Carl Sigismund Kunth
Carl Sigismund Kunth Karl Sigismund Kunth or anglicized as Charles Sigismund Kunth, was a German botanist. He is known for being one of the first to study and categorise plants from the American continents, publishing Nova genera et species plantarum quas in peregrinatione ad plagam aequinoctialem orbis novi collegerunt Bonpland et Humboldt. Born in Leipzig, Kunth became a merchant's clerk in Berlin in 1806. After meeting Alexander von Humboldt, who helped him attend lectures at the University of Berlin, Kunth became interested in botany. Kunth worked as Humboldt's assistant in Paris from 1813 to 1819, in which he classified the plants, collected by Humboldt and Aimé Bonpland during their journey through the Americas; when Kunth returned to Berlin in 1820, he became professor of botany at the University of Berlin, as well as vice president of the botanical garden. In 1829, he was elected member of the Academy of sciences of Berlin. In 1829, he sailed for South America and during a space of three years, visited Chile, Brazil, Central America, the West Indies.
After his death in 1850, the Prussian government acquired his botanical collection, which formed part of the royal herbarium in Berlin. An endemic Hawaiian fern species is named after him: Doodia kunthiana, a member of the Blechnacea family of ferns. Note: Kunth = C. S. Kunth = H. B. K. Nova genera et species plantarum quas in peregrinatione ad plagam aequinoctialem orbis novi collegerunt Bonpland et Humboldt on Botanicus Les mimosees et autres plantes legumineuses du nouveau continent Synopsis plantarum quas in itinere ad plagain aequinoctialem orbis novi collegerunt Humboldt et Bonpland Les graminees de l'Amerique du Sud Handbuch der Botanik Enumeratio Plantarum Omnium Hucusque Cognitarum, Secundum Familias Naturales Disposita, Adjects Characteribus, Differentiis et Synonymis. Stutgardiae et Tubingae: Sumtibus J. G. Cottae. 1843. Lehrbuch der Botanik Les melastomees et autres plantes legumineuses de l'Amerique du Sud Wilson, J. G.. "Kunth, Charles Sigismund". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography.
New York: D. Appleton. Ernst Wunschmann, "Kunth, Karl Sigismund", Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, 17, Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 394–397 Malpighiaceae/Kunth
A synonym is a word or phrase that means or nearly the same as another lexeme in the same language. Words that are synonyms are said to be synonymous, the state of being a synonym is called synonymy. For example, the words begin, start and initiate are all synonyms of one another. Words are synonymous in one particular sense: for example and extended in the context long time or extended time are synonymous, but long cannot be used in the phrase extended family. Synonyms with the exact same meaning share a seme or denotational sememe, whereas those with inexactly similar meanings share a broader denotational or connotational sememe and thus overlap within a semantic field; the former are sometimes called cognitive synonyms and the latter, near-synonyms, plesionyms or poecilonyms. Some lexicographers claim that no synonyms have the same meaning because etymology, phonic qualities, ambiguous meanings, so on make them unique. Different words that are similar in meaning differ for a reason: feline is more formal than cat.
Synonyms are a source of euphemisms. Metonymy can sometimes be a form of synonymy: the White House is used as a synonym of the administration in referring to the U. S. executive branch under a specific president. Thus a metonym is a type of synonym, the word metonym is a hyponym of the word synonym; the analysis of synonymy, polysemy and hypernymy is inherent to taxonomy and ontology in the information-science senses of those terms. It has applications in pedagogy and machine learning, because they rely on word-sense disambiguation; the word comes from ónoma. Synonyms can be any part of speech. Examples: noun drink and beverage verb buy and purchase adjective big and large adverb and speedily preposition on and upon"glass" and"cup"Synonyms are defined with respect to certain senses of words: pupil as the aperture in the iris of the eye is not synonymous with student; such like, he expired means the same as he died, yet my passport has expired cannot be replaced by my passport has died. In English, many synonyms emerged after the Norman conquest of England.
While England's new ruling class spoke Norman French, the lower classes continued to speak Old English. Thus, today we have synonyms like the Norman-derived people and archer, the Saxon-derived folk and bowman. For more examples, see the list of Germanic and Lat Latinate equivalents in English. A thesaurus lists related words; the word poecilonym is a rare synonym of the word synonym. It is not entered in most major dictionaries and is a curiosity or piece of trivia for being an autological word because of its meta quality as a synonym of synonym. Antonyms are words with nearly opposite meanings. For example: hot ↔ cold, large ↔ small, thick ↔ thin, synonym ↔ antonym Hypernyms and hyponyms are words that refer to a general category and a specific instance of that category. For example, vehicle is a hypernym of car, car is a hyponym of vehicle. Homophones are words that have different meanings. For example and which are homophones in most accents. Homographs are words that have different pronunciations.
