Al Bernardin was an American restaurateur and businessman who invented the McDonald's Quarter Pounder in 1971 as a franchise owner in Fremont, California. The creation of the Quarter Pounder earned him the nickname "Fremont's hamburger king."Bernardin, during the 60’s, was McDonald's vice president of product development. His position allowed him to play a key role in the development of some of the company's signature menu items, including frozen french fries, which allowed for easier storage and transportation, as well as the McDonald's fish sandwich, apple pie and cherry pie. Bernardin was born on February 1928, in Lawrence, Massachusetts, he received his bachelor's degree from Cornell University in 1952. He was first hired to work at McDonald's Illinois corporate headquarters in 1960. Bernardin was promoted to dean of the company's training center, Hamburger University, within just six months of joining McDonald's. Bernardin purchased two company-owned McDonald's in Fremont and relocated to the city in 1970.
He expanded his McDonald's franchise business owning nine of the restaurants throughout southern Alameda County. Once in Fremont, Bernardin began experimenting with new menu items for his franchises. In 1971, Bernardin introduced the now famous Quarter Pounder at his McDonald's locations, he explained his idea for the Quarter Pounder in a 1991 interview marking the 20th anniversary of the burger's development saying, "felt there was a void in our menu vis-à-vis the adult who wanted a higher ratio of meat to bun." Bernardin unveiled the Quarter Pounder using the slogan, "Today Fremont, tomorrow the world." The Quarter Pounder is now one of McDonald's most popular signature items, having been added to the national American menu in 1973. Additionally, Bernardin worked as McDonald's vice president of product development during his career with the company. Though he was most famous for introducing the Quarter Pounder, Bernardin felt that his most important contribution to McDonald's and the larger fast food industry was the development of frozen french fries.
Until 1967, all McDonald's french fries had to be cut on-site from stored fried. Bernardin's frozen fries allowed for easier transport of the product and cleared storage space, used for storing potatoes, he explained the benefits of frozen fries saying, "Before that, the had to store potatoes in the basement. It was a real pain."As vice president, Bernardin shepherded the development of the McDonald's Filet-O-Fish, as well the company's fried apple and cherry pies. Not all of Bernadin's suggestions were included on McDonald's menus. McDonald's turned down his idea for a ground turkey meat burger called the McGobbler; the company dismissed his The Lite Mac sandwich, which would have consisted of a one fifth-pound burger patty containing 15% less beef fat than a normal Big Mac. Bernardin spent two years developing a prototype for buttered corn-on-the-cob, according to his son, Mark Bernardin, a McDonald's franchise owner. Bernardin and his wife, Joan Bernardin, became involved in philanthropy after his uncle received treatment in a hospice.
Impressed by his uncle's hospice care, Bernardin founded the Tree of Angels, a Christmas tree lighting festival designed to raise money for the Pathways Hospice, based in Sunnyvale, California. The couple moved to the Monterey, area in the mid-1990s settling in Pebble Beach, he spent time as a volunteer at hospices throughout northern California. Bernardin became a major benefactor for the Community Hospital of the Monterey Peninsula, known as CHOMP. In addition to his home in Pebble Beach, Bernardin had residences in Pleasanton, Spanish Bay and Cape Cod. Bernardin suffered from a stroke in his life, he died of complications of that stroke on December 22, 2009, at Community Hospital of the Monterey Peninsula in Monterey, California, at the age of 81. He was survived by his wife, Joan Bernardin, two children and Mark, three stepchildren, Dan Ryan, Julie Bullas, Kristie Ryan and ten grandchildren
A milkshake is a sweet, cold beverage, made from milk, ice cream, or iced milk, flavorings or sweeteners such as butterscotch, caramel sauce, chocolate syrup, or fruit syrup. Many more precise and rigid definitions are subject to region. Outside of the United States, milkshakes using ice cream or iced milk are sometimes called a thick milkshake or thick shake; the term shake may be used more to refer to any cold beverage involving milk. Many food places such as McDonald's avoid the term milkshake on their menus in favor of the term shake. Full-service restaurants, soda fountains, diners prepare and mix the shake "by hand" from scoops of ice cream and milk in a blender or drink mixer using a stainless steel cup. Many fast food outlets do not make shakes by hand with ice cream. However, some fast food outlets still follow the traditional method, some serve milkshakes which are prepared by blending soft-serve ice cream with flavoring or syrups. Milkshakes can be made at home with a blender or automatic drink mixer.
