The Coldstream Guards is a part of the Guards Division, Foot Guards regiments of the British Army. It is the oldest regiment in the Regular Army in continuous active service, originating in Coldstream, Scotland, in 1650 when General George Monck founded the regiment, it is one of two regiments of the Household Division that can trace its lineage to the New Model Army, the other being the Blues and Royals. The origin of The Coldstream Guards lies in the English Civil War when Oliver Cromwell gave Colonel George Monck permission to form his own regiment as part of the New Model Army. Monck took men from the regiments of George Fenwick and Sir Arthur Haselrig, five companies each, on 13 August 1650 formed Monck's Regiment of Foot. Less than two weeks this force took part in the Battle of Dunbar, at which the Roundheads defeated the forces of Charles Stuart. After Richard Cromwell's abdication, Monck gave his support to the Stuarts, on 1 January 1660 he crossed the River Tweed into England at the village of Coldstream, from where he made a five-week march to London.
He helped in the Restoration of the monarchy. For his help, Monck was given the Order of the Garter and his regiment was assigned to keep order in London. However, the new parliament soon ordered his regiment to be disbanded with the other regiments of the New Model Army. Before that could happen, Parliament was forced to rely on the help of the regiment against the rebellion by the Fifth Monarchists led by Thomas Venner on 6 January 1661; the regiment defeated the rebels and on 14 February the men of the regiment symbolically laid down their arms as part of the New Model Army and were ordered to take them up again as a royal regiment of The Lord General's Regiment of Foot Guards, a part of the Household Troops. The regiment was placed as the second senior regiment of Household Troops, as it entered the service of the Crown after the 1st Regiment of Foot Guards, but it answered to that by adopting the motto Nulli Secundus, due to the fact that the regiment is older than the senior regiment.
The regiment always stands on the left of the line when on parade with the rest of the Foot Guards, so standing "second to none". When Monck died in 1670, the Earl of Craven took command of the regiment and it adopted a new name, the Coldstream Regiment of Foot Guards; the regiment saw active service in Flanders and in the Monmouth Rebellion, including the decisive Battle of Sedgemoor in 1685. It fought in the Battle of the Battle of Landen and the Siege of Namur. In 1760, the 2nd Battalion was sent to Germany to campaign under Prince Ferdinand of Brunswick and fought in the Battle of Wilhelmstal and at the Castle of Amöneburg. Three Guards companies of 307 men under Coldstream commander Colonel Edward Mathew fought in the American Revolutionary War; the Coldstream Regiment saw extensive service in the wars against the French Revolution and in the Napoleonic Wars. Under the command of Sir Ralph Abercrombie, it defeated French troops in Egypt. In 1807, it took part in the investment of Copenhagen.
In January 1809, it sailed to Portugal to join the forces under Sir Arthur Wellesley. In 1814, it took part in France, where a cemetery keeps their memory; the 2nd Battalion joined the Walcheren Expedition. It served as part of the 2nd Guards Brigade in the chateau of Hougoumont on the outskirts of the Battle of Waterloo; this defence is considered one of the greatest achievements of the regiment, an annual ceremony of "Hanging the Brick" is performed each year in the Sergeants' Mess to commemorate the efforts of Cpl James Graham and Lt-Col James Macdonnell, who shut the North Gate after a French attack. The Duke of Wellington himself declared after the battle that "the success of the battle turned upon closing the gates at Hougoumont"; the regiment was part of the British occupation forces of Paris until 1816. During the Crimean War, the Coldstream Regiment fought in the battles of Alma and Sevastopol. On its return, four men of the regiment were awarded the newly instituted Victoria Cross; the regiment received its current name, The Coldstream Guards, in 1855.
In 1882, it was sent in 1885 in the Suakin Campaign. In 1897, the Coldstreamers were reinforced with the addition of a 3rd battalion; the 1st and 2nd battalions were dispatched to South Africa at the outbreak of the Second Boer War. At the outbreak of the First World War, the Coldstreamers was among the first British regiments to arrive in France after Britain declared war on Germany. In the following battles, it suffered heavy losses, in two cases losing all of its officers. At the first Battle of Ypres, the 1st battalion was annihilated – by 1 November down to 150 men and the Lt Quartermaster; the regiment fought at Mons, the Somme, Ginchy and in the 3rd Battle of Ypres. The regiment formed the 4th Battalion, disbanded after the war, in 1919; the 5th Reserve battalion never left Britain. When the Second World War began, the 1st and 2nd battalions of The Coldstream Guards were part of the British Expeditionary Force in France. Additional 4th and 5th battalions were formed for the duration of the war.