For example, one can keep a record of documents. Homonyms are words that have different meanings. For example and rose are homonyms. -onym Cognitive synonymy Elegant variation, the gratuitous use of a synonym in prose Synonym ring Synonomy in Japanese Tools which graph words relations: Graph Words – Online tool for visualization word relations Synonyms.net – Online reference resource that provides instant synonyms and antonyms definitions including visualizations, voice pronunciations and translations English/French Semantic Atlas – Graph words relations in English and gives cross representations for translations – offers 500 searches per user per day. Plain words synonyms finder: Synonym Finder – Synonym finder including hypernyms in search result Thesaurus – Online synonyms in English, Italian and German Woxikon Synonyms – Over 1 million synonyms – English, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese and Dutch FindMeWords Synonyms – Online Synonym Dictionary with definitions Classic Thesaurus - Crowdsourced Synonym Dictionary Power Thesaurus - Synonym dictionary with definitions and examples
Wikispecies is a wiki-based online project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation. Its aim is to create a comprehensive free content catalogue of all species. Jimmy Wales stated that editors are not required to fax in their degrees, but that submissions will have to pass muster with a technical audience. Wikispecies is available under the GNU Free Documentation License and CC BY-SA 3.0. Started in September 2004, with biologists across the world invited to contribute, the project had grown a framework encompassing the Linnaean taxonomy with links to Wikipedia articles on individual species by April 2005. Benedikt Mandl co-ordinated the efforts of several people who are interested in getting involved with the project and contacted potential supporters in early summer 2004. Databases were evaluated and the administrators contacted, some of them have agreed on providing their data for Wikispecies. Mandl defined two major tasks: Figure out how the contents of the data base would need to be presented—by asking experts, potential non-professional users and comparing that with existing databases Figure out how to do the software, which hardware is required and how to cover the costs—by asking experts, looking for fellow volunteers and potential sponsorsAdvantages and disadvantages were discussed by the wikimedia-I mailing list.
The board of directors of the Wikimedia Foundation voted by 4 to 0 in favor of the establishment of a Wikispecies. The project is hosted at species.wikimedia.org. It was merged to a sister project of Wikimedia Foundation on September 14, 2004. On October 10, 2006, the project exceeded 75,000 articles. On May 20, 2007, the project exceeded 100,000 articles with a total of 5,495 registered users. On September 8, 2008, the project exceeded 150,000 articles with a total of 9,224 registered users. On October 23, 2011, the project reached 300,000 articles. On June 16, 2014, the project reached 400,000 articles. On January 7, 2017, the project reached 500,000 articles. On October 30, 2018, the project reached 600,000 articles, a total of 1.12 million pages. Wikispecies comprises taxon pages, additionally pages about synonyms, taxon authorities, taxonomical publications, institutions or repositories holding type specimen. Wikispecies asks users to use images from Wikimedia Commons. Wikispecies does not allow the use of content.
All Species Foundation Catalogue of Life Encyclopedia of Life Tree of Life Web Project List of online encyclopedias The Plant List Wikispecies, The free species directory that anyone can edit Species Community Portal The Wikispecies Charter, written by Wales
In the APG IV system for the classification of flowering plants, the name asterids denotes a clade. Common examples include the forget-me-nots, the common sunflower, morning glory and sweet potato, lavender, olive, honeysuckle, ash tree, snapdragon, psyllium, garden sage, table herbs such as mint and rosemary, rainforest trees such as Brazil nut. Most of the taxa belonging to this clade had been referred to the Asteridae in the Cronquist system and to the Sympetalae in earlier systems; the name asterids resembles the earlier botanical name but is intended to be the name of a clade rather than a formal ranked name, in the sense of the ICBN. The phylogenetic tree presented hereafter has been proposed by the APG IV project. Genetic analysis carried out after APG II maintains that the sister to all other asterids are the Cornales. A second order that split from the base of the asterids are the Ericales; the remaining orders cluster into two clades, the lamiids and the campanulids. The structure of both of these clades has changed in APG III.
In APG III system, the following clades were renamed: euasterids I → lamiids euasterids II → campanulids Asterids in Stevens, P. F.. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 7, May 2006
Zantedeschia is a genus of 8 species of herbaceous, flowering plants in the family Araceae, native to southern Africa from South Africa north to Malawi. The genus has been introduced on all continents except Antarctica. Common names include arum lily for Z. aethiopica and calla and calla lily for Z. elliottiana and Z. rehmannii, although members of the genus are neither true lilies of Liliaceae, true Arums, or true Callas. They are often confused with Anthurium; the colourful flowers and leaves of both species and cultivars are valued and grown as ornamental plants. Zantedeschia species are rhizomatous, perennial plants with some species, e. g. Zantedeschia aethiopica, growing to 1.2m tall, while Zantedeschia rehmannii does not exceed 60 cm in height, growing in clumps or clusters. Roots: Contractile, emerging from the top of the tubers in Group II. Stem: The underground portion is variously described as i. e. A tuber. While the literature is confusing as to the exact terminology the Zantedeschia aethiopica-Zantedeschia odorata group is considered to have rhizomes and the remaining species tubers.
