Duke of York
Duke of York is a title of nobility in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. Since the 15th century, it has, when granted been given to the second son of English monarchs; the equivalent title in the Scottish peerage was Duke of Albany. However, King George I and Queen Victoria granted the second sons of their eldest sons the titles Duke of York and Albany and Duke of York respectively. Granted in the 14th century in the Peerage of England, the title Duke of York has been created eight times; the title Duke of York and Albany has been created three times. These occurred during the 18th century, following the 1707 unification of the Kingdom of England and Kingdom of Scotland into a single, united realm; the double naming was done so that a territorial designation from each of the separate realms could be included. The current Duke of York is Prince Andrew, the second son of Queen Elizabeth II. Prince Andrew has no male heirs and has been unmarried since his 1996 divorce. In medieval times, York was the main city of the North of England and the see of the Archbishop of York from AD 735.
Yorkshire was England's largest shire in area. York under its Viking name "Jorvik" was a petty kingdom in the Early Medieval period. In the interval between the fall of independent Jorvik under Eirik Bloodaxe, last King of Jorvik, the first creation of the Dukedom of York, there were a few Earls of York; the title Duke of York was first created in the Peerage of England in 1385 for Edmund of Langley, the fourth surviving son of Edward III, an important character in Shakespeare's Richard II. His son Edward, who inherited the title, was killed at the Battle of Agincourt in 1415; the title passed to Edward's nephew Richard, the son of Richard of Conisburgh, 3rd Earl of Cambridge. The younger Richard managed to obtain a restoration of the title, but when his eldest son, who inherited the title, became king in 1461 as Edward IV, the title merged into the Crown; the title was next created for Richard of Shrewsbury, second son of King Edward IV. Richard was one of the Princes in the Tower, and, as he died without heirs, the title became extinct at his death.
The third creation was for Henry Tudor, second son of King Henry VII. When his elder brother Arthur, Prince of Wales, died in 1502, Henry became heir-apparent to the throne; when Henry became King Henry VIII in 1509, his titles merged into the crown. The title was created for the fourth time for Charles Stuart, second son of James I; when his elder brother, Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales, died in 1612, Charles became heir-apparent. He was created Prince of Wales in 1616 and became Charles I in 1625 when the title again merged into the Crown; the fifth creation was in favour of James Stuart, the second son of Charles I. The city and state of New York in what is now the United States of America were named for this particular Duke of York; when his elder brother, King Charles II, died without heirs, James succeeded to the throne as King James II, the title once again merged into the Crown. During the 18th century the double dukedom of York and Albany was created a number of times in the Peerage of Great Britain.
The title was first held by Duke Ernest Augustus of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Bishop of Osnabrück, the youngest brother of King George I. He died without heirs; the second creation of the double dukedom was for Prince Edward, younger brother of King George III, who died without heirs, having never married. The third and last creation of the double dukedom was for Prince Frederick Augustus, the second son of King George III, he served as Commander-in-Chief of the British Army for many years, was the original "Grand old Duke of York" in the popular rhyme. He too died without heirs; the sixth creation of the Dukedom of York was for Prince George of Wales, second son of the future King Edward VII. He was created Duke of York following the death of his elder brother, Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence and Avondale; the title merged with the crown when George succeeded his father as King George V. The seventh creation was for Prince Albert, second son of King George V, younger brother of the future King Edward VIII.
Albert came unexpectedly to the throne when his brother abdicated, took the name George VI, the Dukedom merging into the crown. The title was created for the eighth time for Prince Andrew, second son of Queen Elizabeth II. At present, he only has two daughters. Thus, if he has no future sons, the title will again become extinct at his death. Aside from the first creation, every time the Dukedom of York has been created it has had only one occupant, that person either inheriting the throne or dying without male heirs. In the early 18th century, the eldest son of the overthrown King James II and thus Jacobite claimant to the throne, James Francis Edward Stuart, known to his opponents as the Old Pretender, granted the title "Duke of York" to his own second son, using his purported authority as King James III. Henry became a cardinal in the Catholic church and is thus known as the Cardinal Duke of York. Since James was not recognised as king by English law, the grant is not recognised as a legitimate creation.
