Seattle, Lake Shore and Eastern Railway
The Seattle, Lake Shore and Eastern Railway was a railroad founded in Seattle, Washington, on April 28, 1885, with three tiers of purposes: Build and run the initial line to the town of Ballard, bring immediate results and returns to investors. The historical accomplishment of the line was Seattle to Sumas at the border, with British Columbia, connecting with the Canadian Pacific transcontinental at the border at Huntingdon, British Columbia, now part of the City of Abbotsford. In addition to the historical accomplishment, the SLS&E built and ran branches from Seattle through Bothell, on to Woodinville, to Sallal Prairie. Toward the latter end, one goal was creating a rail connection to North Dakota via Wallula, an outpost on the Columbia River in the early decades of railroad booms, near the present Tri-Cities. Local historian William Speidel reported that Henry Villard, tycoon of the Northern Pacific Railway, had the federal rights and had the line through Wallula built; the SLS&E was first incorporated to build a line from the Seattle harbor in old Downtown, along Elliott Bay to the lumber and fishing town of Ballard.
Railroading in Seattle paralleled development and early hopes for the future. Like communications networks today, 19th century railroading represented more than track and trade. Romantic and practical potential wooed communities across the West, much as Web commerce and bandwidth today. Travel between America's coasts had taken months, whether overland by wagon or by sailing ship or steamer around Cape Horn, until the Union Pacific reached San Francisco in 1869 and the Northern Pacific opened to Tacoma in 1887; the SLS&E was conceived and financed by Seattle business interests in response to Villard of the NP selecting Seattle's intense rival Tacoma as its transcontinental western terminus. The original scheme for the SLS&E was connecting with an intercontinental railroad somewhere, while building north and east from Seattle. By the late 1880s, the SLS&E needed more capital for ongoing construction toward Sumas and an extension toward Spokane; the Seattle & Eastern Construction Company was formed with many of the same investors as the SLS&E.
Construction of the eastern line began in Spokane. By the end of 1889, construction ended, having only reached Sallal Prairie, some miles past North Bend and 63 miles from the Seattle station on Western Avenue at Columbia Street. In 1890, the plans were amended to focus on connecting Seattle to the Canadian Pacific Railway at Sumas on the border. Local historian William Speidel observed that, At best, insider boosters had hoped they might get as far as Denny's Iron Mountain in Snoqualmie Pass. While the SLS&E was designed to connect with one of the other transcontinentals, its primary purpose lay in 19th-century industrial development exploiting the city's hinterland: the fast-disappearing easy timber primarily coal and iron. A theory, which became profitable in fact, was that commuter trains could run along the SLS&E track, be only twenty scenic minutes away from the center of the city. Since, every suburb around the perimeter of the city has been advertised as only "twenty scenic minutes away from downtown."
The Seattle, Lake Shore and Eastern Railroad was a pretty weak reed for Seattle to cling to. City boosters blew a lot of money on that railroad and when they were through, it had only been built as far east as Rattlesnake Prairie above Snoqualmie Falls and as for north as Arlington, but it was the only hope that Seattle-New York Alki held out for a connection with a transcontinental system. On the other hand, the side benefits of the SLS&E enabled boosters to hit the jackpot with the Great Northern; the verso of a promotional print celebrating an opening excursion of the SLS&E stated, The Seattle Lake Shore and Eastern Railroad company was organized April 15, 1885 and was financed by local men and Jamieson and Cotting of New York. The first division of the road was to Issaquah; the first depot of the road was built at the foot of Columbia Street, but as space for trackage and terminals was too limited, the city created Railroad Avenue, 120 feet wide. The city gave the new road thirty feet of the Avenue for trackage and offered the Northern Pacific an equal amount, not accepted.
Construction was soon started from forty miles of road built. Startled by the success of this competing line, the Northern Pacific purchased control and abandoned its fight against Seattle in 1890; the SLS&E accomplished 126.30 miles Seattle to Sumas at the Canada–US border, connecting with the Canadian Pacific transcontinental, late 1880s-1892. "ll along the line the road's construction caused a tremendous stir... logging camps, mills and towns sprang into existence as if
Russia the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres, Russia is by far or by a considerable margin the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, the ninth most populous, with about 146.77 million people as of 2019, including Crimea. About 77 % of the population live in the European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is one of the largest cities in the world and the second largest city in Europe. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Estonia, Latvia and Poland, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, China and North Korea, it shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U. S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.
