Walter Giffard was Lord Chancellor of England and Archbishop of York. Giffard was a son of Hugh Giffard of Boyton in Wiltshire, a royal justice, by Sibyl, a daughter and co-heiress of Walter de Cormeilles, he was born about 1225, may have been the oldest son. Hugh and Sybil were entrusted with the care of the young Prince Edward in 1239. In 1256 Giffard and his mother received the king's licence to live in Boyton Castle. Giffard's brother was Bishop Godfrey Giffard, Bishop of Worcester and Lord Chancellor of England. Walter was a kinsman of William of Bitton I, Walter's predecessor at Bath; the family was related to Walter de Gray, Archbishop of York from 1215 to 1255. Giffard took his master of arts at Oxford University. While at university Adam Marsh wrote to another scholar praising Giffard's scholarly skills. Giffard became a canon and archdeacon of Wells and a papal chaplain. On 22 May 1264 he was elected Bishop of Bath and Wells and received the temporalities on 1 September 1264; as the Archbishop of Canterbury, Boniface of Savoy was in France, Giffard travelled to Paris to be consecrated at Notre-Dame on 4 January 1265.
The service was performed by Peter d'Acquablanca, the Bishop of Hereford, Giffard having first sworn that he would not take part against King Henry III. However, the barons were angered that he had ventured abroad against their will and ravaged nearly all his manors. Archbishop Boniface ordered him to excommunicate Simon de Montfort the Earl of Leicester and his party on Giffard's return to England. Following the Battle of Evesham, on 10 August 1265 King Henry made Giffard Chancellor and awarded him a stipend of five hundred marks a year. In August of the following year he was appointed one of the arbitrators for drawing up the award of Kenilworth which provided the disinherited lords a means of recovering their estates. On 15 October 1266 Giffard was appointed by Pope Clement IV to the Archbishopric of York – as part of this elevation he resigned the chancellorship and was enthroned on 1 November 1266, receiving his temporalities on Boxing day. Soon after his enthronement he became involved in a dispute with Archbishop Boniface of Canterbury about the right to carry his cross erect in the southern province, ended up making an appeal to Rome.
Although Giffard had family wealth and much money associated with his office, he could not keep clear of debt. In the years after his appointment he paid 1600 marks to Italian money-lenders, 550 marks to certain merchants of Paris, in 1270 sent 200 marks to his agents at Rome to expedite his affairs, hoping, "...for the present to keep out of the whirlpool of usury." Despite his own financial problems he seems to have been kind to his relatives – paying for his nephew's education and giving his brother Godfrey the Archdeaconry of York. His register contains many gifts to the poor, he helped support schoolmasters at Beverley, he supported the scholarly careers of two of his successors at York, John le Romeyn and William Greenfield. On 13 October 1269 Giffard officiated at the translation of Edward the Confessor's relics; when leaving England, Prince Edward appointed him by will in 1270 as one of the tutors of his sons. He assisted Edward in bringing John de Warenne the Earl of Surrey to justice for the murder of Alan la Zouche at Westminster.
Upon the death of Henry III on 20 November 1272 the Great Seal was delivered to the Archbishop as first Lord of the Council – in order for him, Roger Mortimer and Robert Burnell to be appointed to govern the Kingdom until the new King's return to the country. Giffard died at York on or about 22 April 1279, he was buried in York Minster in the choir. Archbishop Thoresby removed his body to a tomb which he had erected in the presbytery. Contemporary reports state that Giffard was a handsome and genial man, fond of luxury – as a result of this in life he grew fat which affected both his health and his temper, he was noted at the time as being a man of high character, able and industrious. Godfrey Giffard's Will
Hurley Priory is a former Benedictine priory in the village of Hurley on the banks of the River Thames in the English county of Berkshire. The Priory of St. Mary at Hurley was founded in 1086 by the Norman magnate Geoffrey de Mandeville I as a cell of Westminster Abbey; the Priory was suppressed by Henry VIII in 1536 and ownership was transferred to Westminster Abbey. In 1540 Westminster Abbey itself was dissolved and the Hurley Priory property passed into lay hands; the main Abbey property became known as Lady Place. It was owned by Charles Howard, Esq. for three years by Leonard Chamberleyn, Esq. by John Lovelace, Esq. It became the home of the Barons Lovelace. Lady Place was considered one of the great mansions in town, but it fell into disrepair and was demolished as uninhabitable in 1837; the long narrow nave of the priory church is used as the Hurley parish church. It has Norman windows and doorways. To the north, the range of buildings containing the frater or monastic dining hall is incorporated into a private house.