They fought extensively, as part of the Guards Armoured Division, in North Africa and Europe as dismounted infantry. The 4th battalion first became a motorized battalion in 1940 and an armoured battalion in 1943. Coldstreamers gave up their tanks at the end of the war, the new battalions were disbanded, the troops distributed to the 1st and 2nd Guard Training Battalions. After the war, the 1st and 3rd ba
A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum
A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum is a musical with music and lyrics by Stephen Sondheim and book by Burt Shevelove and Larry Gelbart. Inspired by the farces of the ancient Roman playwright Plautus Pseudolus, Miles Gloriosus, Mostellaria, the musical tells the bawdy story of a slave named Pseudolus and his attempts to win his freedom by helping his young master woo the girl next door; the plot displays many classic elements of farce, including puns, the slamming of doors, cases of mistaken identity, satirical comments on social class. The title derives from a line used by vaudeville comedians to begin a story: "A funny thing happened on the way to the theater"; the musical's original 1962 Broadway run won several Tony Awards, including Best Musical and Best Author. A Funny Thing has enjoyed several Broadway and West End revivals and was made into a successful film starring the original lead of the stage musical, Zero Mostel. A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum opened on Broadway on May 8, 1962, at the Alvin Theatre, transferred to the Mark Hellinger Theatre and the Majestic Theatre, where the show closed on August 29, 1964, after 964 performances and 8 previews.
The show's creators wanted Phil Silvers in the lead role of Pseudolus, but he turned them down because he would have to perform onstage without his glasses, his vision was so poor that he feared tripping into the orchestra pit. He is quoted as turning down the role for being "Sgt. Bilko in a toga". Milton Berle passed on the role. Zero Mostel was cast. During the out of town pre-Broadway tryouts the show was attracting little business and not playing well. Jerome Robbins was called in to make changes; the biggest change Robbins made was a new opening number to replace "Love Is in the Air" and introduce the show as a bawdy, wild comedy. Stephen Sondheim wrote the song "Comedy Tonight" for this new opening. From that point on, the show was a success, it was directed by George Abbott and produced by Hal Prince, with choreography by Jack Cole and uncredited staging and choreography by Robbins. The scenic and costume design was by Tony Walton; this wardrobe is on display at the Costume World Broadway Collection in Florida.
The lighting design was by Jean Rosenthal. Along with Mostel, the musical featured a cast of seasoned performers, including Jack Gilford, David Burns, John Carradine, Ruth Kobart, Raymond Walburn; the young lovers were played by Preshy Marker. Karen Black cast as the ingenue, was replaced out of town; the show won several Tony Awards: Best Musical, Best Actor, Best Supporting Actor, Best Book, Best Director. The score, was coolly received; the show was presented twice in London's West End. The 1963 production and its 1986 revival were staged at the Strand Theatre and the Piccadilly Theatre and starred Frankie Howerd as Pseudolus and Leon Greene as Miles Gloriosus in both. In the 1963 production, Kenneth Connor appeared as Hysterium,'Monsewer' Eddie Gray as Senex, Jon Pertwee as Marcus Lycus, Leon Greene as Miles Gloriosus. In the 1986 revival, Patrick Cargill was Senex with Ronnie Stevens as Hysterium and Derek Royle as Erronius. In 2004 there was a limited-run revival at the Royal National Theatre, starring Desmond Barrit as Pseudolus, Philip Quast as Miles Gloriosus, Hamish McColl as Hysterium and Isla Blair as Domina.