A milkshake can be made by adding powder into fresh milk and stirring the powder into the milk. Milkshakes made in this way can come in a variety of flavors, including chocolate, caramel and banana. Hand-blended milkshakes are traditionally made from any flavor of ice cream; this allows a greater variety. Some unusual milkshake recipes exclude ice cream. Milkshake-like recipes which use a high proportion of fruit and no ice cream are called smoothies if frozen yogurt is used; when malted milk is added, a milkshake is called a malted milkshake, a malt shake, a malted, or a malt. An ice cream-based milkshake may be called a thick milkshake or thick shake in the United Kingdom or a frappe or frap in parts of New England and Canada; some U. S. restaurants serve milkshakes with candy bar pieces, or alcoholic beverages. Pre-made milkshakes are sold in grocery stores in North America and the UK; these drinks are made from milk mixed with sweetened flavored powder, artificial syrup, or concentrate, which would otherwise be called "flavored milk", thickened with carrageenan or other products.
Bottled milkshakes are sold in 330ml, 500ml, or 1 liter bottles. When the term "milkshake" was first used in print in 1885, milkshakes were an alcoholic whiskey drink, described as a "sturdy, healthful eggnog type of drink, with eggs, etc. served as a tonic as well as a treat". However, by 1900, the term referred to "wholesome drinks made with chocolate, strawberry, or vanilla syrups." By the "early 1900s people were asking for the new treat with ice cream." By the 1930s, milkshakes were a popular drink at malt shops, which were the "typical soda fountain of the period... used by students as a meeting place or hangout."The history of the electric blender, malted milk drinks, milkshakes are interconnected. Before the widespread availability of electric blenders, milkshake-type drinks were more like eggnog, or they were a hand-shaken mixture of crushed ice and milk and flavorings. Hamilton Beach's drink mixers began being used at soda fountains in 1911 and the electric blender or drink mixer was invented by Steven Poplawski in 1922.
With the invention of the blender, milkshakes began to take their modern, whipped and frothy form. The use of malted milk powder in milkshakes was popularized in the USA by the Chicago drugstore chain Walgreens. Malted milk powder—a mixture of evaporated milk, malted barley, wheat flour—had been invented by William Horlick in 1897 for use as an digested restorative health drink for disabled people and children, as an infant's food. However, healthy people soon began drinking beverages made with malted milk for the taste, malted milk beverages containing milk, chocolate syrup, malt powder became a standard offering at soda fountains. In 1922, Walgreens employee Ivar "Pop" Coulson made a milkshake by adding two scoops of vanilla ice cream to the standard malted milk drink recipe; this item, under the name "Horlick's Malted Milk", was featured by the Walgreen drugstore chain as part of a chocolate milk shake, which itself became known as a "malted" or "malt" and became one of the most popular soda-fountain drinks.
The automation of milkshakes developed in the 1930s, after the invention of freon-cooled refrigerators provided a safe, reliable way of automatically making and dispensing ice cream. In 1936, inventor Earl Prince used the basic concept behind the freon-cooled automated ice cream machine to develop the Multimixer, a "five-spindled mixer that could produce five milkshakes at once, all automatically, dispense them at the pull of a lever into awaiting paper cups."In the late 1930s, several newspaper articles show that the term "frosted" was used to refer to milkshakes made with ice cream. In 1937, the Denton Journal in Maryland stated that "For a'frosted' shake, add a dash of your favorite ice cream." In 1939, the Mansfield News in Ohio stated that "A frosted beverage, in the
Charlie Bell (businessman)
Charles Hamilton "Charlie" Bell AO was an Australian business executive. He served as president of the American-based fast-food chain McDonald's from December 2002, additionally as chief executive officer from April to November 2004. Bell was the first non-American and the youngest person to hold that position, the first to be CEO from starting at the bottom of the chain as a crew member in a restaurant. Bell grew up in Sydney and attended Marcellin College Randwick. Bell began his career at McDonald's when he was 15 in 1976, working at the Kingsford restaurant in Sydney earning $3.55 an hour. Peter Ritchie, the first managing director of McDonald's Australia said of him "He was ready to tell us how the place should have been run from 15 onwards". Bell was assistant manager at 18, at 19, he became the youngest store manager in McDonald's Australia. At age 29 he was on the board of the Australian subsidiary, becoming its managing director at 33, he rose through the ranks of corporate McDonald's.