A probable monastic circular dovecote and a nearby larger barn, both to the west of the church, date from the early fourteenth century. The Abbey's former hostelry or guesthouse is incorporated into the Olde Bell Inn, one of the oldest still-working inns in Britain. Richard Lovelace, 1st Baron Lovelace John Lovelace, 2nd Baron Lovelace John Lovelace, 3rd Baron Lovelace List of English abbeys and friaries serving as parish churches Geoffrey N. Wright Discovering Abbeys and Priories ISBN 0-7478-0589-X
The Lord Chancellor, formally the Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, is the highest ranking among those Great Officers of State which are appointed in the United Kingdom, nominally outranking the Prime Minister. The Lord Chancellor is outranked only by the Lord High Steward, another Great Officer of State, appointed only for the day of coronations; the Lord Chancellor is appointed by the Sovereign on the advice of the Prime Minister. Prior to the Union there were separate Lord Chancellors for England and Wales, for Scotland and for Ireland; the Lord Chancellor is a member of the Cabinet and, by law, is responsible for the efficient functioning and independence of the courts. In 2007, there were a number of changes to the legal system and to the office of the Lord Chancellor; the Lord Chancellor was the presiding officer of the House of Lords, the head of the judiciary in England and Wales and the presiding judge of the Chancery Division of the High Court of Justice, but the Constitutional Reform Act 2005 transferred these roles to the Lord Speaker, the Lord Chief Justice and the Chancellor of the High Court respectively.
The current Lord Chancellor is David Gauke, Secretary of State for Justice. One of the Lord Chancellor's responsibilities is to act as the custodian of the Great Seal of the Realm, kept in the Lord Chancellor's Purse. A Lord Keeper of the Great Seal may be appointed instead of a Lord Chancellor; the two offices entail the same duties. Furthermore, the office of Lord Chancellor may be exercised by a committee of individuals known as Lords Commissioners of the Great Seal when there is a delay between an outgoing Chancellor and their replacement; the seal is said to be "in commission". Since the 19th century, only Lord Chancellors have been appointed, the other offices having fallen into disuse; the office of Lord Chancellor of England may trace its origins to the Carolingian monarchy, in which a Chancellor acted as the keeper of the royal seal. In England, the office dates at least as far back as the Norman Conquest, earlier; some give the first Chancellor of England as Angmendus, in 605. Other sources suggest that the first to appoint a Chancellor was Edward the Confessor, said to have adopted the practice of sealing documents instead of signing them.
A clerk of Edward's, was named "chancellor" in some documents from Edward's reign. In any event, the office has been continuously occupied since the Norman Conquest; the staff of the growing office became separate from the king's household under Henry III and in the 14th century located in Chancery Lane. The chancellor headed chancery; the Lord Chancellor was always a churchman, as during the Middle Ages the clergy were amongst the few literate men of the realm. The Lord Chancellor performed multiple functions—he was the Keeper of the Great Seal, the chief royal chaplain, adviser in both spiritual and temporal matters. Thus, the position emerged as one of the most important ones in government, he was only outranked in government by the Justiciar. As one of the King's ministers, the Lord Chancellor attended Royal Court. If a bishop, the Lord Chancellor received a writ of summons; the curia regis would evolve into Parliament, the Lord Chancellor becoming the prolocutor of its upper house, the House of Lords.
As was confirmed by a statute passed during the reign of Henry VIII, a Lord Chancellor could preside over the House of Lords if not a Lord himself. The Lord Chancellor's judicial duties evolved through his role in the curia regis. Petitions for justice were addressed to the King and the curia, but in 1280, Edward I instructed his justices to examine and deal with petitions themselves as the Court of King's Bench. Important petitions were to be sent to the Lord Chancellor for his decision. By the reign of Edward III, this chancellery function developed into a separate tribunal for the Lord Chancellor. In this body, which became known as the High Court of Chancery, the Lord Chancellor would determine cases according to fairness instead of according to the strict principles of common law; the Lord Chancellor became known as the "Keeper of the King's Conscience." Churchmen continued to dominate the Chancellorship until the 16th century. In 1529, after Cardinal Thomas Wolsey, Lord Chancellor and Archbishop of York, was dismissed for failing to procure the annulment of Henry VIII's first marriage, laymen tended to be more favoured for appointment to the office.