This production was nominated for Outstanding Musical Production. A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum was made into a musical film in 1966, directed by Richard Lester, with Mostel and Gilford re-creating their Broadway stage roles, Leon Greene reprising his West End stage role, Phil Silvers in an expanded role as "Marcus Lycus". David Burns did not return for the film role of Senex, played in the film by Michael Hordern. Buster Keaton made his final film appearance in the role of Erronius. A revival opened on Broadway at the Lunt-Fontanne Theatre on April 4, 1972 and closed on August 12, 1972 after 156 performances. Directed by co-author Burt Shevelove the cast starred Phil Silvers as Pseudolus, Lew Parker as Senex, Carl Ballantine as Lycus and Reginald Owen as Erronius. Larry Blyden, who played Hysterium, the role created by Jack Gilford co-produced. "Pretty Little Picture" and "That'll Show Him" were dropped from the show, were replaced with "Echo Song", "Farewell". "Echo Song" and "Farewell" had been added to a production staged in Los Angeles the previous year and were composed by Sondheim.
They had to close soon. The show won two Tony Awards, Best Leading Actor in a Musical for Silvers, Best Featured Actor in a Musical for Blyden; the musical was revived again with great success in 1996, opening at the St. James Theatre on April 18, 1996 and closing on January 4, 1998 after 715 performances; the cast starred Nathan Lane as Pseudolus, Mark Linn-Baker as Hysterium, Ernie Sabella as Lycus, Jim Stanek as Hero, Lewis J. Stadlen as Senex, Cris Groenendaal as Miles Gloriosus; the production was directed by Jerry Zaks, with choreography by Rob Marsha
The Yeomen of the Guard
The Yeomen of the Guard. It premiered at the Savoy Theatre on 3 October 1888, ran for 423 performances; this was the eleventh collaboration of fourteen between Sullivan. The opera is set in the Tower of London, during the 16th century, is the darkest, most engaging, of the Savoy Operas, ending with a broken-hearted main character and two reluctant engagements, rather than the usual numerous marriages; the libretto does contain considerable humour, including a lot of pun-laden one-liners, but Gilbert's trademark satire and topsy-turvy plot complications are subdued in comparison with the other Gilbert and Sullivan operas. The dialogue, though in prose, is early modern English, in style. Critics considered the score to be Sullivan's finest, including its overture, in sonata form, rather than being written as a sequential pot-pourri of tunes from the opera, as in most of the other Gilbert and Sullivan overtures; this was the first Savoy Opera to use Sullivan's larger orchestra, including a second bassoon and third trombone.
Most of Sullivan's subsequent operas, including those not composed with Gilbert as librettist, use this larger orchestra. When the previous Gilbert and Sullivan opera, finished its run at the Savoy Theatre, no new Gilbert and Sullivan opera was ready, for nearly a year the stage was devoted to revivals of such old successes as H. M. S. Pinafore, The Pirates of Penzance and The Mikado. For several years leading up to the premiere of Yeomen, Sullivan had expressed the desire to leave his partnership with W. S. Gilbert in order to turn to writing grand opera and other serious works full-time. Before the premiere of Yeomen, Sullivan had been lauded for the successful oratorio The Golden Legend and would produce his grand opera, only 15 months after Yeomen. In the autumn of 1887, after another attempt to interest his collaborator in a plot where the characters, by swallowing a magic pill, became who they were pretending to be, Gilbert made an effort to meet his collaborator half way. Gilbert claimed that the idea for the opera came to him while he was waiting for the train in Uxbridge and spotted an advertisement for The Tower Furnishing and Finance Company, illustrated with a Beefeater.
On Christmas Day, 1887, he read to Sullivan and Carte his plot sketch for an opera set at the Tower of London. Sullivan was "immensely pleased" and, with much relief, accepted it, writing in his diary, "Pretty story, no topsy turvydom human, & funny also". Although not a grand opera, Yeomen provided Sullivan with the opportunity to write his most ambitious score to date; the two set to work on the new opera, taking longer to prepare it than they had taken with many of their earlier works. Gilbert made every effort to accommodate his collaborator writing alternative lyrics to some songs. Sullivan had trouble setting one lyric in particular, "I have a song to sing-O!", with its increasing length in each stanza. He asked Gilbert when writing it. Gilbert hummed a few lines from a sea shanty, Sullivan knew what to do; the first act contained an unusual number of sentimental pieces. As opening night approached, Gilbert became apprehensive. Would the audience accept this serious, sentimental tone from one of the duo's "comic" operas?