Bell was appointed President and Chief Operating Officer, when Jim Cantalupo returned to the company on January 1, 2003 as Chairman and CEO of corporate McDonald's to lead a turnaround effort. Under Cantalupo's predecessor Jack M. Greenberg, the company suffered earnings declines in each of the last seven quarters. Shareholders were not impressed with Cantalupo and Bell's appointments as it suggested that the company was "inbred". However, Cantalupo "devised a plan" which included "accelerating the introduction of healthier foods, such as salads", Bell's implementation of this policy led to the company's recovery in the succeeding 12 months; when Cantalupo died on 19 April 2004, Bell was appointed CEO while retaining his title of president. During Bell's short time as CEO of the company, its greatest problem was criticism of the healthiness of its food, exacerbated by the release of the documentary film Super Size Me. Bell led efforts to add healthier choices to the McDonald's menu, allow parents to substitute juice and apple slices for fries and soft drinks for their children.
The "Supersize" option was eliminated. During his brief tenure, his initiatives resulted in a successful turnaround in McDonald's fortunes, with the stock price rising 24%. Bell was responsible for introducing the McCafé, a coffeehouse franchise that serves gourmet coffee and pastries and premium teas. Soon after becoming CEO, Bell was diagnosed with colon cancer, he had surgery on 7 May 2004, just over two weeks after taking over as CEO. He continued working for a time, but resigned on 22 November 2004 to focus on the disease, which became incurable. Bell was succeeded by Michael Roberts as president. In December 2004, McDonald's paid $300,000 for the terminally-ill Bell to be returned to Australia in a specially equipped jet, he died shortly afterwards at his apartment in Sydney with his family around him. The deaths of Cantalupo and Bell, who died young, have led some to wonder whether being an executive at a company which produced unhealthy food led to their illnesses as Bell was known to eat McDonald's products often.
Two successive CEOs of Wendy's, Jim Near and Gordon Teter, died in their fifties of heart attacks. It is not known. Bell was made an Officer of the Order of Australia in June 2005. Bell held the following appointments: Member of the Global Board of Ronald McDonald House Charities, serving until 2001. Member of the Business Council of Australia. Member of the Advisory Board of the Juvenile Diabetes Foundation from 1993 to 1999. Chairman of the Small Business Deregulation Task Force, appointed by John Howard in 1996. Trustee of the Sydney Theatre Company, between 1997 and 2000. Director of the Pact Youth Theatre in Sydney, Australia between 1988 and 1997; the Charlie Bell Scholarship Program Replacing former CEO Posthumous Posthumous by Hon. Alexander Downer, MP Estate Payout Dead Aussie McDonald's chief educated by the Marist Brothers
Entrepreneurship is the process of designing and running a new business, initially a small business. The people who create these businesses are called entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurship has been described as the "capacity and willingness to develop and manage a business venture along with any of its risks in order to make a profit". While definitions of entrepreneurship focus on the launching and running of businesses, due to the high risks involved in launching a start-up, a significant proportion of start-up businesses have to close due to "lack of funding, bad business decisions, an economic crisis, lack of market demand—or a combination of all of these. A broader definition of the term is sometimes used in the field of economics. In this usage, an Entrepreneur is an entity which has the ability to find and act upon opportunities to translate inventions or technology into new products: "The entrepreneur is able to recognize the commercial potential of the invention and organize the capital and other resources that turn an invention into a commercially viable innovation."
In this sense, the term "Entrepreneurship" captures innovative activities on the part of established firms, in addition to similar activities on the part of new businesses. Entrepreneurship is the act of being an entrepreneur, or "the owner or manager of a business enterprise who, by risk and initiative, attempts to make profits". Entrepreneurs oversee the launch and growth of an enterprise. Entrepreneurship is the process by which either an individual or a team identifies a business opportunity and acquires and deploys the necessary resources required for its exploitation. Early-19th-century French economist Jean-Baptiste Say provided a broad definition of entrepreneurship, saying that it "shifts economic resources out of an area of lower and into an area of higher productivity and greater yield". Entrepreneurs create something new, something different—they change or transmute values. Regardless of the firm size, big or small, they can partake in entrepreneurship opportunities; the opportunity to become an entrepreneur requires four criteria.
