Winnipeg James Armstrong Richardson International Airport
Winnipeg James Armstrong Richardson International Airport is an international airport located in Winnipeg, Canada. It is the seventh busiest airport in Canada by passenger traffic, serving 4,305,744 passengers in 2017, the 11th busiest airport by aircraft movements, it is a hub for passenger airlines Calm Air, Perimeter Airlines, Flair Airlines, cargo airline Cargojet. It is a focus city for WestJet; the airport is co-located with Canadian Forces Base Winnipeg. An important transportation hub for the province of Manitoba, Winnipeg International Airport is the only commercial international airport within the province as the other airports of entry serve domestic flights and general aviation only; the airport is operated by the Winnipeg Airport Authority as part of Transport Canada's National Airports System and is one of eight Canadian airports that has US Border Pre-clearance facilities. Winnipeg's isolated geographical location in relation to other major population centres makes Winnipeg International Airport the primary airport for a large area.
As such, it is used as a gateway not only to all of Manitoba, but large parts of neighbouring provinces and territories. Daily non-stop flights are operated from Winnipeg International Airport to destinations across Canada as well as to the United States and the Caribbean, along with summer seasonal flights to the United Kingdom. In addition scheduled flights to numerous small remote communities in the northern regions of Canada Northern Manitoba, Northwestern Ontario, Nunavut, are served from the airport; the airport opened in 1928 as Stevenson Aerodrome in honour of the noted Manitoba aviator and pioneer bush pilot, Captain Fred J. Stevenson. Stevenson Aerodrome known as Stevenson Field, was Canada's first international airport with Northwest Airways inaugurating a passenger and mail service between Winnipeg and Pembina, North Dakota on February 2, 1931. By 1935, Northwest Airlines was operating daily service from the airport with Hamilton H-47 prop aircraft on a routing of Winnipeg - Pembina, ND - Grand Forks, ND - Fargo, ND - Minneapolis/St.
Paul, MN - Milwaukee, WI - Chicago, IL. The City of Winnipeg and the Rural Municipality of St. James agreed to develop Stevenson Field as a modern municipal airport in 1936. In 1938 the Manitoba Legislative Assembly passed the St. James-Winnipeg Airport Commission Act creating a commission of the same name with full control over the operation of the airport. In 1940 during the Second World War the Government of Canada placed the airport under the direction of the Minister of Transport and the Royal Canadian Air Force where it remained until 1997. In 1940, Trans-Canada Air Lines was operating daily round trip transcontinental service across Canada via the airport with a routing of Montreal - Ottawa - North Bay - Kapuskasing - Wagaming - Winnipeg - Regina - Lethbridge - Vancouver flown with Lockheed Model 10 Electra twin prop aircraft with connecting service to and from Toronto being offered via North Bay. In 1962 Stevenson Field was renamed Winnipeg International Airport and in 1997 the airport was transferred to the control of the Winnipeg Airports Authority.
The airport was served by Scandinavian Airlines during the mid 1950s on the world's first regular Polar route, which linked Copenhagen and Los Angeles with Douglas DC-6B propliner flights via Søndre Strømfjord and Winnipeg. By 1962, Trans-Canada Air Lines was operating weekly nonstop service between Winnipeg and London Heathrow Airport with Douglas DC-8 jetliners. In 1963, Northwest Airlines was serving the airport with Lockheed L-188 Electra turboprops operated on multi-stop routings of Winnipeg - Grand Forks, ND - Fargo, ND - Minneapolis/St. Paul - Milwaukee - New York City Idlewild Airport and Miami - Fort Lauderdale - St. Petersburg, FL - Atlanta - Chicago O'Hare Airport - Minneapolis/St. Paul - Fargo, ND - Grand Forks, ND - Winnipeg. By 1970, Air Canada was operating twice weekly nonstop service to Glasgow, Scotland with both flights continuing on to London Heathrow, a weekly nonstop flight to London Heathrow, a twice weekly nonstop to Copenhagen with both flights continuing on to Frankfurt and a weekly nonstop to Frankfurt with this flight continuing on to Zurich with all of these services being operated with Douglas DC-8 jets as part of Air Canada's "Western Arrow" international flights at the time.