Gilbert and Sullivan cut two songs from Act I and part of the Act I finale to decrease the number of sentimental pieces near the beginning of the opera. Gilbert, always nervous himself on opening nights, came backstage before the performance on opening night to "have a word" with some of the actors, inadvertently conveying his worries to the cast and making them more nervous. Jessie Bond, to open the show with a solo song alone on stage said to him, "For Heaven's sake, Mr. Gilbert, go away and leave me alone, or I shan't be able to sing a note!" Sir Richard Cholmondeley, Lieutenant of the Tower Colonel Fairfax, under sentence of death Sergeant Meryll of the Yeomen of the Guard Leonard Meryll, his son Jack Point, a strolling jester Wilfred Shadbolt, Head Jailer and Assistant Tormentor The Headsman First Yeoman Second Yeoman Third Yeoman – see "Cut music" Fourth Yeoman – see "Cut music" First Citizen Second Citizen Elsie Maynard, a strolling singer Phœbe Meryll, Sergeant Meryll's daughter Dame Carruthers, Housekeeper to the Tower Kate, her niece Chorus of Yeomen Warders, citizens, etc.
Phoebe Meryll sits at the spinning wheel. Wilfred Shadbolt the head jailer and assistant torturer at the Tower of London enters, Phoebe mocks him, disgusted by his profession. Wilfred, in love with Phoebe, has noticed her interest in one of the prisoners at the Tower, Colonel Fairfax, he gleefully conveys the news that Fairfax is to be beheaded, for the crime of sorcery, that day. Phoebe replies that Fairfax is a scientist and alchemist and leaves Wilfred to suffer from his love for her; the citizens and Yeomen arrive, singing of valiant deeds. Dame Carruthers, the housekeeper of the Tower, dismisses protestations by Phoebe of Fairfax's innocence and, vexed by Phoebe's criticism of the Tower, sings its praises. After everyone leaves, Phoebe is joined by her father, Sergeant Meryll, who reports that her brother Leonard has been appointed a Yeoman for his valou
The Sorcerer is a two-act comic opera, with a libretto by W. S. Gilbert and music by Arthur Sullivan, it was the British duo's third operatic collaboration. The plot of The Sorcerer is based on a Christmas story, An Elixir of Love, that Gilbert wrote for The Graphic magazine in 1876. A young man, Alexis, is obsessed with idea of love levelling all social distinctions. To promote his beliefs, he invites the proprietor of J. W. Co.. Family Sorcerers; this causes everyone in the village to fall in love with the first person they see and results in the pairing of comically mismatched couples. In the end, Wells must sacrifice his life to break the spell; the opera opened on 17 November 1877 at the Opera Comique in London, where it ran for 178 performances. It was considered a success by the standards of that time and encouraged the collaborators to write their next opera, H. M. S. Pinafore; the Sorcerer was revised for an 1884 revival, it is in that version that it is performed today. The Sorcerer was the first Savoy opera for which the author and composer had nearly total control over the production and the selection of cast.
Several of the actors chosen went on to create principal roles in most of the Gilbert and Sullivan operas. It was their first opera to use all the major character types and typical range of songs that would appear in their collaborations, such as comic duets, a patter song, a contrapuntal double chorus, a tenor and soprano love duet, a soprano showpiece and so forth; the modest success of The Sorcerer was overshadowed by the extraordinary popularity of Gilbert and Sullivan's collaborations, the opera remains one of the team's less popular ones. The satire in the piece concerns Victorian-era class distinctions and operatic conventions with which modern audiences are less familiar; the opera was important to the development of the Gilbert and Sullivan collaboration and is still played. In 1871, W. S. Gilbert and Arthur Sullivan had written Thespis, an extravaganza for the Gaiety Theatre's holiday season that did not lead to any further collaboration. Three years in 1875, talent agent and producer Richard D'Oyly Carte was managing the Royalty Theatre, he needed a short opera to be played as an afterpiece to Jacques Offenbach's La Périchole.
Carte was able to bring Gilbert and Sullivan together again to write the one-act piece, called Trial by Jury, which became a surprise hit. The piece was witty, tuneful and "English", in contrast to the bawdy burlesques and adaptations of French operettas that dominated the London musical stage at that time. Trial by Jury proved more popular than La Périchole, becoming an unexpected hit, touring extensively and enjoying revivals and a world tour. After the success of Trial by Jury, several producers attempted to reunite Gilbert and Sullivan, but difficulties arose. Plans for a collaboration for Carl Rosa in 1875 fell through because Gilbert was too busy with other projects, an attempted Christmas 1875 revival of Thespis by Richard D'Oyly Carte failed when the financiers backed out. Gilbert and Sullivan continued their separate careers. In 1877, Carte organised a syndicate of four financiers and formed the Comedy Opera Company, capable of producing a full-length work. By July 1877, Gilbert and Sullivan were under contract to produce a two-act opera.