Ecclesiastics made a brief return during the reign of Mary I, but thereafter all Lord Chancellors have been laymen. Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury was the last Lord Chancellor, not a lawyer, until the appointment of Chris Grayling in 2012; the three subsequent holders of the position, Michael Gove, Elizabeth Truss and David Lidington are not lawyers. However, the appointment of David Gauke in January 2018 meant that once again the Lord Chancellor was a lawyer; when the office was held by ecclesiastics, a "Keeper of the Great Seal" acted in the Lord Chancellor's absence. Keepers were appointed when the office of Lord Chancellor fell vacant, discharged the duties of the office until an appropriate replacement could be found; when Elizabeth I became queen, Parliament passed an Act providing that a Lord Keeper of the Great Seal would be entitled to "like place, pre-eminence, juri
Thomas de Cantilupe
Thomas de Cantilupe was Lord Chancellor of England and Bishop of Hereford and was canonised in 1320 by Pope John XXII. Cantilupe was born at Hambleden in Buckinghamshire, a son of William de Cantilupe, an Anglo-Norman magnate and a minister of King John, nephew of Walter de Cantilupe, Bishop of Worcester. Cantilupe was educated at Oxford and Orléans, was a teacher of canon law at the University of Oxford, where he became Chancellor in 1261. During the Second Barons' War, Cantilupe favoured the baronial party, he represented the barons before King Louis IX of France at Amiens in 1264. On 25 February 1264, when he was Archdeacon of Stafford, Cantilupe was made Lord Chancellor of England, but was deprived of the office after de Montfort's death at the Battle of Evesham, lived abroad for a while. Following his return to England, he was again appointed Chancellor of Oxford University, where he lectured on theology and held several ecclesiastical appointments. In 1274 Cantilupe attended the Second Council of Lyons and on 14 June 1275 he was appointed Bishop of Hereford, being consecrated on 8 September 1275.
Cantilupe was now a trusted adviser of King Edward I and when attending royal councils at Windsor Castle or at Westminster he lived at Earley in Berkshire. When differing from the king's opinions, he did not forfeit his favour. Cantilupe had a "great conflict" in 1290 with the "Red Earl", Gilbert de Clare, 7th Earl of Gloucester, 6th Earl of Hertford, concerning hunting rights in Malvern, a ditch dug by de Clare; the issue was settled by costly litigation. After the death in 1279 of Robert Kilwardby, Archbishop of Canterbury, a friend of Cantilupe's, his confessor, a series of disputes arose between him and John Peckham, the new archbishop; the disagreements culminated in Peckham excommunicating Cantilupe, who proceeded to Rome to pursue the matter with the pope. Cantilupe died at Ferento, near Orvieto, in Italy, on 25 August 1282 He is buried in Hereford Cathedral. Part of the evidence used in his cause of canonisation was the supposed raising from the dead of William Cragh, a Welsh rebel, hanged in 1290, eight years after Cantilupe's death.
A papal inquiry was convened in London on 20 April 1307 to determine whether or not Cantilupe had died excommunicate, since this would have precluded his being canonised. Forty-four witnesses were called and various letters produced, before the commissioners of the inquiry concluded that Cantilupe had been absolved in Rome before his death, it was difficult for his cause of death to be determined. After a papal investigation lasting 13 years, Cantilupe was canonised by Pope John XXII on 17 April 1320, his feast day was fixed on 2 October. His shrine became a popular place of pilgrimage, but only its base survived the Reformation until a new upper section was recreated under the guidance of architect Robert Chitham; the new section is in vivid colours with a painted scene of the Virgin & Child holding the Mappa Mundi. A reliquary containing his skull has been held at Downside Abbey in Somerset since 1881. In the current Latin edition of the Roman Martyrology, Cantilupe is listed under 25 August as follows: "At Montefiascone in Tuscia, the passing of Saint Thomas Cantelupe, Bishop of Hereford in England, resplendent with learning, severe toward himself, to the poor however showed himself a generous benefactor".