In 1970, CP Air was operating direct, no change of plane Boeing 737-200 service to San Francisco via stops in Calgary and Vancouver. The original main terminal building was built in 1964, was designed by the architectural firm of Green Blankstein Russell and Associates, it was expanded and renovated in 1984 by the architectural firm of IKOY, a hotel was built across from the terminal in 1998. The original main terminal building was closed on Sunday October 30, 2011 and has since been demolished. Two airlines operating jet aircraft in passenger service were based at the airport: Transair and Greyhound Air. During the mid 1970s, Transair was operating Boeing 737-200 and Fokker F28 Fellowship jets in addition to NAMC YS-11 and de Havilland Canada DHC-6 Twin Otter turboprops on scheduled flights in Manitoba and Ontario provinces as well as the Northwest Territories and the Yukon with service as far west as Whitehorse and as far east as Toronto from its Winnipeg hub in addition to operating charter services from the airport with Boeing 707 jetliners with charter flights to Europe, the Caribbean and Mexico as well as to Flori
Manitoba Hydro is the electric power and natural gas utility in the province of Manitoba, Canada. Founded in 1961, it is a provincial Crown Corporation, governed by the Manitoba Hydro-Electric Board and the Manitoba Hydro Act. Today the company operates 15 interconnected generating stations, it has more than 263,000 natural gas customers. Since most of the electrical energy is provided by hydroelectric power, the utility has low electricity rates. Stations in Northern Manitoba are connected by a HVDC system, the Nelson River Bipole, to customers in the south; the internal staff are members of the Canadian Union of Public Employees Local 998 while the outside workers are members of the International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers Local 2034. Manitoba Hydro headquarters in the downtown Winnipeg Manitoba Hydro Place opened in 2009; the first recorded attempt to extract useful work from a Manitoba river was in 1829 at a flour mill located on Sturgeon Creek in what is now Winnipeg. This was not successful and the milling equipment was operated by a windmill.
The first public electric lighting installation in Manitoba was demonstrated at the Davis House hotel on Main Street, March 12, 1873. In 1880, the Manitoba Electric and Gas Light Company was incorporated to provide public lighting and power, a year absorbed the Winnipeg Gas Company. In 1893, the Winnipeg Electric Street Railway Company was formed, purchased power from Manitoba Electric and Gas, but by 1898, it had built its own 1000-horsepower generating plant and purchased Manitoba Electric and Gas; the first hydroelectric plant in Manitoba operated north of Brandon from 1901 to 1924. Private investors built a 261-foot earth-fill dam across the Minnedosa River about a kilometer from its junction with the Assiniboine River; the plant only operated part of the year, with the load carried in the winter months by steam generators. An 11-kV wood-pole transmission line connected the station with the town of Manitoba; the dam washed out in 1948 but remains are still visible. A second plant was built by private investors near Minnedosa in 1912 but low water levels meant that it only operated intermittently.
In 1920 the plant was replaced by a diesel station owned by the Manitoba Power Commission. The dam still exists today at Minnedosa Lake. By 1906, Winnipeg Electric Street Railway had constructed a hydroelectric plant on the Winnipeg River near Pinawa, seventy miles of 60-kV transmission line; this plant operated year-round until 1951, when it was shut down to allow improved water flow to other Winnipeg River stations. Its remains are still preserved as a provincial park. Since the investor-owned Winnipeg Electric Street Railway was charging twenty cents per kilowatt-hour, the City of Winnipeg founded its own utility in 1906, developed a generating station at Pointe du Bois on the Winnipeg River. In reaction to this, Winnipeg Electric Street Railway dropped prices to ten cents per kilowatt-hour, but the City-owned utility set a price of 3.5 cents per kilowatt-hour which held for many decades. In 1916, the Province established the Manitoba Power Commission with the object of bringing electric power to communities outside of Winnipeg.