Gilbert expanded on his own short story that he had written the previous year for The Graphic, "An Elixir of Love," creating a plot about a magic love potion that – as occurs in opera – causes everyone to fall in love with the wrong partner. Now backed by a company dedicated to their work, Gilbert and Carte were able to select their own cast, instead of using the players under contract to the theatre where the work was produced, as had been the case with their earlier works, they chose talented actors. They tailored their work to the particular abilities of these performers. Carte approached Mrs Howard Paul to play the role of Lady Sangazure in the new opera. Mr and Mrs Howard Paul had operated a small touring company booked by Carte's agency for many years, but the couple had separated, she conditioned her acceptance of the part on the casting of her 24-year-old protege, Rutland Barrington. When Barrington auditioned before W. S. Gilbert, the young actor questioned his own suitability for comic opera, but Gilbert, who required that his actors play their sometimes-absurd lines in all earnestness, explained the casting choice: "He's a staid, solid swine, that's what I want."
Barrington was given the role of Dr Daly, the vicar, his first starring role on the London stage. For the character role of Mrs. Partlet, they chose Harriett Everard, an actress who had worked with Gilbert before. Carte's agency supplied additional singers, including Alice May, Giulia Warwick, Richard Temple. In early November 1877, the last role, that of the title character, John Wellington Wells, was filled by comedian George Grossmith. Grossmith had appeared in charity performances of Trial by Jury, where both Sullivan and Gilbert had seen him, Gilbert had earlier commented favourably on his performance in Tom Robertson's Society at the Gallery of Illustration. After singing for Sullivan, upon meeting Gilbert, Grossmith wondered aloud if the role shouldn't be played by "a fine man with a fine voice". Gilbert replied, "No, just what we don't want."The Sorcerer was not the only piece on which eithe
Sydney Granville was an English singer and actor, best known for his performances in the Savoy Operas with the D'Oyly Carte Opera Company. After early theatrical work in musical comedy, straight plays and grand opera, he joined the D'Oyly Carte company, at first in the chorus in lyric baritone roles and in the comic bass-baritone parts of the Gilbert and Sullivan operas. With brief breaks when he performed for other managements, Granville was with D'Oyly Carte from 1907 to 1942. Granville was born Walter Dewhurst in Lancashire, his early stage appearances were on tour in a musical comedy entitled Dorcas, a romantic drama, The God of War, in grand opera with the Moody-Manners Opera Company. Granville joined the D'Oyly Carte Opera Company chorus in 1907, soon understudying the role of Lord Mountararat in Iolanthe at the Savoy Theatre in London; when the season ended, he toured with the company in the chorus and played the small role of Selworthy in the curtain raiser After All!. The next season, at the Savoy, he played John Lloyd in Fenn and Faraday's A Welsh Sunset, given as a curtain raiser to H.
M. S. Pinafore and The Pirates of Penzance, he understudied Henry Lytton in the role of Dick Deadeye in Pinafore. On tour with D'Oyly Carte from 1908 to 1914, Granville played a variety of Gilbert and Sullivan roles, including the Counsel to the Plaintiff in Trial by Jury, Boatswain in Pinafore, Samuel in The Pirates of Penzance, Colonel Calverley in Patience, Strephon in Iolanthe, Arac in Princess Ida, Pish-Tush in The Mikado, the Lieutenant of the Tower in The Yeomen of the Guard, Luiz in The Gondoliers. In March 1914, Granville left the company, he played in pantomime as the Demon Killjoy in Cinderella at the London Palladium. He rejoined D'Oyly Carte, during its 1915–16 tour, playing only Strephon and Luiz in a nine-opera repertoire; the Manchester Guardian commented on his neglect, "Mr. Sydney Granville, heard too little, was a delightful Strephon." In the next season, he lost the role of Strephon to Leo Sheffield when the latter rejoined the company. Granville left D'Oyly Carte for the second time in 1917.