Cape York Peninsula, Australia Duke of York Archipelago, Canada Duke of York Bay, Canada York, Upper Canada, now Toronto, Ontario York County, New Brunswick, Canada Duke of York Island, Antarctica Cape York, Greenland Duke of York Island, Papua New Guinea Duke of York Islands Duke of York's Royal Military School New York, a U. S. state New York City, the largest city in the state of New York and the United States Duke of York School, renamed Lenana School after Kenya attain
Shrewsbury is the county town of Shropshire, England. The town is on the River Severn and the 2011 census recorded a town population of 71,715. Shrewsbury is a market town whose centre has a unspoilt medieval street plan and over 660 listed buildings, including several examples of timber framing from the 15th and 16th centuries. Shrewsbury Castle, a red sandstone fortification, Shrewsbury Abbey, a former Benedictine monastery, were founded in 1074 and 1083 by the Norman Earl of Shrewsbury, Roger de Montgomery; the town is where he spent 27 years of his life. Located 9 miles east of the Welsh border, Shrewsbury serves as the commercial centre for Shropshire and mid-Wales, with a retail output of over £299 million per year and light industry and distribution centres, such as Battlefield Enterprise Park, on the outskirts; the A5 and A49 trunk roads come together as the town's by-pass, five railway lines meet at Shrewsbury railway station. The town is located 150 miles north-west of London; the town was the early capital of the Kingdom of Powys, known to the ancient Britons as Pengwern, signifying "the alder hill".
This name evolved in three directions, into Sciropscire, which became Shropshire. Its Welsh name Amwythig means "fortified place". Over the ages, the geographically important town has been the site of many conflicts between the English and Welsh; the Angles, under King Offa of Mercia, took possession in 778. Nearby is the village of 5 miles to the south-east; this was once the site of the fourth largest cantonal capital in Roman Britain. As Caer Guricon it is a possible alternative for the Dark Age seat of the Kingdom of Powys; the importance of the Shrewsbury area in the Roman era was underlined with the discovery of the Shrewsbury Hoard in 2009. Shrewsbury's known history commences in the Early Middle Ages, having been founded c. 800 AD. It is believed that Anglo-Saxon Shrewsbury was most a settlement fortified through the use of earthworks comprising a ditch and rampart, which were shored up with a wooden stockade. There is evidence to show; the Welsh were repelled by William the Conqueror. Roger de Montgomery was given the town as a gift from William, built Shrewsbury Castle in 1074, taking the title of Earl.
He founded Shrewsbury Abbey as a Benedictine monastery in 1083. The 3rd Earl, Robert of Bellême, was deposed in 1102 and the title forfeited, in consequence of rebelling against Henry I and joining the Duke of Normandy's invasion of England in 1101. In 1138, King Stephen besieged the castle held by William FitzAlan for the Empress Maud during the period known as the Anarchy, it was in the late Middle Ages. This success was due to wool production, a major industry at the time, the wool trade with the rest of Britain and Europe, with the River Severn and Watling Street acting as trading routes; the Shrewsbury Drapers Company dominated the trade in Welsh wool for many years. Despite its commercial success, Shrewbury was not immune from the effects of the Black Death. Records suggest the plague arrived in the spring of 1349, was devastating. Examining the number of local church benefices falling vacant due to death, 1349 alone saw twice the vacancies as the previous ten years combined, suggesting a high death toll in Shrewsbury.
In 1403 the Battle of Shrewsbury was fought a few miles north at Battlefield. Shrewsbury's monastic gathering was disbanded with the Dissolution of the Monasteries and as such the Abbey was closed in 1540. However, it is believed that Henry VIII thereafter intended to make Shrewsbury a cathedral city after the formation of the Church of England, but the citizens of the town declined the offer. Despite this, Shrewsbury thrived throughout the 17th centuries; as a result, a number of grand edifices, including the Ireland's Mansion and Draper's Hall, were constructed. It was in this period that Edward VI gave permission for the foundation of a free school, to become Shrewsbury School. During the English Civil War, the town was a Royalist stronghold and only fell to Parliament forces after they were let in by a parliamentarian sympathiser at the St Mary's Water Gate. After Thomas Mytton captured Shrewsbury in February 1645; this prompted Prince Rupert to respond by executing Parliamentarian prisoners in Oswestry.