Winnipeg Hydro, Winnipeg Electric Street Railway Company and the Manitoba Hydro Commission all built extensive hydroelectric generating facilities on the Winnipeg River during the period 1916 through 1928. The Great Depression starting in 1929 put an end to rapid growth until after World War II; the City of Winnipeg utility built coal-fired steam generators in 1924 on Amy Street, which were used for district heating of downtown buildings. During World War Two, electric boilers at Amy Street used surplus hydroelectric power to economize on coal consumption; the City utility implemented load management on electric water heaters, which allowed them to be turned off during the day and during peak load periods. In 1949 the Province set up the Manitoba Hydro Electric Board. In 1953 the MHEB acquired the assets of the Winnipeg Electric Street Railway; the MHEB was tasked with bringing electric power to the rural parts of Manitoba, a task which took until around 1956 to complete. By 1955 there were three utilities in the province: Manitoba Power Commission Manitoba Hydro Electric Board Winnipeg Hydro Electric System.
Two thermal stations were built at Brandon and Selkirk starting in 1958. These units were intended to operate during low-water years, burned lignite coal. In 1957, the first transmission line between Manitoba and North-West Ontario was installed. In 1960, a 138-kV connection to Saskatchewan Power Corporation was completed, it was uprated to 230 kV; the Manitoba Power Commission and Manitoba Hydro Electric Board merged in 1961 to form Manitoba Hydro. One of the earlier wholesale accounts to be transferred to Manitoba Hydro in 1956 was the village of Emerson, served up to that point by a cross-border tie to the Otter Tail Power system at Noyes; the last of the private mine-owned utility systems at Flin Flon was purchased by Manitoba Hydro in 1973. The early 1970s marked the installation of tie lines between Manitoba Hydro and utilities in Ontario and Minnesota; the interconnection with the American utilities were used to obtain firm power of 90 MW for the winter of 1970. In the period 1974 to 1976, Manitoba Hydro was still stu
The oat, sometimes called the common oat, is a species of cereal grain grown for its seed, known by the same name. While oats are suitable for human consumption as oatmeal and rolled oats, one of the most common uses is as livestock feed. Oats are a nutrient-rich food associated with lower blood cholesterol. Avenins present in oats can trigger celiac disease in a small proportion of people. Oat products are contaminated by other gluten-containing grains wheat and barley; the wild ancestor of Avena sativa and the related minor crop, A. byzantina, is the hexaploid wild oat, A. sterilis. Genetic evidence shows the ancestral forms of A. sterilis grew in the Fertile Crescent of the Near East. Oats are considered a secondary crop, i.e. derived from a weed of the primary cereal domesticates spreading westward into cooler, wetter areas favorable for oats leading to their domestication in regions of the Middle East and Europe. Oats are best grown in temperate regions, they have a lower summer heat requirement and greater tolerance of rain than other cereals, such as wheat, rye or barley, so they are important in areas with cool, wet summers, such as Northwest Europe and Iceland.
Oats are an annual plant, can be planted either in autumn or in the spring. In 2016, global production of oats was 23 million tonnes, led by the European Union with 35% of the world total, followed by Russia with 21% of the total, Canada with 13% of the total. Other substantial producers were Poland and Finland, each with over one million tonnes. Oats have numerous uses in foods. Oatmeal is chiefly eaten as porridge, but may be used in a variety of baked goods, such as oatcakes, oatmeal cookies and oat bread. Oats are an ingredient in many cold cereals, in particular muesli and granola. Historical attitudes towards oats have varied. Oat bread was first manufactured in Britain, where the first oat bread factory was established in 1899. In Scotland, they were, still are, held in high esteem, as a mainstay of the national diet. In Scotland, a dish was made by soaking the husks from oats for a week, so the fine, floury part of the meal remained as sediment to be strained off and eaten. Oats are widely used there as a thickener in soups, as barley or rice might be used in other countries.