Following the death of the veteran D'Oyly Carte performer Fred Billington in November 1917, Sheffield took on most of his bass-baritone roles. A year Granville returned to play the lyric baritone roles that Sheffield had earlier played; these roles were the Counsel, Samuel, Florian in Princess Ida, Pish-Tush, the Lieutenant, Luiz swapping the Counsel for the Usher in Trial, adding the Colonel and Grosvenor in Patience, swapping Luiz for Giuseppe in The Gondoliers. In 1920, the critic Neville Cardus wrote of him, "As fine a Savoyard as any in the company, Mr. Sydney Granville acted and sang capitally, he has a rare instinct for the gauntness of the English ballad manner, the secret of Gilbert's lyrical style... he never loses the suspicion of parody which so underlines Sullivan's tunes." In 1921 Granville added to his repertoire the role of Cox in Cox and Box, by 1924, he had given up the smaller roles of Samuel and the Lieutenant. In 1925 he transferred to D'Oyly Carte's smaller touring company, playing Colonel Calverley in Patience, Mountararat in Iolanthe, the title role in The Mikado, Sir Roderic Murgatroyd in Ruddigore.
In 1925 Granville left the company for the third time, touring in Australia and New Zealand with the J. C. Williamson organisation in 1926–27 in the Gilbert and Sullivan bass-baritone roles that he would play with D'Oyly Carte. Returning to England in 1927, he made several radio broadcasts for the BBC, including The Red Pen, "a sort of opera" by A. P. Herbert and Geoffrey Toye, he toured in Robert Stolz's musical The Blue Train, played Lockit in The Beggar's Opera, at the Lyric Theatre, Hammersmith, in 1928. Granville rejoined the D'Oyly Carte company in 1928, replacing the retiring Leo Sheffield in the bass-baritone roles. Except during Sheffield's return for the 22-week London Season in 1929–30, Granville performed these "heavy" baritone roles until his retirement in December 1942, he played the Learned Judge in Trial, the Sergeant of Police in Pirates, Private Willis in Iolanthe, Pooh-Bah in The Mikado, Sir Despard Murgatroyd in Ruddigore, Don Alhambra in The Gondoliers. He added Wilfred Shadbolt in Yeomen in 1929 and King Hildebrand in Princess Ida in 1931.
In 1938, The Observer wrote that Granville "has worked up from stripling parts like Strephon to become, after twenty-five odd years, one of the great Savoy veterans." By 1939, he had given up the Willis. "Granny," as he was known in the D'Oyly Carte company, was married to the chorister and small-part player Anna Bethell (known principally for playing Mrs. Partlett in The Sorcerer whenever it was revived. Bethell served as stage director of the D'Oyly Carte Opera Company from 1947–49 and for the J. C. Williamson Gilbert and Sullivan Company. Granville died in Stockport, Cheshire, in 1959 at the age of 79. Granville was Pooh-Bah in the 1939 Technicolor film version of The Mikado. With D'Oyly Carte, he participated in the following HMV recordings of the operas: H. M. S. Pinafore, Princess Ida, Pinafore, abridged Gondoliers, abridged Pirates, abridged Yeomen, Mikado. Ayre, Leslie; the Gilbert & Sullivan Companion. London: W. H. Allen & Co Ltd. ISBN 0-396-06634-8. Joseph, Tony. D'Oyly Carte Opera Company, 1875–1982: An Unofficial History.
London: Bunthorne Books. ISBN 0-9507992-1-1 Rollins, Cyril; the D'Oyly Carte Opera Company in Gilbert and Sullivan Operas. London: Michael Joseph, Ltd
Dwight D. Eisenhower
Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower was an American army general and statesman who served as the 34th president of the United States from 1953 to 1961. During World War II, he was a five-star general in the United States Army and served as supreme commander of the Allied Expeditionary Forces in Europe, he was responsible for planning and supervising the invasion of North Africa in Operation Torch in 1942–43 and the successful invasion of France and Germany in 1944–45 from the Western Front. Born David Dwight Eisenhower in Denison, Texas, he was raised in Kansas in a large family of Pennsylvania Dutch ancestry, his family had a strong religious background. His mother was born a Lutheran, married as a River Brethren, became a Jehovah's Witness. So, Eisenhower did not belong to any organized church until 1952, he cited constant relocation during his military career as one reason. He graduated from West Point in 1915 and married Mamie Doud, with whom he had two sons. During World War I, he was denied a request to serve in Europe and instead commanded a unit that trained tank crews.