The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' disintegrated into a number of smaller states; the Grand Duchy of Moscow reunified the surrounding Russian principalities and achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had expanded through conquest and exploration to become the Russian Empire, the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state; the Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Lithuania, it is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. Russia's economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2018. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally; the country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.
Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Trade Organization, as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Collective Security Treaty Organization and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union, along with Armenia, Belarus and Kyrgyzstan; the name Russia is derived from Rus', a medieval state populated by the East Slavs. However, this proper name became more prominent in the history, the country was called by its inhabitants "Русская Земля", which can be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'". In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus' by modern historiography.
The name Rus itself comes from the early medieval Rus' people, Swedish merchants and warriors who relocated from across the Baltic Sea and founded a state centered on Novgorod that became Kievan Rus. An old Latin version of the name Rus' was Ruthenia applied to the western and southern regions of Rus' that were adjacent to Catholic Europe; the current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Rus', Ρωσσία Rossía—spelled Ρωσία in Modern Greek. The standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are commonly
Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway
The Atchison and Santa Fe Railway referred to as the Santa Fe or AT&SF, was one of the larger railroads in the United States. Chartered in February 1859, the railroad reached the Kansas-Colorado border in 1873 and Pueblo, Colorado, in 1876. To create a demand for its services, the railroad set up real estate offices and sold farm land from the land grants that it was awarded by Congress. Despite the name, its main line never served New Mexico, as the terrain was too difficult; the Santa Fe was a pioneer in intermodal freight transport, an enterprise that included a tugboat fleet and an airline. Its bus line extended passenger transportation to areas not accessible by rail, ferryboats on the San Francisco Bay allowed travelers to complete their westward journeys to the Pacific Ocean; the AT&SF was the subject of a popular song, Harry Warren and Johnny Mercer's "On the Atchison and the Santa Fe", written for the film, The Harvey Girls. The railroad ceased operations on December 31, 1996, when it merged with the Burlington Northern Railroad to form the Burlington Northern and Santa Fe Railway.
The Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway was chartered on February 11, 1859, to join Atchison and Topeka, with Santa Fe, New Mexico. In its early years, the railroad opened Kansas to settlement. Much of its revenue came from wheat grown there and from cattle driven north from Texas to Wichita and Dodge City by September 1872. Rather than turn its survey southward at Dodge City, AT&SF headed southwest over Raton Pass because of coal deposits near Trinidad and Raton, New Mexico; the Denver & Rio Grande Railroad was aiming at Raton Pass, but AT&SF crews arose early one morning in 1878 and were hard at work with picks and shovels when the D&RGW crews showed up for breakfast. At the same time the two railroads had a series of skirmishes over occupancy of the Royal Gorge west of Cañon City, Colorado. Federal intervention prompted an out-of-court settlement on February 2, 1880, in the form of the so-called "Treaty of Boston", wherein D&RG was allowed to complete its line and lease it for use by Santa Fe.
D&RG paid an estimated $1.4 million to Santa Fe for its work within the Gorge and agreed not to extend its line to Santa Fe, while Santa Fe agreed to forego its planned routes to Denver and Leadville. Building across Kansas and eastern Colorado was simple, with few natural obstacles, but the railroad found it economically impossible because of the sparse population, it set up real estate offices in the area and promoted settlement across Kansas on the land, granted to it by Congress in 1863. It offered discounted fares to anyone. AT&SF reached Albuquerque in 1880. In March 1881 AT&SF connected with the Southern Pacific at Deming, New Mexico, forming the second transcontinental rail route; the railroad built southwest from Benson, Arizona, to Nogales on the Mexican border where it connected with the Sonora Railway, which the AT&SF had built north from the Mexican port of Guaymas. AT&SF purchased the Southern California Railway on Jan. 17, 1906. The Atlantic & Pacific Railroad was chartered in 1866 to build west from Springfield, along the 35th parallel of latitude to a junction with SP at the Colorado River.