Oats are commonly used as feed for horses when extra carbohydrates and the subsequent boost in energy are required. The oat hull may be crushed for the horse to more digest the grain, or may be fed whole, they may be given alone or as part of a blended food pellet. Cattle are fed oats, either whole or ground into a coarse flour using a roller mill, burr mill, or hammer mill. Oat forage is used to feed all kinds of ruminants, as pasture, hay or silage. Winter oats may be grown as an off-season groundcover and ploughed under in the spring as a green fertilizer, or harvested in early summer, they can be used for pasture. Oat straw is prized by cattle and horse producers as bedding, due to its soft dust-free, absorbent nature; the straw can be used for making corn dollies. Tied in a muslin bag, oat straw was used to soften bath water. Oats are occasionally used in several different drinks. In Britain, they are sometimes used for brewing beer. Oatmeal stout is one variety brewed using a percentage of oats for the wort.
The more used oat malt is produced by the Thomas Fawcett & Sons Maltings and was used in the Maclay Oat Malt Stout before Maclays Brewery ceased independent brewing operations. A cold, sweet drink called avena made of ground oats and milk is a popular refreshment throughout Latin America. Oatmeal caudle, made of ale and oatmeal with spices, was a traditional British drink and a favourite of Oliver Cromwell. Oat extracts can be used to soothe skin conditions, are popular for their emollient properties in cosmetics. Oat grass has been used traditionally for medicinal purposes, including to help balance the menstrual cycle, treat dysmenorrhoea and for osteoporosis and urinary tract infections. In China in western Inner Mongolia and Shanxi province, oat flour called youmian is processed into noodles or thin-walled rolls, is consumed as staple food. Oats are considered healthful due to their rich content of several essential nutrients. In a 100 gram serving, oats provide 389 kilocalories and are an excellent source of protein, dietary fiber, several B vitamins and numerous dietary minerals manganese.
Oats are 66 % carbohydrates, including 4 % beta-glucans, 7 % fat and 17 % protein. The established property of their cholesterol-lowering effects has led to acceptance of oats as a health food. Oat bran is the outer casing of the oat, its daily consumption over weeks lowers LDL and total cholesterol reducing the risk of heart disease. One type of soluble fiber, beta-glucans, has been proven to lower cholesterol. After reports of research finding that dietary oats can help lower cholesterol, the United States Food and Drug Administration issued a final rule that allows food companies to make health claims on food labels of foods that contain soluble fiber from whole oats, noting that 3
Alberta is a western province of Canada. With an estimated population of 4,067,175 as of 2016 census, it is Canada's fourth most populous province and the most populous of Canada's three prairie provinces, its area is about 660,000 square kilometres. Alberta and its neighbour Saskatchewan were districts of the Northwest Territories until they were established as provinces on September 1, 1905; the premier has been Rachel Notley since May 2015. Alberta is bounded by the provinces of British Columbia to the west and Saskatchewan to the east, the Northwest Territories to the north, the U. S. state of Montana to the south. Alberta is one of three Canadian provinces and territories to border only a single U. S. state and one of only two landlocked provinces. It has a predominantly humid continental climate, with stark contrasts over a year. Alberta's capital, Edmonton, is near the geographic centre of the province and is the primary supply and service hub for Canada's crude oil, the Athabasca oil sands and other northern resource industries.
About 290 km south of the capital is the largest city in Alberta. Calgary and Edmonton centre Alberta's two census metropolitan areas, both of which have populations exceeding one million, while the province has 16 census agglomerations. Tourist destinations in the province include Banff, Drumheller, Sylvan Lake and Lake Louise. Alberta is named after the fourth daughter of Queen Victoria. Princess Louise was the wife of Marquess of Lorne, Governor General of Canada. Lake Louise and Mount Alberta were named in her honour. Alberta, with an area of 661,848 km2, is the fourth-largest province after Quebec and British Columbia. To the south, the province borders on the 49th parallel north, separating it from the U. S. state of Montana, while to the north the 60th parallel north divides it from the Northwest Territories. To the east, the 110th meridian west separates it from the province of Saskatchewan, while on the west its boundary with British Columbia follows the 120th meridian west south from the Northwest Territories at 60°N until it reaches the Continental Divide at the Rocky Mountains, from that point follows the line of peaks marking the Continental Divide in a southeasterly direction until it reaches the Montana border at 49°N.
