, which contains close to 3,000,000 bibliographic records encompassing all of its collections. Archive consultation in the library's reading rooms. Interlibrary loans. Archive reproduction. Biblioteca Digital Hispánica, digital library launched in 2008 by the Biblioteca Nacional de España List of libraries in Spain Media related to Biblioteca Nacional de España at Wikimedia Commons Official site Official web catalog