The infant A&P had no rail connections. The line, to become the St. Louis–San Francisco Railway would not reach Springfield for another four years, SP did not build east from Mojave to the Colorado River until 1883. A&P started construction in 1868, built southwest into what would become Oklahoma, promptly entered receivership. In 1879 A&P struck a deal with the Santa Frisco railroads to construct a rail line for each; the railroads would jointly own the A&P railroad west of Albuquerque. In 1883 A&P reached Needles, where it connected with an SP line. A&P built a line between Tulsa, Oklahoma and St. Louis, Missouri for the Frisco, but the Tulsa-Albuquerque portion remained unbuilt; the Santa Fe began to expand: a line from Barstow, California, to San Diego in 1885 and to Los Angeles in 1887. By January 1890, the entire system consisted of some 7,500 miles of track; the Panic of 1893 had the same effect on the AT&SF. In 1895 AT&SF sold the Frisco and the Colorado Midland and wrote off the losses, but it still retained control of the A&P.
The Santa Fe Railway still wanted to reach California on its own rails, the state of California eagerly courted the railroad to break SP's monopoly. In 1897 the railroad traded the Sonora Railway of Mexico to SP for their line between Needles and Barstow, giving AT&SF its own line from Chicago to the Pac
VR is a government-owned railway company in Finland. VR's most important function is the operation of Finland's passenger rail services with 250 long-distance and 800 commuter rail services every day. By 7,500 employees and net sales of 1,251 million euros in 2017 VR is one of the most significant operators in the Finnish public transport market area. VR was created in 1995 after known as Suomen Valtion Rautatiet from 1862 to 1922 and Valtionrautatiet/Statsjärnvägarna from 1922 to 1995; as part of the concern, Avecra is a subsidiary for onboard catering service, Pohjolan Liikenne for bus traffic, VR Track for developing and maintaining of infrastructure and VR Transpoint for freight. Since 2017, its headquarters is located at the Iso Paja building occupied by the state-owned broadcasting company Yleisradio, in northern-central Helsinki. Rail transport started in Finland in 1862 between Helsinki and Hämeenlinna, multiple main lines and smaller private railways were built in the following decades.
VR operated on the high-demand main lines. During the twentieth century, most private railway companies were shut down and VR assumed a monopoly in rail transport. In 1995 the company was privatised into VR Group. Since 2010, the maintenance and the construction of the railway network have been the responsibility of the Finnish Transport Agency; the operation and network were carried out by the parent company Valtionrautatiet until 1995, when it was split into VR and the rail administration entity Ratahallintokeskus. Companies in the group provide road freight and bus services and real estate management, provide data and telecommunications services for the transport and logistics sectors; the group owns a bus company, Pohjolan Liikenne, a road freight haulage company VR Transpoint. Altogether the group of companies includes 21 companies employing a total of about 14,400 people; because in most parts of Finland the density of population is low, Finland is not optimally suited for railways. Commuter services are nowadays rare outside the Helsinki area, but express trains interconnect most cities.
As in France, the majority of passenger services are connections to Helsinki. In 2010s, VR has maken connections faster by reducing stops at minor stations and increasing running speeds with new locomotives and renovated high-speed trains. VR provides car transport services. Seven stations allow loading and unloading of cars on trains: Helsinki and Tampere in the south, Oulu further north, Rovaniemi, Kemijärvi and Kolari in Lapland. Car transport trains stop at other stations along the way for normal passenger transport and is available as daily service to Rovaniemi and Kemijärvi and several times a week to Kolari. Finland is the only Nordic country to offer car transport on trains, car transport on trains is available on many European countries outside the Nordic countries. VR operates the commuter traffic in the Helsinki area on behalf of HSL. There is an international passenger rail service from Finland to Russia; as of June 2011, there are four Allegro passenger trains per day to Saint Petersburg and one overnight train to Moscow via Saint Petersburg called the Tolstoi.
The tracks on the Helsinki – Saint Petersburg line were upgraded to enable a higher running speed up to 220 km/h before the Allegro started its service. Domestic and international freight services are provided by VR Transpoint, part of VR. In 2009, both domestic and international freight traffic declined, which worsened VR's financial position. International freight traffic is concentrated to the four railways across the Russian border but there is a connection to the Swedish rail network in Tornio. Rail ferry connections from Turku to Stockholm, to Travemünde, Germany has existed. VR operated steam locomotives until 1975. Although the regular use of steam traction for scheduled passenger services ended in 1970, occasional use continued until 1975; as of 2011, the company operates two classes of electric locomotives and three classes of diesel locomotives. The use of diesel locomotive hauled passenger trains has declined due to electrification of all main lines and the introduction of railbuses on secondary routes.