First, there must be situations to recombine resources to generate profit. Second, entrepreneurship requires differences between people, such as preferential access to certain individuals or the ability to recognize information about opportunities. Third, taking on risk is a necessity. Fourth, the entrepreneurial process requires the organization of resources; the entrepreneur is a factor in and the study of entrepreneurship reaches back to the work of Richard Cantillon and Adam Smith in the late 17th and early 18th centuries. However, entrepreneurship was ignored theoretically until the late 19th and early 20th centuries and empirically until a profound resurgence in business and economics since the late 1970s. In the 20th century, the understanding of entrepreneurship owes much to the work of economist Joseph Schumpeter in the 1930s and other Austrian economists such as Carl Menger, Ludwig von Mises and Friedrich von Hayek. According to Schumpeter, an entrepreneur is a person, willing and able to convert a new idea or invention into a successful innovation.
Entrepreneurship employs what Schumpeter called "the gale of creative destruction" to replace in whole or in part inferior innovations across markets and industries creating new products including new business models. In this way, creative destruction is responsible for the dynamism of industries and long-run economic growth; the supposition that entrepreneurship leads to economic growth is an interpretation of the residual in endogenous growth theory and as such is hotly debated in academic economics. An alternative description posited by Israel Kirzner suggests that the majority of innovations may be much more incremental improvements such as the replacement of paper with plastic in the making of drinking straws; the exploitation of entrepreneurial opportunities may include: Developing a business plan Hiring the human resources Acquiring financial and material resources Providing leadership Being responsible for both the venture's success or failure Risk aversionEconomist Joseph Schumpeter saw the role of the entrepreneur in the economy as "creative destruction" – launching innovations that destroy old industries while ushering in new industries and approaches.
For Schumpeter, the changes and "dynamic disequilibrium brought on by the innovating entrepreneur the norm of a healthy economy". While entrepreneurship is associated with new, for-profit start-ups, entrepreneurial behavior can be seen in small-, medium- and large-sized firms and established firms and in for-profit and not-for-profit organizations, including voluntary-sector groups, charitable organizations and government. Entrepreneurship may operate within an entrepreneurship ecosystem which includes: Government programs and services that promote entrepreneurship and support entrepreneurs and start-ups Non-governmental organizations such as small-business associations and organizations that offer advice and mentoring to entrepreneurs Small-business advocacy organizations that lobby governments for increased support for entrepreneurship programs and more small business-friendly laws and regulations Entrepreneurship resources and facilities Entrepreneurship education and training programs offered by schools and universities Financing In the 2000s, usage of the term "entrepreneurship" expanded to include how and why some individuals ide
Grand Hyatt New York
The Grand Hyatt New York is a hotel located directly east of the Grand Central Terminal in Midtown Manhattan, New York City. Named The Commodore Hotel, it opened on January 28, 1919. In 1980, Donald Trump encased the outside of the building in glass and renovated the inside as part of his first construction project in Manhattan; the hotel's demolition and replacement was announced in February 2019. The Commodore Hotel was constructed by the Bowman-Biltmore Hotels group; the structure itself was developed as part of Terminal City, a complex of palatial hotels and offices connected to Grand Central Terminal and all owned by the New York State Realty and Terminal Company, a division of the New York Central Railroad. The Commodore was named after "Commodore" Cornelius Vanderbilt, the founder of NYCRR; the Commodore was designed by Warren & Wetmore and leased by the NYSRTC to the Bowman-Biltmore Hotels Corporation, of which John McEntee Bowman was president. The Commodore opened on January 28, 1919.