The province extends 660 km east to west at its maximum width. Its highest point is 3,747 m at the summit of Mount Columbia in the Rocky Mountains along the southwest border while its lowest point is 152 m on the Slave River in Wood Buffalo National Park in the northeast. With the exception of the semi-arid steppe of the south-eastern section, the province has adequate water resources. There are numerous lakes used for swimming, fishing and a range of water sports. There are three large lakes, Lake Claire in Wood Buffalo National Park, Lesser Slave Lake, Lake Athabasca which lies in both Alberta and Saskatchewan; the longest river in the province is the Athabasca River which travels 1,538 km from the Columbia Icefield in the Rocky Mountains to Lake Athabasca. The largest river is the Peace River with an average flow of 2161 m3/s; the Peace River originates in the Rocky Mountains of northern British Columbia and flows through northern Alberta and into the Slave River, a tributary of the Mackenzie River.
Alberta's capital city, Edmonton, is located at about the geographic centre of the province. It is the most northerly major city in Canada, serves as a gateway and hub for resource development in northern Canada; the region, with its proximity to Canada's largest oil fields, has most of western Canada's oil refinery capacity. Calgary is about 280 km south of Edmonton and 240 km north of Montana, surrounded by extensive ranching country. 75% of the province's population lives in the Calgary–Edmonton Corridor. The land grant policy to the railroads served as a means to populate the province in its early years. Most of the northern half of the province is boreal forest, while the Rocky Mountains along the southwestern boundary are forested; the southern quarter of the province is prairie, ranging from shortgrass prairie in the southeastern corner to mixed grass prairie in an arc to the west and north of it. The central aspen parkland region extending in a broad arc between the prairies and the forests, from Calgary, north to Edmonton, east to Lloydminster, contains the most fertile soil in the province and most of the population.
Much of the unforested part of Alberta is given over either to grain or to dairy farming, with mixed farming more common in the north and centre, while ranching and irrigated agriculture predominate in the south. The Alberta badlands are located in southeastern Alberta, where the Red Deer River crosses the flat prairie and farmland, features deep canyons and striking landforms. Dinosaur Provincial Park, near Brooks, showcases the badlands terrain, desert flora, remnants from Alberta's past when dinosaurs roamed the lush landscape. Alberta has a humid continental climate with cold winters; the province is open to cold arctic weather systems from the north, which produce cold conditions in winter. As the fronts between the air masses shift north and south across Alberta, the temperature can change rapidly. Arctic
The food industry is a complex, global collective of diverse businesses that supplies most of the food consumed by the world's population. Only subsistence farmers, those who survive on what they grow, hunter-gatherers can be considered outside the scope of the modern food industry; the food Industry includes: Agriculture: raising crops and seafood Manufacturing: agrichemicals, agricultural construction, farm machinery and supplies, etc. Food processing: preparation of fresh products for market, manufacture of prepared food products Marketing: promotion of generic products, new products, marketing campaigns, public relations, etc. Wholesale and food distribution: logistics, warehousing Foodservice Grocery, farmers' markets, public markets and other retailing Regulation: local, regional and international rules and regulations for food production and sale, including food quality, food security, food safety, marketing/advertising, industry lobbying activities Education: academic, vocational Research and development: food technology Financial services: credit, insurance It is challenging to find an inclusive way to cover all aspects of food production and sale.
The UK Food Standards Agency describes it thus: "...the whole food industry – from farming and food production and distribution, to retail and catering."The Economic Research Service of the USDA uses the term food system to describe the same thing: "The U. S. food system is a complex network of the industries that link to them. Those links include makers of farm equipment and chemicals as well as firms that provide services to agribusinesses, such as providers of transportation and financial services; the system includes the food marketing industries that link farms to consumers, which include food and fiber processors, wholesalers and foodservice establishments."The term food industries covers a series of industrial activities directed at the processing, preparation and packaging of foodstuffs. The food industry today has become diversified, with manufacturing ranging from small, family-run activities that are labor intensive, to large, capital-intensive and mechanized industrial processes.