Cantilupe appears to have been an exemplary bishop in both spiritual and secular affairs. His charities were large and his private life blameless, he was visiting his diocese, correcting offenders and discharging other episcopal duties, he compelled neighbouring landholders to restore estates which rightly belonged to the see of Hereford. Cantilupe has been lauded as the "Father of Modern Charity," and is cited as an inspiration by Mother Teresa and Melinda Gates; the Cantilupe Society was founded in 1905 to publish the episcopal registers of the See of Hereford, of which Cantilupe's is the first in existence. Royal Berkshire History: St. Thomas Cantilupe of Hereford Catholic Encyclopedia Catholic Online Saints and Angels Pilgrimage page at Hereford Cathedral Stirnet: CZmisc02
Walter de Merton
Walter de Merton was Lord Chancellor of England, Archdeacon of Bath, founder of Merton College and Bishop of Rochester. For the first two years of the reign of Edward I he was in all but name regent of England during the King's absence abroad, he died in 1277 after falling from his horse, is buried in Rochester Cathedral. Walter was born in around 1205 at Merton in Surrey, or was educated there, he came of a land-owning family at Basingstoke. His mother was his father William. By 1237 both his parents were dead, Walter was a clerk in holy orders. In 1241 Walter held a number of livings in various parts of the country. Walter was prothonotary of the chancery in 1258. Walter rose to prominence as negotiator; when Henry III went to France to negotiate the Treaty of Paris, Walter was left behind as a trusted royal servant. On 29 March, the Justiciar ordered 100 barons to muster in London for a secret meeting that would take them overseas. Only a few days Walter could be seen at Maldon, Surrey assisting in the registration of the Justiciar's army.
The writs were pre-dated considered a new procedure at some risk to the messengers' delivery of the writs to Sheriffs in the locality. Walter helped in the complex financial dealing with King Louis IX of France, when he reached London on 30 April. In return for a promise of peace, Henry received the equivalent of 500 Knights Fees. By 1264, this would be a total of 134,000 Livres of subsidy from the King of France. Walter played an invaluable part in the administration of Henry's revenues. By 1259, Walter had suitably impressed the king that he was granted a prebendary of St. Paul's, London. On 12 July 1261 Henry III made him chancellor, in place of Nicholas of Ely. A month earlier the Papal Bulls in support of Henry's coup d'état had ensured it was safe for the King to return to the Tower of London. With a mercenary at his back, he had marched from Dover over Whitsun. In London, Walter was reinstalled as Chancellor in a'resumption of royal power', having been challenged by the baronial movement.
Walter provided legal arguments for the collection of Tallage, rejection of the baronial constitution, appointment of royal Sheriffs, a renewed attempt to justify the collection of Customs. Now only a cussed Philip Basset, among the barons, remained aloof from the fray, when the King's new ministrations emerged against the Provisions of Oxford; as one of the arbitrators, Walter met the barons with Basset. He was not the king's first choice among the nobility, but the sticking-point remained the method by which to appoint sheriffs, from'faithful men and people' in the shires; that month of May 1861, De Merton had helped define Jus regalitatis, a law that prohibited criticism of the King. A year Henry would describe the sheriffs as bachelarii regis qui tenent comitatus or his bachelors. For the regents were men of the second rank, not nobles, yet they owed their elevated status to royal service. In 1262 Walter acquired lucrative sinecures such as the new prebendary of Exeter, became a canon of Wells Cathedral.
The following year, when de Montfort was at the height of his powers, Walter was urged by the bishop of Worcester to accept a form of peace satis competens et honesta. It is possible that Walter was a member of Richard of Cornwall's deputation sent from Windsor to greet Montfort's army coming east from London and Kent, but on 16 July, when the King surrendered peace terms, three days de Montfort assumed power, Walter left office. In 1261, two manors in Surrey were set aside for the support of "scholars residing at the schools" at Merton Priory. In 1264 Walter drew up statutes for a "house of the scholars of Merton", at Malden in Surrey. Merton College, thus founded and endowed, was one of the earliest examples of collegiate life at Oxford. De Merton's statutes provided for a common corporate life under the rule of a warden but, as vows were to be taken and scholars entering a monastic order forfeited their scholarship, the college was a place of training for the secular clergy. Freed of the responsibilities of government, Walter turned his attention to his college again.
The statutes were redrafted and scholars moved permanently to Oxford. They were established on the site of the parish church of St John whose advowson he had obtained in the early 1260s and where he had been buying adjoining houses and halls since 1264. In 1270 he bought Kibworth Harcourt, Leicestershire as part of the confiscated estate of Saer de Harcourt, an erstwhile supporter of Simon de Montfort. While De Merton was labouring for the establishment of Merton College, the barons emerged triumphant. Walter, a partisan friend of Henry III, was removed from the chancellorship in 1263, he was not restored after the king's victory, but he did renew his acquaintance with the royal circle, by now at Windsor. Walter is mentioned as a Justiciar in 1271, he was re-appointed as Lord Chancellor, four days after Henry III's death on 16 November 1272. For the first two years of Edward I he was in all but name regent of England during the King's absence abroad, he was tasked with investigation into the 20,000 Marks collected from Tallage, about which many complaints had sparked the ire of the Citizens of London.