In October 2010, VR announced plans to renew its locomotive fleet by ordering around 200 new locomotives, which are expected to enter service in 2015–25. On 20 December 2013, VR announced plans to purchase 80 new electric locomotives, with 97 options; this upcoming Sr3 will replace the aging Sr1's. The locomotives will be fitted with helper diesel engines that can be used for shunting in unelectrified railyards. Deliveries will occur between 2017 and 2026. At the beginning of traffic, locomotives were distinguished by their names, by 1865 by their numbers. In 1887, the locomotives were given their original classification system, it was based on the wheel arrangement of the locomotives: each wheel arrangement was assigned a letter of the alphabet, followed by a serial number. The assignment of letters to different wheel arrangements was made when the first locomotive using it was brought into service. On 8 October 1942, the notation system was changed to a serial number; the first letter in the designation now signified the types of trains the locomotive was planned to haul: H for passenger trains, P for local trains, T for freight trains, S for mixed freig
The Roanoke Shops is a Norfolk Southern workshop and maintenance facility in Roanoke, Virginia. Between 1884 and 1953, the shops produced all for the Norfolk and Western; the Roanoke Locomotive Shops famous known steam locomotives preserved were Norfolk and Western 611, a N&W Class J 4-8-4 "Northern" built in 1950, Norfolk and Western 1218, an articulated N&W Class A 2-6-6-4 built in 1943, Norfolk and Western 2156, an articulated Class Y6A 2-8-8-2 built in 1942. Before the shops were being built, Roanoke had been the sleepy farming community of Big Lick and a small stop on the Atlantic and Ohio Railroad; that changed in February 1881 when the owners of the Shenandoah Valley Railroad, building up the valley, purchased the AM&O, renamed it the Norfolk and Western, selected Big Lick as the new junction. In 1882, the town grew as the new center of the combined railroads and changed its name to Roanoke, becoming a city in just a short time. In October 1881, the Roanoke Machine Works was founded, a set of shops that would grow to massive size and become the major employer in the Roanoke Valley for a century.
The shops came under the control of the N&W in 1883, the following year the shops began building locomotives. Over the next nine years, the facility built 152 locomotives, all for the N&W suspended production. Antoine Sauter was one of its foremen. Production resumed in 1900 at the facility, renamed the Roanoke Shops in 1897. Over the next 53 years, the shops built 295 locomotives. From 1927 to 1952, the shops built every steam locomotive acquired by the N&W. During the 1930s, they employed over 6,000 workers, who were working on four steam locomotives and 20 freight cars on any given day. Products included locomotives of all sizes and of better technology, from switching engines to the famed streamlined J-class passenger locomotives, the huge, articulated Y5 and Y6-classes for low-speed coal drags, the A-class for fast freight service. In late 1953, the shop built its last locomotive, the S1a-class No. 244, the last steam locomotive manufactured in the United States for domestic use. After the N&W stopped using steam locomotives in May 1960, J-class No. 611 and A-class No. 1218 were used to pull excursion trains from the early 1980s until the early 1990s.
No. 1218 is now on display near its birthplace in a specially constructed pavilion at the Virginia Museum of Transportation in downtown Roanoke. No. 611 has been restored to operating condition for excursion service again in 2015. McKinney, Roanoke Locomotive Shops and the Norfolk & Western Railroad, Arcadia Publishing, ISBN 978-1-4671-2111-8
American Locomotive Company
The American Locomotive Company shortened to ALCO, ALCo or Alco, designed and sold steam locomotives, diesel-electric locomotives, diesel engines and generators, specialized forgings, high quality steel, armed tanks and automobiles and produced nuclear energy. The American Locomotive Company was formed in 1901 by the merger of Schenectady Locomotive Engine Manufactory of Schenectady, New York, with seven smaller locomotive manufacturers; the American Locomotive Automobile Company subsidiary designed and manufactured automobiles under the Alco brand from 1905 to 1913 and produced nuclear energy from 1954 to 1962. The company changed its name to Alco Products, Incorporated in 1955. In 1964 the Worthington Corporation acquired the company; the company went out of business in 1969. The company was created in 1901 from the merger of seven smaller locomotive manufacturers with Schenectady Locomotive Engine Manufactory of Schenectady, New York: Brooks Locomotive Works in Dunkirk, New York Cooke Locomotive and Machine Works in Paterson, New Jersey Dickson Manufacturing Company in Scranton, Pennsylvania Manchester Locomotive Works in Manchester, New Hampshire Pittsburgh Locomotive and Car Works in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Rhode Island Locomotive Works in Providence, Rhode Island Richmond Locomotive Works in Richmond, VirginiaThe newly formed company was headquartered in Schenectady, New York.