Many food industries depend entirely on local agriculture or fishing. Agriculture is the process of producing food, feeding products and other desired products by the cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated animals; the practice of agriculture is known as "farming". Scientists and others devoted to improving farming methods and implements are said to be engaged in agriculture. 1 in 3 people worldwide are employed in agriculture, yet it only contributes 3% to global GDP. Agronomy is the science and technology of producing and using plants for food, fuel and land reclamation. Agronomy encompasses work in the areas of plant genetics, plant physiology and soil science. Agronomy is the application of a combination of sciences. Agronomists today are involved with many issues including producing food, creating healthier food, managing environmental impact of agriculture, extracting energy from plants. Food processing includes the methods and techniques used to transform raw ingredients into food for human consumption.
Food processing takes clean, harvested or slaughtered and butchered components and uses them to produce marketable food products. There are several different ways. One-off production: This method is used when customers make an order for something to be made to their own specifications, for example a wedding cake; the making of one-off products could take days depending on. Batch production: This method is used when the size of the market for a product is not clear, where there is a range within a product line. A certain number of the same goods will be produced to make up a batch or run, for example a bakery may bake a limited number of cupcakes; this method involves estimating consumer demand. Mass production: This method is used when there is a mass market for a large number of identical products, for example chocolate bars, ready meals and canned food; the product passes from one stage of production to another along a production line. Just-in-time: This method of production is used in restaurants.
All components of the product are available in-house and the customer chooses what they want in the product. It is prepared in a kitchen, or in front of the buyer as in sandwich delicatessens and sushi bars; the food industry has a large influence on consumerism. Organizations, such as The American Academy of Family Physicians, have been criticized for accepting monetary donations from companies within the food industry, such as Coca-Cola; these donations have been criticized for creating a conflict of interest and favoring an interest such as financial gains. Since World War II, agriculture in the United States and the entire national food system in its entirety has been characterized by models that focus on monetary profitability at the expense of social and environmental integrity. Regulations exist to protect consumers and somewhat balance this economic orientation with public interests for food quality, food security, food safety, animal well-being, environmental protection and health. A vast global cargo network connects the numerous parts of the industry.
These include suppliers, warehousers and the end consumers. Wholesale markets for fresh food products have tended to decline in importance in urbanizing countries, including Latin America and some Asian countries a
Richardson Building (Winnipeg)
The Richardson Building is a 34-storey office tower at the intersection of Portage and Main in Winnipeg, Canada. The current Richardson building is the second attempt at building a headquarters for James Richardson & Sons, Limited at Portage and Main; the original building was planned to cost $3 million. Demolition had just begun. Plans for the building were postponed and the lot was unused for nearly forty years. On 23 February 1967, James Richardson and Sons re-announced that they would build a headquarters at Portage and Main. Designed by Smith Carter Searle and Associates, with Skidmore and Merrill as consulting architects, it was completed in 1969 and still serves as the headquarters of James Richardson & Sons, Limited; the thirty-four storey building stands one hundred twenty-four metres tall, making it the second tallest building in Winnipeg. It is dressed in solar bronze double-glazed glass; the building forms the anchor of the Lombard Place development, is connected to Winnipeg Square shopping mall via the Portage and Main Concourse.
Through 2010 and 2011, the shopping concourse below the building was renovated as part of a larger $10-million project that included work the former Bank of Canada Building at 161 Portage Ave and the Lombard Avenue parkade. The renovation included new granite flooring, new wall and ceiling coverings and a new conference centre; the renovation came two years after a $3-million renovation of Winnipeg Square, an adjoining underground shopping centre. In 2011, the CBC moved its digital television transmitters for CBWT-DT and CBWFT-DT to the Richardson Building, on a new antenna that raised the pinnacle of the building to 151.8 metres, once again making it the tallest structure in Winnipeg. List of tallest buildings in Winnipeg Construction Photos on University of Manitoba's building index Richardson Building at Emporis buildings
Great-West Lifeco is an insurance centered financial holding company that operates in North America and Asia through 5 wholly owned, regionally focused subsidiaries. Many of the companies it has indirect control over are part of its largest subsidiary The Great-West Life Assurance Company. Great-West Lifeco is indirectly controlled by Montreal billionaire Paul Desmarais through his stake in the Power Corporation of Canada which owns 72% of Great-West Lifeco. In the first half of 2011 premium income made up 63.99% of total revenue up from 56.07%. The hyphen in the company's name was a typesetter's error. For the three months ended June 2013, 63% of revenue originated in Canada, 26% from the US, 10% from Europe. Group retirement products and 401k markets remain key areas of growth for the company. Lower UK wealth management single premiums negatively affected growth. Boston-based Putnam Investments accounts for nearly a quarter of all assets under administration. Half of company profit comes from Canada, a third from Europe and the rest of the United States.