Violent clashes on the streets worried the King Edward in his first year on the
Kingdom of England
The Kingdom of England was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from 927, when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 927, the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms were united by Æthelstan. In 1016, the kingdom became part of the North Sea Empire of Cnut the Great, a personal union between England and Norway; the Norman conquest of England in 1066 led to the transfer of the English capital city and chief royal residence from the Anglo-Saxon one at Winchester to Westminster, the City of London established itself as England's largest and principal commercial centre. Histories of the kingdom of England from the Norman conquest of 1066 conventionally distinguish periods named after successive ruling dynasties: Norman 1066–1154, Plantagenet 1154–1485, Tudor 1485–1603 and Stuart 1603–1714. Dynastically, all English monarchs after 1066 claim descent from the Normans; the completion of the conquest of Wales by Edward I in 1284 put Wales under the control of the English crown.
Edward III transformed the Kingdom of England into one of the most formidable military powers in Europe. From the 1340s the kings of England laid claim to the crown of France, but after the Hundred Years' War and the outbreak of the Wars of the Roses in 1455, the English were no longer in any position to pursue their French claims and lost all their land on the continent, except for Calais. After the turmoils of the Wars of the Roses, the Tudor dynasty ruled during the English Renaissance and again extended English monarchical power beyond England proper, achieving the full union of England and the Principality of Wales in 1542. Henry VIII oversaw the English Reformation, his daughter Elizabeth I the Elizabethan Religious Settlement, meanwhile establishing England as a great power and laying the foundations of the British Empire by claiming possessions in the New World. From the accession of James VI and I in 1603, the Stuart dynasty ruled England in personal union with Scotland and Ireland.
Under the Stuarts, the kingdom plunged into civil war, which culminated in the execution of Charles I in 1649. The monarchy returned in 1660, but the Civil War had established the precedent that an English monarch cannot govern without the consent of Parliament; this concept became established as part of the Glorious Revolution of 1688. From this time the kingdom of England, as well as its successor state the United Kingdom, functioned in effect as a constitutional monarchy. On 1 May 1707, under the terms of the Acts of Union 1707, the kingdoms of England and Scotland united to form the Kingdom of Great Britain; the Anglo-Saxons referred to themselves as the Engle or the Angelcynn names of the Angles. They called their land Engla land, meaning "land of the English", by Æthelweard Latinized Anglia, from an original Anglia vetus, the purported homeland of the Angles; the name Engla land became England by haplology during the Middle English period. The Latin name was Anglorum terra, the Old French and Anglo-Norman one Angleterre.
By the 14th century, England was used in reference to the entire island of Great Britain. The standard title for monarchs from Æthelstan until John was Rex Anglorum. Canute the Great, a Dane, was the first to call himself "King of England". In the Norman period Rex Anglorum remained standard, with occasional use of Rex Anglie. From John's reign onwards all other titles were eschewed in favour of Regina Anglie. In 1604 James I, who had inherited the English throne the previous year, adopted the title King of Great Britain; the English and Scottish parliaments, did not recognise this title until the Acts of Union of 1707. The kingdom of England emerged from the gradual unification of the early medieval Anglo-Saxon kingdoms known as the Heptarchy: East Anglia, Northumbria, Essex and Wessex; the Viking invasions of the 9th century upset the balance of power between the English kingdoms, native Anglo-Saxon life in general. The English lands were unified in the 10th century in a reconquest completed by King Æthelstan in 927 CE.
During the Heptarchy, the most powerful king among the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms might become acknowledged as Bretwalda, a high king over the other kings. The decline of Mercia allowed Wessex to become more powerful, it absorbed the kingdoms of Kent and Sussex in 825. The kings of Wessex became dominant over the other kingdoms of England during the 9th century. In 827, Northumbria submitted to Egbert of Wessex at Dore making Egbert the first king to reign over a united England. In 886, Alfred the Great retook London, which he regarded as a turning point in his reign; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle says that "all of the English people not subject to the Danes submitted themselves to King Alfred." Asser added that "Alfred, king of the Anglo-Saxons, restored the city of London splendidly... and made it habitable once more." Alfred's "restoration"