Following the war, he served under various generals and was promoted to the rank of brigadier general in 1941. After the U. S. entered World War II, Eisenhower oversaw the invasions of North Africa and Sicily before supervising the invasions of France and Germany. After the war, Eisenhower served as Army Chief of Staff and took on the role as president of Columbia University. In 1951–52, he served as the first Supreme Commander of NATO. In 1952, Eisenhower entered the presidential race as a Republican to block the isolationist foreign policies of Senator Robert A. Taft, who opposed NATO and wanted no foreign entanglements, he won that election and the 1956 election in landslides, both times defeating Adlai Stevenson II. He became the first Republican to win since Herbert Hoover in 1928. Eisenhower's main goals in office were to contain the expansion of the Soviet Union and reduce federal deficits. In 1953, he threatened the use of nuclear weapons until China agreed to peace terms in the Korean War.
China did agree and an armistice resulted that remains in effect. His New Look policy of nuclear deterrence prioritized inexpensive nuclear weapons while reducing funding for expensive Army divisions, he continued Harry S. Truman's policy of recognizing the Republic of China as the legitimate government of China, he won congressional approval of the Formosa Resolution, his administration provided major aid to help the French fight off Vietnamese Communists in the First Indochina War. After the French left he gave strong financial support to the new state of South Vietnam, he supported local military coups against democratically-elected governments in Guatemala. During the Suez Crisis of 1956, Eisenhower condemned the Israeli and French invasion of Egypt, he forced them to withdraw, he condemned the Soviet invasion during the Hungarian Revolution of 1956 but took no action. During the Syrian Crisis of 1957 he approved a CIA-MI6 plan to stage fake border incidents as an excuse for an invasion by Syria's pro-Western neighbours.
After the Soviet Union launched Sputnik in 1957, Eisenhower authorized the establishment of NASA, which led to the Space Race. He deployed 15,000 soldiers during the 1958 Lebanon crisis. Near the end of his term, his efforts to set up a summit meeting with the Soviets collapsed when a U. S. spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union. He approved the Bay of Pigs invasion, left to his successor, John F. Kennedy, to carry out. On the domestic front, Eisenhower was a moderate conservative who continued New Deal agencies and expanded Social Security, he covertly opposed Joseph McCarthy and contributed to the end of McCarthyism by invoking executive privilege. Eisenhower signed the Civil Rights Act of 1957 and sent Army troops to enforce federal court orders that integrated schools in Little Rock, Arkansas, his largest program was the Interstate Highway System. He promoted the establishment of strong science education via the National Defense Education Act. Eisenhower's two terms saw widespread economic prosperity except for a minor recession in 1958.
In his farewell address to the nation, Eisenhower expressed his concerns about the dangers of massive military spending deficit spending and government contracts to private military manufacturers. Historical evaluations of his presidency place him among the upper tier of U. S. presidents. The Eisenhauer family migrated from Karlsbrunn in Nassau-Saarbrücken, to North America, first settling in York, Pennsylvania, in 1741, in the 1880s moving to Kansas. Accounts vary as to when the German name Eisenhauer was anglicized to Eisenhower. Eisenhower's Pennsylvania Dutch ancestors, who were farmers, included Hans Nikolaus Eisenhauer of Karlsbrunn, who migrated to Lancaster, Pennsylvania, in 1741. Hans's great-great-grandson, David Jacob Eisenhower, was Eisenhower's father and was a college-educated engineer, despite his own father Jacob's urging to stay on the family farm. Eisenhower's mother, Ida Elizabeth Eisenhower, born in Virginia, of German Protestant ancestry, moved to Kansas from Virginia, she married David on September 23, 1885, in Lecompton, Kansas, on the campus of their alma mater, Lane University.