In the third quarter of 2010 British sales outpaced all other regions with 45% growth followed by the USA financial services business. In 2009 100% owned subsidiary London Life ranked 14th among Canada's largest private companies; the earliest roots of any of the companies under its management were set in 1847 Hamilton, Ontario by subsidiary Canada Life. Its second oldest company London Life was founded in 1874 and taken over by Great-West in 1997, one year after it purchased the Canadian operations of the Prudential Insurance Company of America The original name of Canada Life included the word Assurance in place of insurance, something, more common among British companies; when created in 1890-1891, thirty-one of the 40 insurance companies in Canada were foreign-owned and none of the Canadian-based ones were managed from Western Canada. Great-West's founder started the company as an attempt to raise capital needed locally to develop farm land and retail businesses. Great-West's first president was Winnipeg mayor Alexander Macdonald who took on that role in 1892.
Its first death claim was in 1893 for $1000, in 1912 two Titanic policyholders were covered. In 1906 Great-West entered the American market starting in Fargo, North Dakota, followed by Michigan and Minnesota in 1920 and Indiana, Ohio, Kansas and Pennsylvania in the early 1940s. Within its first decade it entered Eastern Canada, had market exposure in every Canadian province and became one the industry's leading companies in terms of growth and size. Brock was forced to leave Great-West in 1912, three years before he died, he was succeeded as CEO by C. C. Ferguson in 1915. During the next twenty years the company's finances were negatively affected by World War I, the 1918 flu epidemic and the great depression but its market position remained strong; the company was diversified, with investments spread amongst mortgages and government bonds. Great-West's early success in Western Canada was due in part to high insurance rates and a lack of financing available to farmers. In 1979, US and Canadian operations became separate due to rapid US growth.
In 1969 Great-West was purchased by Power Corporation. In 1982, Great-West began offering a universal life policy which differed from those offered by competitors. Two years in 1984, the Power Financial Corporation was created to be a holding company for Great-West and its numerous businesses. Great-West Lifeco began an acquisitions spree on February 17, 2003 when it purchased Canada Life Financial for US$4.7 billion followed by Indiana Health Network incIHN three years in 2006 and Putnam Investment Trust on August 3, 2007 for $3.9 billion. On April 1, 2008 subsidiary Great-West Life & Annuity Insurance Company sold Denver based Great-West Healthcare to CIGNA for about US$1.9 billion. With the transaction Great-West Lifeco lost about 1.9 million customers. Other acquisitions include the 2006 takeover of US Bancorp's retirement plans business which added $104 billion in assets at the time and more retirement plans the same year but from MetLife. July 18, 2013 - Canadian subsidiary Canada Life Limited completed the takeover of Irish Life Assurance.
Jeffry Hall Brock born in Guelph, Ontario received his education at Montreal's McGill College. Prior to Great-West he was a salesman in St. Louis and worked for R. G. Dunn & Company of New York followed by Ogilvie & Company. In 1876 he married the daughter of a priest, he helped start W. R. Brock & Brother, he established the Great-West Company in the first insurance company in Western Canada. Great West Life & Annuity Insurance Company - provides individuals and businesses in all of the USA's states with life insurance, retirement benefits and annuities distributed by its own brokers and institutions; this division began operations in the USA on May 28, 1997. Empower Retirement is a r