Herbert R. Stone, of NYSRTC, oversaw the decor of its 2,000 rooms; the lobby, called the "Most Beautiful Lobby in The World," was the single largest room in the hotel, with modern low ceilings and a waterfall designed by John B. Smeraldi. A group of conventioneers once told Bowman that "New York City was like a circus," so the next day Bowman a showman, arranged to place a circus, complete with elephants, in the grand ballroom. Another popular spot was the Century Room; the Commodore shared a parking garage with its sister hotel, the New York Biltmore Hotel, Bowman-Biltmore's first hotel investment. Another Terminal City property – The Roosevelt Hotel a United Hotel asset – merged with Bowman-Biltmore Corporation on March 4, 1929, giving Terminal City access to all railroad passenger traffic in and out of New York City. One notable person to have stayed at The Commodore was Albert Einstein, who stayed at the hotel for a few weeks in April 1921 during his tour of the east coast of the US promoting the creation of Hebrew University in Jerusalem.
The Commodore was successful for decades, in June 1967, NYCRR – which by was running the hotel through a division called Realty Hotels – upgraded the Commodore with a 3.4 million-dollar refurbishment. On May 10, 1972, while John R. Garside was the hotel's general manager, the Commodore became the first hotel in New York City to show in-room movies through Player Cinema Systems. By the late 1970s, both the railroad line and the hotel had become less successful. On May 11, 1977, the now-bankrupt railroad's asset manager, Victor Palmieri, told the city that the Commodore had lost $1.5 million in 1976 and might have to be shuttered. At that point, Donald Trump reached an option agreement with Penn Central to purchase the Commodore. Trump, did not have the $250,000 necessary to secure the option. Trump's father, Fred Trump, had a long time political connection through the Brooklyn Democratic machine to then-Mayor Abraham Beame. Despite the city being in the midst of the worst fiscal crisis in its history, Beame's deputy mayor, Stanley Friedman, pushed through a 40-year, $400 million tax abatement on the property.
Asked by city officials to supply a copy of the agreement with Penn Central, Trump sent the option agreement paperwork minus the signatures. The abatement moved forward as if the agreement had been signed and as if Trump had paid to secure the option. Trump was able to convince the Hyatt hotel chain to partner with the Trump Organization and purchase the Commodore; the Trump Organization rebuilt the hotel at a cost of $100 million, gutting the first few floors of the interior down to their steel frame and placing a new reflective glass facade on top of the existing masonry exterior. The work was done by the firm of Gruzen Samton, with architect Der Scutt, who would design Trump Tower, serving as design consultant; the only portion of the hotel's decor left untouched was the foyer to the grand ballroom, with its neoclassical columns and plasterwork. The hotel re-opened on September 25, 1980, as the Grand Hyatt New York, with Governor of New York Hugh Carey and Mayor of New York City Ed Koch in attendance.
The new facade was criticized as out of place and as having destroyed the character of East 42nd Street. The American Institute of Architects’ guide to New York buildings referred to the facade as an “utter and inexcusable outrage.”In 1989, New York State officials ordered the hotel to pay New York City $2.9 million in rent, withheld by the hotel in 1986 due to "unusual" accounting changes approved by Donald Trump. An investigation by New York City auditors noted that the hotel was missing basic financial records and found that the hotel was using procedures that violated Generally Accepted Accounting Principles; the Trump/Hyatt partnership collapsed, with Trump filing a civil racketeering suit against Hyatt owner Jay Pritzker on July 28, 1993, alleging that Hyatt had used improper accounting practices, in order to force Trump out of the partnership with Hyatt, which restricted the chain from operating any other convention hotel in New York City. The Pritzkers countersued on March 28, 1994, alleging that Trump had violated their partnership by failing to remain solvent, using his share in the hotel as collateral for bank loans, refusing to cover his share of the cost of necessary repairs.
The much-needed renovation of the hotel began on April 8, 1996, continued through that August. On October 7, 1996, the Pritzkers bought Trump's half-share in the hotel for $142 million, ending the partnership; the hotel won the 2007 and 2008 Corpo
Phoenix is the capital and most populous city of Arizona, with 1,626,000 people. It is the fifth most populous city in the United States, the most populous American state capital, the only state capital with a population of more than one million residents. Phoenix is the anchor of the Phoenix metropolitan area known as the Valley of the Sun, which in turn is part of the Salt River Valley; the metropolitan area is the 11th largest by population in the United States, with 4.73 million people as of 2017. Phoenix is the seat of Maricopa County and the largest city in the state at 517.9 square miles, more than twice the size of Tucson and one of the largest cities in the United States. Phoenix was settled in 1867 as an agricultural community near the confluence of the Salt and Gila Rivers and was incorporated as a city in 1881, it became the capital of Arizona Territory in 1889. It has a hot desert climate. Despite this, its canal system led to a thriving farming community with the original settler's crops remaining important parts of the Phoenix economy for decades, such as alfalfa, cotton and hay.