Shrewsbury Unitarian Church was founded in 1662. By the 18th century Shrewsbury had become an important market town and stop off for stagecoaches travelling between London and Holyhead on their way to Ireland. Local soldier and statesman Robert Clive was Shrewsbury's MP from 1762 until his death in 1774. Clive served once as the town's mayor in 176
Anne de Mowbray, 8th Countess of Norfolk
Anne de Mowbray, 8th Countess of Norfolk Duchess of York and Duchess of Norfolk was the child bride of Richard of Shrewsbury, 1st Duke of York, one of the Princes in the Tower. She died at the age of eight, she was born at Framlingham Castle in Suffolk, the only child of John de Mowbray, 4th Duke of Norfolk and Lady Elizabeth Talbot. Her maternal grandparents were John Talbot, 1st Earl of Shrewsbury and his second wife Lady Margaret Beauchamp; the death of her father in 1476 left Anne a wealthy heiress. On 15 January 1478, aged 5, she was married in St Stephen's Chapel, Westminster, to Richard of Shrewsbury, 1st Duke of York, the 4-year-old younger son of Edward IV and his queen, Elizabeth Woodville. Anne died at Greenwich in London, nearly two years before her husband disappeared into the Tower of London with his older brother, Edward V. Upon her death, her heirs would have been her cousins, Viscount Berkeley and John, Lord Howard, but by an act of Parliament in January 1483 the rights were given to her husband Richard, with reversion to his descendants, failing that, to the descendants of his father Edward IV.
Anne was buried in a lead coffin in the Chapel of St. Erasmus of Formiae in Westminster Abbey; when that chapel was demolished in about 1502 to make way for the Henry VII Lady Chapel, Anne's coffin was moved to a vault under the Abbey of the Minoresses of St. Clare without Aldgate, run by nuns of the Order of Poor Clares Franciscans, her coffin disappeared. In December 1964, construction workers in Stepney accidentally dug into the vault and found Anne's coffin, it was opened, her remains were analyzed by scientists and entombed in Westminster Abbey in May 1965. Her red hair was still on her skull and her shroud still wrapped around her. Westminster Abbey is the presumed resting place of her husband, Richard Duke of York, his brother Edward V, in the Henry VII Chapel. Dukes of Norfolk family tree Lee, Sidney, ed.. "Mowbray, John". Dictionary of National Biography. 39. London: Smith, Elder & Co. p. 225. P. M. Kendall, The World of Anne Mowbray, Observer Colour Magazine, issued 23 May 1965 Moorhen, Wendy.
"Anne Mowbray: In Life and Death". The Ricardian Bulletin. Archived from the original on 23 November 2010. M. A. Rushton, The Teeth of Anne Mowbray, British Dental Journal, issued 19 October 1965 Stepney Child Burial, Joint press release from the London Museum and Westminster Abbey, issued 15 January 1965 Roger Warwick, Skeletal Remains of a Medieval Child, London Archaeologist, Vol. 5 No. 7, issued summer 1986
Richard III of England
Richard III was King of England and Lord of Ireland from 1483 until his death. He was the last king of the last of the Plantagenet dynasty, his defeat and death at the Battle of Bosworth Field, the last decisive battle of the Wars of the Roses, marked the end of the Middle Ages in England. He is the protagonist of Richard III, one of William Shakespeare's history plays; when his brother Edward IV died in April 1483, Richard was named Lord Protector of the realm for Edward's eldest son and successor, the 12-year-old Edward V. Arrangements were made for Edward's coronation on 22 June 1483. Before the king could be crowned, the marriage of his parents was declared bigamous and therefore invalid. Now illegitimate, their children were barred from inheriting the throne. On 25 June, an assembly of Lords and commoners endorsed a declaration to this effect and proclaimed Richard as the rightful king, he was crowned on 6 July 1483. The young princes and his younger brother Richard, Duke of York, were not seen in public after August and accusations circulated that they had been murdered on Richard's orders.
There were two major rebellions against Richard during his reign. In October 1483, an unsuccessful revolt was led by staunch allies of Edward IV and Richard's former ally, Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham. In August 1485, Henry Tudor and his uncle, Jasper Tudor landed in southern Wales with a contingent of French troops and marched through Pembrokeshire, recruiting soldiers. Henry's forces defeated Richard's army near the Leicestershire town of Market Bosworth. Richard was slain. Henry Tudor ascended the throne as Henry VII. Richard's corpse was buried without pomp, his original tomb monument is believed to have been removed during the English Reformation, his remains were lost, as they were believed to have been thrown into the River Soar. In 2012, an archaeological excavation was commissioned by the Richard III Society on the site occupied by Greyfriars Priory Church; the University of Leicester identified the skeleton found in the excavation as that of Richard III as a result of radiocarbon dating, comparison with contemporary reports of his appearance, comparison of his mitochondrial DNA with that of two matrilineal descendants of Richard III's eldest sister, Anne of York.