The rhizomes are branched. Leaves: Petioles are long, sheathed at the bases, of varying lengths, from 15 cm to 1.5 m. The lamina is simple and coriaceous with a variety of shapes, including triangular, with or without a point, heart-shaped, spear-shaped, lance-shaped, oblong, or circular. 15–60 cm in length, 5–25 cm in width. The leaves are dark green in colour, feather-veined, may be erect or spreading with undulate margins; some species exhibit transparent flecking, are therefore described as maculate, while others are immaculate. The leaves contain hydathodes. Inflorescence: Takes the form of a solitary pseudanthium, with a showy white or yellow spathe shaped like a funnel with a yellow, finger-like spadix, which carries the true flowers. Both spathe and spadix are carried above the leaves on the fleshy flower stem; the shape of the spathe whose overlapping margins form the tubes varies from trumpet shaped to a tight tube with a tapering tip. The spathe is green, but as it unfolds becomes coloured.
This may be white as in Z. aethiopica. Cultivars have a wide variety of other spathe colours including purple. Inside the spathe, the throat may be darkly coloured; the spathe acts to attract pollinators. Flowers: Zantedeschia is monoecious, in which separate male and female flowers are carried on the spadix; the flowers are non-blooming without a perianth. The male flowers contain two to three stamens fused to form a synandrium, the female flowers have a single, compound pistil with three fused carpels and three locules. Fruit: Beaked orange or red berries. Eight species are recognized: Zantedeschia aethiopica Spreng. – giant white arum lily or common arum lily - South Africa, Lesotho Zantedeschia albomaculata Baill. – spotted arum lily - widespread from South Africa north to Nigeria and Tanzania Zantedeschia elliottiana Engl. – yellow or golden arum lily - Mpumalanga Province of South Africa Zantedeschia jucunda Letty - Leolo Mountains of northern South Africa Zantedeschia odorata P. L. Perry - Western Cape Province Zantedeschia pentlandii Wittm.
- Mpumalanga Province of South Africa Zantedeschia rehmannii Engl. – pink arum lily - South Africa, Mozambique Zantedeschia valida Y. Singh - KwaZulu-Natal Province of South Africa The name of the genus was given as a tribute to Italian botanist Giovanni Zantedeschi by the German botanist Kurt Sprengel. All species are endemic from Nigeria to Tanzania and South Africa. Z. aethiopica grows in marshy areas and is only deciduous when water becomes scarce. It grows continuously when watered and fed and can survive periods of minor frosts. Z. aethiopica is a strong and sturdy plant, being able to grow in many soils and habitats, multiplying by rhizome-offsets. Z. odorata is a rare species, resembling Z. aethiopica, but deciduous and smelling like freesia, endemic to a few localities in South Africa. Z. albomaculata is a widespread and variable species, growing from South Africa north to Kenya, varying in shades of white to cream and pink to orange-shades. Z. jucunda and Z. pentlandii are rare species with large yellow showy flowers.
Z. rehmannii is a pink-flowered species with sword shaped leaves. Z. elliotiana is known from horticultural sources only and is of hybrid origin. Zantedeschia was introduced to Europe in the seventeenth century as Z. aethiopica, is now naturalised in Europe, North America, Central America, South America and Australasia. In many places it is considered a dangerous invasive species. In the South-West of Western Australia, Z. aethiopica was introduced for horticulture, but has become a widespread and conspicuous weed of watercourses and wet pastures to the extent that it has been declared a pest in Western Australia and landowners must control it and attempts to sell plants must be reported. Zantedeschia in North America is grown as ornamental cultivars in home gardens. Z. aethiopica grows
Louisiana is a state in the Deep South region of the South Central United States. It is the 25th most populous of the 50 United States. Louisiana is bordered by the state of Texas to the west, Arkansas to the north, Mississippi to the east, the Gulf of Mexico to the south. A large part of its eastern boundary is demarcated by the Mississippi River. Louisiana is the only U. S. state with political subdivisions termed parishes. The state's capital is Baton Rouge, its largest city is New Orleans. Much of the state's lands were formed from sediment washed down the Mississippi River, leaving enormous deltas and vast areas of coastal marsh and swamp; these contain a rich southern biota. There are many species of tree frogs, fish such as sturgeon and paddlefish. In more elevated areas, fire is a natural process in the landscape, has produced extensive areas of longleaf pine forest and wet savannas; these support an exceptionally large number of plant species, including many species of terrestrial orchids and carnivorous plants.