Cotton, citrus and copper were known locally as the "Five C's" anchoring Phoenix's economy. These remained the driving forces of the city until after World War II, when high-tech companies began to move into the valley and air conditioning made Phoenix's hot summers more bearable; the city averaged a four percent annual population growth rate over a 40-year period from the mid-1960s to the mid-2000s. This growth rate slowed during the Great Recession of 2007–09, has rebounded slowly. Phoenix is the cultural center of the state of Arizona; the Hohokam people occupied the Phoenix area for 2,000 years. They created 135 miles of irrigation canals, making the desert land arable, paths of these canals were used for the Arizona Canal, Central Arizona Project Canal, the Hayden-Rhodes Aqueduct, they carried out extensive trade with the nearby Ancient Puebloans and Sinagua, as well as with the more distant Mesoamerican civilizations. It is believed that periods of drought and severe floods between 1300 and 1450 led to the Hohokam civilization's abandonment of the area.
After the departure of the Hohokam, groups of Akimel O'odham, Tohono O'odham, Maricopa tribes began to use the area, as well as segments of the Yavapai and Apache. The O'odham were offshoots of the Sobaipuri tribe, who in turn were thought to be the descendants of the Hohokam; the Akimel O'odham were the major group in the area and lived in small villages, with well-defined irrigation systems that spread over the entire Gila River Valley, from Florence in the east to the Estrellas in the west. Their crops included corn and squash for food, while cotton and tobacco were cultivated, they banded together with the Maricopa for protection against incursions by the Yuma and Apache tribes. The Maricopa are part of the larger Yuma people; the Tohono O'odham lived in the region, as well, but their main concentration was to the south and stretched all the way to the Mexican border. The O'odham lived in small settlements as seasonal farmers who took advantage of the rains, rather than the large-scale irrigation of the Akimel.
They grew crops such as sweet corn, tapery beans, lentils, sugar cane, melons, as well as taking advantage of native plants such as saguaro fruits, cholla buds, mesquite tree beans, mesquite candy. They hunted local game such as deer and javelina for meat; the Mexican–American War ended in 1848, Mexico ceded its northern zone to the United States, residents of that region became U. S. citizens. The Phoenix area became part of the New Mexico Territory. In 1863, the mining town of Wickenburg was the first to be established in Maricopa County, to the northwest of Phoenix. Maricopa County had not yet been incorporated; the Army created Fort McDowell on the Verde River in 1865 to forestall Indian uprisings. The fort established a camp on the south side of the Salt River by 1866, the first settlement in the valley after the decline of the Hohokam. Other nearby settlements merged to become the city of Tempe; the history of the city of Phoenix begins with Jack Swilling, a Confederate veteran of the Civil War.
He saw a potential for farming. He formed a small community that same year about four miles east of the city. Lord Darrell Duppa was one of the original settlers in Swilling's party, he suggested the name "Phoenix", as it described a city born from the ruins of a former civilization; the Board of Supervisors in Yavapai County recognized the new town on May 4, 1868, the first post office was established the following month with Swilling as the postmaster. On February 12, 1871, the territorial legislature created Maricopa County by dividing Yavapai County; the first election for county office was held in 1871. He ran unopposed; the town grew during the 1870s, President Ulysses S. Grant issued a land patent for the site of Phoenix on April 10, 1874. By 1875, the town had a telegraph office
Manchester, New Hampshire
Manchester is a city in the southern part of the U. S. state of New Hampshire. It is the most populous city in northern New England, an area comprising the states of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont; as of the 2010 census the city had a population of 109,565, up to 111,196 in a 2017 estimate. The combined Manchester-Nashua Metropolitan Area had a 2010 population of 400,721. Manchester is, along with Nashua, one of two seats of Hillsborough County, the state's most populous. Manchester lies near the northern end of the Northeast megalopolis and straddles the banks of the Merrimack River, it was first named by the merchant and inventor Samuel Blodgett, namesake of Samuel Blodget Park and Blodget Street in the city's North End. His vision was to create a great industrial center similar to that of the original Manchester in England, the world's first industrialized city. Manchester appears favorably in lists ranking the affordability and livability of U. S. cities, placing high in small business climate, upward mobility, education level.