He was reburied in Leicester Cathedral on 26 March 2015. Richard was born on 2 October 1452 at Fotheringhay Castle in Northamptonshire, the twelfth of 13 children of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York and Cecily Neville, his childhood coincided with the beginning of what has traditionally been labelled the'Wars of the Roses', a period of political instability and periodic open civil war in England during the second half of the fifteenth century, between the Yorkists, who supported Richard's father, opposed the regime of Henry VI and his wife, Margaret of Anjou, the Lancastrians, who were loyal to the crown. When his father and the Nevilles were forced to flee to Ludlow in 1459, Richard and his older brother, George were placed in the custody of the Duchess of Buckingham, the Archbishop of Canterbury; when his father and elder brother Edmund, Earl of Rutland, were killed at the Battle of Wakefield on 30 December 1460, Richard and George were sent by their mother to the Low Countries. They returned to England following the defeat of the Lancastrians at the Battle of Towton.
They participated in the coronation of Richard's eldest brother as King Edward IV on 28 June 1461, when Richard was named Duke of Gloucester and made both a Knight of the Garter and a Knight of the Bath. Edward appointed him the sole Commissioner of Array for the Western Counties in 1464, when he was 11. By the age of 17, he had an independent command. Richard spent several years during his childhood at Middleham Castle in Wensleydale, under the tutelage of his cousin the Earl of Warwick known as the Kingmaker because of his role in the Wars of the Roses. Warwick supervised Richard's training as a knight: in the autumn of 1465 Edward IV granted Warwick £1000 for the expenses of his younger brother's tutelage. With some interruptions, Richard stayed at Middleham either from late 1461 until early 1465, when he was 12 or from 1465 until his coming of age in 1468, when he turned 16. While at Warwick's estate, it is that he met both Francis Lovell, who would be his firm supporter in his life, Warwick's younger daughter, his future wife Anne Neville.
It is possible that at this early stage Warwick was considering the king's brothers as strategic matches for his daughters and Anne: young aristocrats were sent to be raised in the households of their intended future partners, as had been the case for the young dukes' father, Richard of York. As the relationship between the king and Warwick became strained, Edward IV opposed the match. During Warwick's lifetime, George was the only royal brother to marry one of his daughters, the eldest, Isabel, on 12 July 1469, without the king's permission. George joined his father-in-law's revolt against the king, while Richard remained loyal to Edward though rumour coupled Richard's name with Anne Neville until August 1469. Richard and Edward were forced to flee to Burgundy in October 1470 after Warwick defected to the side of the former Lancastrian queen Margaret of Anjou. In 1468, Richard's sister Margaret had married Charles the Bold, the Duke of Burgundy, the brothers could expect a welcome there. Edward was restored to the throne in the spring 1471, following the battles of Barnet and Tewkesbury, both of which the eighteen-year-old Richard played a crucial role.
During his adolescence
Armorial of the House of Plantagenet
The House of Plantagenet was the first armigerous royal dynasty of England. The arms of this noble royal, Gules, three lions passant guardant or, termed colloquially "the arms of England" signifying the "arms of the royal house of England", were first adopted by King Richard the Lionheart, son of King Henry II of England, son of Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou; the various cadet branches descended from this family bore differenced versions of the arms of England. The heiresses of Norfolk and Kent transmitted the Plantagenet arms to non-Plantagenet families: Henry VI of England granted differenced versions of the Plantagenet arms to his maternal half-brothers; this was an extraordinary grant. Royal arms of England House of Plantagenet Issue of Edward III of England House of Lancaster House of York House of Beaufort War of the Roses Citations Bibliography Ailes, The Origins of The Royal Arms of England, Reading: Graduate Center for Medieval Studies, University of Reading, ISBN 0704907763 Baynes, T.
S.. R. eds. "Heraldry", Encyclopædia Britannica, 11, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, p. 689 Brooke-Little, J. P. FSA, Boutell's Heraldry, London: Frederick Warne LTD, ISBN 0-7232-2096-4 Burke, Burke's genealogical and heraldic history of peerage and knightage, New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, p. 207. "Portrait of William Somerset, 3rd Earl of Worcester", Wikimedia Commons, 13 July 2018 Fox-Davies, Complete Guide to Heraldry, New York: Bonanza Books, ISBN 1602390010 Gurney, E. Henry, Reference handbook for readers and teachers of English history, Boston: Ginn & Company, p. 55 Louda, Jiří. ISBN 0517545586 Pinches, John Harvey. R. B. "Somerset, third earl of Worcester", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/26015
St Stephen's Chapel
St Stephen's Chapel, sometimes called the Royal Chapel of St Stephen, was a chapel in the old Palace of Westminster which served as the chamber of the House of Commons of England and that of Great Britain from 1547 to 1834. It was destroyed in the fire of 1834, but the Chapel of St Mary Undercroft in the crypt survived; the present-day St Stephen's Hall and its porch, which are within the new Palace of Westminster built in the 19th century, stand on the same site and are today accessed through the St Stephen's Entrance, the public entrance of the House of Commons. According to Cooke, King Henry III witnessed the consecration of the Sainte Chapelle in Paris in 1248, wished to construct a chapel in his principal palace at Westminster to rival it. Work continued for many years under Henry's successors, to be completed around 1297. In the resulting two-storey chapel, the Upper Chapel was used by the Royal Family, the Lower Chapel, by the Royal Household and courtiers. Two royal weddings are recorded as having been solemnised in St Stephen's Chapel.