Samuel R. Callaway left the presidency of the New York Central Railroad to become president of Alco; when Callaway died on June 1, 1904, Albert J. Pitkin succeeded him as president of Alco. In 1904, the American Locomotive Company acquired control of the Locomotive and Machine Company of Montreal, Canada. In 1905, Alco purchased Rogers Locomotive Works of Paterson, New Jersey, the second largest locomotive manufacturer in the United States behind Baldwin Locomotive Works. In the post World War II period, Alco operated manufacturing plants only in Schenectady and Montreal, having closed all the others. After the American Locomotive Company ceased locomotive manufacturing in the United States in 1969, Montreal Locomotive Works continued to manufacture locomotives based on Alco designs. Alco was the second-largest steam locomotive builder in the United States, producing over 75,000 locomotives. Among these were a large number of well-known locomotives. Railroads that favored Alco products included the Delaware & Hudson Railway, the New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, the New York Central Railroad, the Union Pacific Railroad and the Milwaukee Road.
Alco was known for its steam locomotives of which the 4-6-4 Hudson, 4-8-2 Mohawk and the 4-8-4 Niagara built for the New York Central and the 4-8-4 FEF and the 4-6-6-4 built for the Union Pacific were fine examples. Alco built many of the biggest locomotives constructed, including Union Pacific's Big Boy. Alco built the fastest American locomotives, the Class A Atlantic and Class F7 Hudson streamliners for the Milwaukee Road's Twin Cities Hiawatha run. Among the ambitious state-of-the-art designs of the late steam era, Alco's Challengers, Big Boys and high speed streamliners stood out for their in-service success. Other than the Delaware & Hudson's application of SKF roller bearings to the drivers and side rods of their own 4-6-2 locomotives in 1924, Alco built the first production steam locomotive in North America to use roller bearings: Timken 1111, a 4-8-4 commissioned in 1930 by Timken Roller Bearing Company was used for 100,000 miles on fifteen major United States railroads before it was purchased in 1933 by the Northern Pacific Railway.
During World War II, Alco produced many 2-10-0 Decapods for the USSR. Many of these were undelivered at the end of the war, ten of these were sold to Finland in 1947. One, Alco builder's No. 75214, is preserved at the Finnish Railway Museum. Though the dual-service 4-8-4 steam locomotive had shown great promise, 1948 was the last year that steam locomotives were manufactured in Schenectady; these were the seven A-2a class 9400-series Pittsburgh & Lake Erie Railroad 2-8-4 "Berkshires." Their tenders had to be subcontracted to Lima Locomotive Works, as Alco's tender shop had been closed. The building was converted to diesel locomotive manufacture, to compete with locomotives manufactured by the automobile industry. Joseph Burroughs Ennis was a senior vice president between 1917 and 1947 and was responsible for the design of many of the locomotives manufactured; the company diversified into the automobile business in 1906, producing French Berliet designs under license. Production was located at Alco's Rhode Island Locomotive Works in Rhode Island.
Two years the Berliet license was abandoned, the company began to produce its own designs instead. An Alco racing car won the Vanderbilt Cup in both 1909 and 1910 and competed in the first Indianapolis 500 in 1911, driven on all three occasions by Harry Grant. But, ALCO's automotive venture was unprofitable, they abandoned automobile manufacture in 1913; the Alco automobile story is notable chiefly as a step in the automotive career of Walter P. Chrysler, who worked as the plant manager. In 1911 he left Alco for Buick in Detroit, where he subsequently founded the Chrysler Corporation in 1925. For a list of Alco diesel locomotive models, see List of ALCO diesel locomotives. Although committed to the steam locomotive, ALCo produced the first
The Wabash Railroad was a Class I railroad that operated in the mid-central United States. It served a large area, including track in the states of Ohio, Illinois, Iowa and Missouri and the province of Ontario, its primary connections included Illinois. The Wabash's major freight traffic advantage was the direct line from Kansas City to Detroit, without going through St. Louis or Chicago. Despite being merged into the Norfolk and Western Railway in 1964, the Wabash company continued to exist on paper until the N&W merged into the Norfolk Southern Railway in 1982. At the end of 1960 Wabash operated 2,423 miles of road on 4,311 miles of track, not including Ann Arbor and NJI&I; the source of the Wabash name was the Wabash River, a 475-mile -long river in the eastern United States that flows southwest from northwest Ohio near Fort Recovery, Ohio across northern Indiana to Illinois where it forms the southern portion of the Illinois-Indiana border before draining into the Ohio River, of which it is the largest northern tributary.