David owned a general store in Hope, but the business failed due to economic conditions and the family became impoverished. The Eisenhowers lived in Texas from 1889 until 1892, returned to Kansas, with $24 to their name at the time. David worked as a railroad mechanic and at a creamery. By 1898, the parents provided a suitable home for their large family; the future pr
Piccadilly Circus is a road junction and public space of London's West End in the City of Westminster. It was built in 1819 to connect Regent Street with Piccadilly. In this context, a circus, from the Latin word meaning "circle", is a round open space at a street junction. Piccadilly now links directly to the theatres on Shaftesbury Avenue, as well as the Haymarket, Coventry Street and Glasshouse Street; the Circus is close to major entertainment areas in the West End. Its status as a major traffic junction has made Piccadilly Circus a busy meeting place and a tourist attraction in its own right; the Circus is known for its video display and neon signs mounted on the corner building on the northern side, as well as the Shaftesbury memorial fountain and statue, popularly, though mistakenly, believed to be of Eros. It is surrounded by several notable buildings, including the London Criterion Theatre. Directly underneath the plaza is Piccadilly Circus Underground station, part of the London Underground system.
Piccadilly Circus connects to Piccadilly, a thoroughfare whose name first appeared in 1626 as Piccadilly Hall, named after a house belonging to one Robert Baker, a tailor famous for selling piccadills, or piccadillies, a term used for various kinds of collars. The street was known as Portugal Street in 1692 in honour of Catherine of Braganza, the queen consort of King Charles II but was known as Piccadilly by 1743. Piccadilly Circus was created in 1819, at the junction with Regent Street, being built under the planning of John Nash on the site of a house and garden belonging to a Lady Hutton. Around 1858 it was known as Regent's Circus; the circus lost its circular form in 1886 with the construction of Shaftesbury Avenue. The junction has been a busy traffic interchange since construction, as it lies at the centre of Theatreland and handles exit traffic from Piccadilly, which Charles Dickens Jr. described in 1879: "Piccadilly, the great thoroughfare leading from the Haymarket and Regent-street westward to Hyde Park-corner, is the nearest approach to the Parisian boulevard of which London can boast."
Piccadilly Circus station was opened on 10 March 1906, on the Bakerloo line, on the Piccadilly line in December of that year. In 1928, the station was extensively rebuilt to handle an increase in traffic; the junction's first electric advertisements appeared in 1910, from 1923, electric billboards were set up on the façade of the London Pavilion. Traffic lights were first installed on 3 August 1926. During World War II many servicemen's clubs in the West End served American soldiers based in Britain. So many prostitutes roamed the area approaching the soldiers that they received the nickname "Piccadilly Commandos", both Scotland Yard and the Foreign Office discussed possible damage to Anglo-American relations. At the start of the 1960s, it was determined that the Circus needed to be redeveloped to allow for greater traffic flow. In 1962, Lord Holford presented a plan; this concept was kept alive throughout the rest of the 1960s. A final scheme in 1972 proposed three octagonal towers to replace the Trocadero, the Criterion and the "Monico" buildings.
The plans were permanently rejected by Sir Keith Ernest Marples. The Holford plan is referenced in the short-form documentary film "Goodbye, Piccadilly", produced by the Rank Organisation in 1967 as part of their Look at Life series when it was still expected that Holford's recommendations would be acted upon. Piccadilly Circus has since escaped major redevelopment, apart from extensive ground-level pedestrianisation around its south side in the 1980s; the Circus has been targeted by Irish republican terrorists multiple times. On 24 June 1939 an explosion occurred. On 25 November 1974 a bomb injured 16 people. A 2 lb bomb exploded on 6 October 1992; the Shaftesbury Memorial Fountain in Piccadilly Circus was erected in 1893 to commemorate the philanthropic works of Anthony Ashley Cooper, 7th Earl of Shaftesbury. During the Second World War, the statue atop the Shaftesbury Memorial Fountain was removed and was replaced by advertising hoardings, it was returned in 1948. When the Circus underwent reconstruction work in the late 1980s, the entire fountain was moved from the centre of the junction at the beginning of Shaftesbury Avenue to its present position at the southwestern corner.
Piccadilly Circus is surrounded by several major tourist attractions, including the Shaftesbury Memorial, Criterion Theatre, London Pavilion and several major retail stores. Numerous nightclubs and bars are located in the area and neighbouring Soho, including the former Chinawhite club. Piccadilly Circus was surrounded by illuminated advertising hoardings on buildings, starting in 1908 with a Perrier sign, but only one building now carries them, the one in the northwestern corner between Shaftesbury Avenue and Glasshouse Street; the site is unnamed. The earliest signs used incandescent light bulbs.