On 20 January 1382, King Richard II was married to Anne of Bohemia. The bridegroom was the bride sixteen; the other marriage occurred on 15 January 1478, between the younger of the two Princes in the Tower, Duke of York, Anne Mowbray. Being four years old, she was a year younger than Richard. At the age of eight, Anne died, her coffin was discovered in a vault in Stepney in 1964, her remains reinterred in Westminster Abbey. The body of Richard's father, King Edward IV, who died at the Palace of Westminster on 9 April 1483, was conveyed to St Stephen's Chapel the next day, lay in state there for eight days before his interment at St George's Chapel, Windsor. Thomas Cranmer was consecrated in St Stephen's Chapel as Archbishop of Canterbury on 30 March, 1533. After the death of King Henry VIII the Palace of Westminster ceased to be a royal residence. Henry's son, King Edward VI, instituted the Abolition of Chantries Act, 1547 and St Stephen's Chapel thus became available for use as the debating chamber of the House of Commons.
Oliver Cromwell used it to stable his horses. On the night before the 1911 census, women's suffragist Emily Davison spent the night in a broom cupboard in the back of the crypt in order to be able to give her address as the House of Commons, despite not being allowed to stand for Parliament or vote. A plaque was unofficially placed in the cupboard to commemorate this in around 1991; the former Chapel's layout and functionality influenced the positioning of furniture and the seating of Members of Parliament in the Commons. The Speaker's chair was placed on the altar steps – arguably the origin of the tradition of Members bowing to the Speaker, as they would have done to the altar. Where the lectern had once been, the Table of the House was installed; the Members sat facing one another in the medieval choir stalls, creating the adversarial seating plan that persists in the chamber of the Commons to this day. The old choir screen, with its two side-by-side entrances, was retained and formed the basis of the modern voting system for parliamentarians, with "aye" voters passing through the right-hand door and "no" voters passing through the left-hand one.
In order to suit the needs of the House of Commons, various changes to the chapel's original Gothic form were made by various architects between 1547 and 1834. Initial changes during the late 16th Century were minor. More drastic alterations were undertaken by Christopher Wren in the 1690s. During that work the building was reduced in height with the removal of the clerestory and vaulted ceiling while the great medieval windows were walled up, with smaller windows cut into the new stonework. Inside, the walls were reduced in thickness to accommodate extra seating and the addition of upper-level male-only public galleries along both sides of the chamber, the remains of the medieval interior were concealed behind wainscoting and oak panelling. A false ceiling was installed in the chamber to help to improve its acoustics, the quality of, important in an age without artificial amplification; the newly created attic space above the ceiling housed a ventilation lantern and was used as the ladies' gallery, although the view down into the chamber beneath through the lantern was restricted.
More seating was added for the extra Members brought in by the Acts of Union with Scotland and Ireland. By the 19th century, the chapel's interior had a bland and modest look in contrast to its former medieval magnificence. Further alterations were made to the exterior by James Wyatt at the end of the 18th Century; the fire of 1834 destroyed the main body of the chapel, with the crypt below, the adjoining cloisters surviving. Amongst the few furnishings rescued from the flames was the Table of the House, now kept in the Speaker's apartments at the palace. Although it was demolished shortly after the fire, the surviving stone shell of the chapel, with all its additions burned away, attracted many visitors and antiquaries who came to view the original medieval decorations which had become visible once again; the historical importance of the chapel was realised in the design of the new palace in the form of St Stephen's Hall, the lavishly decorated main public entrance hall built on the same floor plan as the old chapel, with the position of the Speaker's chair marked out on the floor.
The crypt below St Stephen's Hall, the Chapel of St Mary Undercroft, which had fallen into disuse some time before the fire and had seen a number of uses, was restored, returned t