The name "Wabash" is an English spelling of the French name for the river, "Ouabache." French traders named the river after the native Miami tribe's word for the river. The Wabash Railroad resulted from numerous mergers or acquisitions as shown by this table: Norfolk Southern Railway Norfolk and Western Railway Wabash Railroad Wabash Railway Wabash Railroad Wabash Pittsburgh Terminal Railway Pittsburgh and West Virginia Railway Pittsburgh and Lake Erie Railroad Wabash, St. Louis and Pacific Railway Council Bluffs and St. Louis Railway Toledo and Western Railway Great Western Railway of Illinois 1865 Sangamon and Morgan Railroad 1853 Northern Cross Railway 1847 Illinois and Southern Iowa Railroad 1865 Quincy and Toledo Railroad 1865 Toledo and Wabash Railway 1865 Wabash and Western Railroad 1958 Toledo and Wabash Railroad 1858 Toledo and Western Railroad 1858 Lake Erie, Wabash and St. Louis Railroad 1856 Toledo and Illinois Railroad 1856 Warsaw and Peoria Railroad 1865 The name Wabash Railroad or Wabash Railway may refer to various corporate entities formed over the years using one or the other of these two names.
The first railroad to use only Wabash and no other city in its name was the Wabash Railway in January 1877, a rename of the Toledo and Western Railway formed on July 1, 1865. The earliest predecessor of the Wabash System was the Northern Cross Railroad, the first railroad built in Illinois; the Toledo and Illinois Railroad was chartered April 20, 1853 in Ohio to build from Toledo on Lake Erie west to the Indiana state line. The Lake Erie, Wabash and St. Louis Railroad was chartered in Indiana on August 19 to continue the line west through Wabash into Illinois towards St. Louis and the two companies merged August 4, 1856 to form the Toledo and Western Railroad with a total length of 243 miles; the company was sold at foreclosure. The Toledo and Wabash Railroad was chartered October 7, 1858 and acquired the Ohio portion October 8; the Wabash and Western Railroad was chartered on September 27 and acquired the Indiana portion on October 5. On December 15, the two companies merged as the Wabash Railway.
That company merged with the Great Western Railway of Illinois, the Illinois and Southern Iowa Railroad, the Quincy and Toledo Railroad and the Warsaw and Peoria Railroad to form the final Toledo and Western Railway. It was this group of railroads that formed the beginning of the Wabash System with the rename in 1877. Mergers and reorganizations formed the Wabash, St. Louis and Pacific Railway on November 7, 1879, Wabash Railroad on August 1, 1889. Financier John Whitfield Bunn was one of several capitalists who were instrumental in the consolidation of the Wabash System. In 1904, the Wabash Pittsburgh Terminal Railway was formed and acquired control of the Wheeling and Lake Erie Railroad, giving the Wabash access to Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania as the final step in an attempt to break the near-monopoly of the Pennsylvania Railroad and New York Central Railroad for traffic to the east. However, the Wabash had overextended itself, the WPT went bankrupt in 1908; the Wabash Railroad itself was sold at foreclosure July 21, 1915 and reorganized October 22 as the Wabash Railway.
The Pennsylvania Railroad acquired loose control of the Wabash in 1927 by buying stock through its Pennsylvania Company. In 1929 the Interstate Commerce Commission charged the PRR with violating the Clayton Antitrust Act; the ruling was appealed, in 1933 the Circuit Court ruled that the control was for investment only and did not violate the act. The Wabash Railway again entered receivership on December 1, 1931; the Wabash Railroad, controlled by the PRR, was organized in July 1941 and bought the Wabash Railway on December 1. In fall of 1960, the PRR agreed to a lease of the Wabash by the Western Railway; the PRR's Detroit and Ironton Railroad assumed control of the Wabash's Ann Arbor on December 31, 1962. On October 16, 1964 the New York, Chicago and St. Louis Railroad merged into the Norfolk and Western Railway, the N&W leased the Wabash and Pittsburgh and West Virginia Railway. On March 31, 1970 the Pennsylvania Company exchanged its last Wabash shares for N&W common stock; because it was only leased, as opposed to merged outright, th