Native Pennacook Indians called Amoskeag Falls on the Merrimack River — the area that became the heart of Manchester — Namaoskeag, meaning "good fishing place". In 1722, John Goffe III settled beside Cohas Brook building a dam and sawmill at what was dubbed "Old Harry's Town", it was granted by Massachusetts in 1727 as "Tyngstown" to veterans of Queen Anne's War who served in 1703 under Captain William Tyng. But at New Hampshire's 1741 separation from Massachusetts, the grant was ruled invalid and substituted with Wilton, resulting in a 1751 rechartering by Governor Benning Wentworth as "Derryfield" — a name that lives on in Derryfield Park, Derryfield Country Club, the private Derryfield School. In 1807, Samuel Blodget opened a canal and lock system to allow vessels passage around the falls, part of a network developing to link the area with Boston, he envisioned a great industrial center arising, "the Manchester of America", in reference to Manchester, England at the forefront of the Industrial Revolution.
In 1809, Benjamin Prichard and others built a water-powered cotton spinning mill on the western bank of the Merrimack. Following Blodgett's suggestion, Derryfield was renamed "Manchester" in 1810, the year the mill was incorporated as the Amoskeag Cotton & Woolen Manufacturing Company, it would be purchased in 1825 by entrepreneurs from Massachusetts, expanded to three mills in 1826, incorporated in 1831 as the Amoskeag Manufacturing Company. Amoskeag engineers and architects planned a model company town on the eastern bank, founded in 1838 with Elm Street as its main thoroughfare. Incorporation as a city followed for Manchester in 1846, soon home to the largest cotton mill in the world—Mill No. 11, stretching 900 feet long by 103 feet wide, containing 4,000 looms. Other products made in the community included shoes and paper; the Amoskeag foundry made rifles, sewing machines, textile machinery, fire engines, locomotives in a division called the Amoskeag Locomotive Works. The rapid growth of the mills demanded a large influx of workers, resulting in a flood of immigrants French Canadians.
Many residents descend from these workers. The Amoskeag Manufacturing Company went out of business in 1935, although its red brick mills have been renovated for other uses. Indeed, the mill town's 19th-century affluence left behind some of the finest Victorian commercial and residential architecture in the state. Manchester is in south-central New Hampshire, 18 miles south of Concord, the state capital, the same distance north of Nashua, the second-largest city in the state. Manchester is 51 miles north-northwest of the largest city in New England. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 35.0 square miles, of which 33.1 square miles are land and 1.9 square miles are water, comprising 5.33% of the city. Manchester is drained by the Merrimack River and its tributaries the Piscataquog River and Cohas Brook. Massabesic Lake is on the eastern border; the highest point in Manchester is atop Wellington Hill, where the elevation reaches 570 feet above sea level. The Manchester Planning Board, in its 2010 Master Plan, defines 25 neighborhoods within the city.
LivableMHT has drawn maps of the neighborhoods and neighborhood village centers as defined by the city. Recognition of particular neighborhoods varies, with some having neighborhood associations, but none have any legal or political authority; the major neighborhoods include Amoskeag, Rimmon Heights, Notre Dame/McGregorville and Piscataquog/Granite Square known as "Piscat" on the West Side. In 2007, the city began a Neighborhood Initiatives program to "insure that our neighborhoods are vibrant, livable areas since these are the portions of the city where most of the residents spend their time living, playing and going to school." The purpose of this initiative is to foster vibrancy and redevelopment in the neighborhoods, to restore the sense of neighborhood communities, overlooked in the city for some time. The city began the program with street-scape and infrastructure improvements in the Rimmon Heights neighborhood of the West Side, which has spurred growth and investment in and by the community.
Despite the success of the program in Rimmon Heights, it was unclear in recent years how the city planned to implement similar programs throughout the city. The city announced plans for extending the Neighborhood Initiatives program