Louisiana has more Native American tribes than any other southern state, including four that are federally recognized, ten that are state recognized, four that have not received recognition. Some Louisiana urban environments have a multicultural, multilingual heritage, being so influenced by a mixture of 18th-century French, Spanish, Native American, African cultures that they are considered to be exceptional in the US. Before the American purchase of the territory in 1803, present-day Louisiana State had been both a French colony and for a brief period a Spanish one. In addition, colonists imported numerous African people as slaves in the 18th century. Many came from peoples of the same region of West Africa. In the post-Civil War environment, Anglo-Americans increased the pressure for Anglicization, in 1921, English was for a time made the sole language of instruction in Louisiana schools before a policy of multilingualism was revived in 1974. There has never been an official language in Louisiana, the state constitution enumerates "the right of the people to preserve and promote their respective historic and cultural origins."
Louisiana was named after Louis XIV, King of France from 1643 to 1715. When René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle claimed the territory drained by the Mississippi River for France, he named it La Louisiane; the suffix -ana is a Latin suffix that can refer to "information relating to a particular individual, subject, or place." Thus Louis + ana carries the idea of "related to Louis." Once part of the French Colonial Empire, the Louisiana Territory stretched from present-day Mobile Bay to just north of the present-day Canada–United States border, including a small part of what is now the Canadian provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan. The Gulf of Mexico did not exist 250 million years ago when there was but one supercontinent, Pangea; as Pangea split apart, the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico opened. Louisiana developed, over millions of years, from water into land, from north to south; the oldest rocks are exposed in areas such as the Kisatchie National Forest. The oldest rocks date back to the early Cenozoic Era, some 60 million years ago.
The history of the formation of these rocks can be found in D. Spearing's Roadside Geology of Louisiana; the youngest parts of the state were formed during the last 12,000 years as successive deltas of the Mississippi River: the Maringouin, Teche, St. Bernard, the modern Mississippi, now the Atchafalaya; the sediments were carried from north to south by the Mississippi River. In between the Tertiary rocks of the north, the new sediments along the coast, is a vast belt known as the Pleistocene Terraces, their age and distribution can be related to the rise and fall of sea levels during past ice ages. In general, the northern terraces have had sufficient time for rivers to cut deep channels, while the newer terraces tend to be much flatter. Salt domes are found in Louisiana, their origin can be traced back to the early Gulf of Mexico, when the shallow ocean had high rates of evaporation. There are several hundred salt domes in the state. Salt domes are important not only as a source of salt. Louisiana is bordered to the west by Texas.
The state may properly be divided into two parts, the uplands of the north, the alluvial along the coast. The alluvial region includes low swamp lands, coastal marshlands and beaches, barrier islands that cover about 20,000 square miles; this area lies principally along the Gulf of Mexico and the Mississippi River, which traverses the state from north to south for a distance of about 600 mi ) and empties into the Gulf of Mexico. The breadth of the alluvial region along the Mississippi is from 10 to 60 miles, along the other rivers, the alluvial region averages about 10 miles across; the Mississippi River flows along a ridge formed by its own natural deposits, from which the lands decline toward a river beyond at an average fall of six feet per mile. The alluvial lands along other streams present similar features; the higher and contiguous hill lands of the north and northwestern part of the state have an area of more than 25,000 square miles. They consist of prairie and woodl
Herbaceous plants are plants that have no persistent woody stem above ground. The term is applied to perennials, but in botany it may refer to annuals or biennials, include both forbs and graminoids. Annual herbaceous plants die at the end of the growing season or when they have flowered and fruited, they grow again from seed. Herbaceous perennial and biennial plants may have stems that die at the end of the growing season, but parts of the plant survive under or close to the ground from season to season. New growth develops from living tissues remaining on or under the ground, including roots, a caudex or various types of underground stems, such as bulbs, stolons and tubers. Examples of herbaceous biennials include carrot and common ragwort. By contrast, non-herbaceous perennial plants are woody plants which have stems above ground that remain alive during the dormant season and grow shoots the next year from the above-ground parts – these include trees and vines; some fast-growing herbaceous plants are pioneers, or early-successional species.
Others form the main vegetation of many stable habitats, occurring for example in the ground layer of forests, or in open habitats such as meadow, salt marsh or desert. Some herbaceous plants can grow rather large, such as the genus Musa; the age of some herbaceous perennial plants can be determined by herbchronology, the analysis of annual growth rings in the secondary root xylem