Truss arch bridge
A truss arch bridge combines the elements of the truss bridge and the arch bridge. The actual resolution of forces will depend upon the design. If no horizontal thrusting forces are generated this becomes an arch-shaped truss a bent beam – see moon bridge for an example. If horizontal thrust is generated but the apex of the arch is a pin joint, this is termed a three-hinged arch - see The Iron Bridge for an example. If no hinge exists at the apex, it will be a two-hinged arch. In the Iron Bridge shown below, the structure of each frame emulates the kind of structure, made of wood; such a wood structure uses fitted beams pinned together, so the members within the frames are not free to move relative to one another, as they are in a pin-jointed truss structure that allows rotation at the pin joint. Such rigid structures were further developed in the 20th century as the Vierendeel truss; the Iron Bridge, the first metal bridge of any kind, still standing. Maria Pia Bridge, Gustave Eiffel's pioneering two-hinge arch.
Hurricane Deck Bridge, the last remaining truss-type bridge on Lake of the Ozarks in central Missouri. I-35W Mississippi River bridge bridge that collapsed in 2007 in Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA. Navajo Bridge and newer bridge of the same general construction, each built as unsupported cantilevers joined with a central pin
Old Deer Park
Old Deer Park is an area of open space within Richmond, in the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames, England. It covers 147 hectares of which 90.4 hectares is not in public ownership sports grounds for the sports of rugby and golf. The park is bounded by the Thames to the west, Kew Gardens to the north, across a trunk road urban areas of Richmond town to the east and south. Owned by the Crown Estate, the park forms part of a larger retained historic and biodiverse landscape incorporating part of Richmond and Isleworth; the lowest, western parts of the park constitute flood storage areas, which provide emergency flood relief around Richmond semi-tidally submerged Lock. Old Deer Park's heritage as a historic royal landscape in a favoured riverside location has become compromised over recent decades by instances of inappropriate recreational and parking development, general neglect, insufficient control of tree planting. A long-term strategy is now being implemented to reverse this decline. In the mid-16th century, Richmond Palace was a favourite residence of Queen Elizabeth I and in 1574 she granted "Our park of Isleworth otherwise called the Newe Parke of Richmonde" to Edward Bacon.
This statement was made though Isleworth parish and manor lay on the Middlesex bank opposite the Surrey bank of Richmond — the Abbey of Syon in Isleworth was tied to that of Sheen on the other respective bank, which had jointly for centuries owned the estate. In the year of the death of Elizabeth at Richmond, 1603, a hunting park was established by King James I by adding monastic land to the existing park and creating an enlarged area of 370 acres; this became known as The New Park of Richmond. The present name "Old Deer Park" was adopted after 1637 upon the establishment by King Charles I of the much larger Richmond Park on the other side of the town; the majority of park is now occupied by the Royal Mid-Surrey Golf Club, this has been so since 1892. Within the club's boundaries are two 18-hole courses, plus a separate area within which lies the Grade I listed King's Observatory, established by King George III in 1769. To the south-west of the Observatory, under the fairway of the 14th hole of the outer golf course, lie the foundations of the former Carthusian Sheen Priory, founded by Henry V in 1414.
Construction of the railway line westwards from Richmond Station in 1847/8 restricted the access from Richmond Green to Old Deer Park, except for one narrow bridge. Eighty-five years a new arterial road, complete with a high ramped approach to a new bridge over the Thames, was constructed across the southern end of the park, close to and parallel with the railway; this heightened the sense of separation between town and park – alleviating this problem is part of the new strategy. Beside the River Thames in the park are a pair of stone obelisks, they were built in 1769 and were used by the King's Observatory to observe the transit of Venus across the Sun that year. However, a legend says that they were erected in the 18th century as memorials to two men who lost their lives in a duel over a woman, who drowned herself in the river; the park was used to accommodate 5,000 of the 8,000 Scouts attending the 1st World Scout Jamboree in 1920. The public open spaces are used for circuses and other events.
The Old Deer Park has been used a venue for cricket since at least 1867, when Richmond played a United South of England Eleven. During its history, the ground has played host to a number of Middlesex Second XI and Surrey Second XI matches. Despite being within Surrey, the ground has played host to List-A matches involving Middlesex, the first of which saw them Nottinghamshire in the 2000 Norwich Union National League. In 2001 the Middlesex Cricket Board played their only List-A match at the ground in the 2001 Cheltenham & Gloucester Trophy against Berkshire. From 2000 to 2004, the ground held 5 List-A matches, the last of which saw Middlesex play Scotland in the 2004 totesport League. Starting in the 2003 Twenty20 Cup against Kent, Middlesex have used the ground for six Twenty20 matches to date. In local domestic cricket, the ground is the home venue of Richmond Cricket Club. Accessed from the A316: Recreation Ground, with open recreation areas, football and other pitches Royal Mid-Surrey Golf Club courses King's Observatory compound Richmond Athletic Ground home to London Scottish and Richmond rugby clubs Richmond Swimming Pool & Lido, now called Pools on the Park Public car park and miscellaneous commercial buildingsAccessed from the A307: Sports Ground with rugby, cricket and bowls London Borough of Richmond upon Thames: Old Deer Park
Richmond Bridge, London
Richmond Bridge is an 18th-century stone arch bridge that crosses the River Thames at Richmond, connecting the two halves of the present-day London Borough of Richmond upon Thames. It was designed by Kenton Couse; the bridge, a Grade I listed, was built between 1774 and 1777, as a replacement for a ferry crossing which connected Richmond town centre on the east bank with its neighbouring district of East Twickenham to the west. Its construction was funded by a tontine scheme, for which tolls were charged until 1859; because the river meanders from its general west to east direction, flowing from southeast to northwest in this part of London, what would otherwise be known as the north and south banks are referred to as the "Middlesex" and "Surrey" banks named after the historic counties to which each side once belonged. The bridge was widened and flattened in 1937–40, but otherwise still conforms to its original design; the eighth Thames bridge to be built in what is now Greater London, it is today the oldest surviving Thames bridge in London.
The small town of Sheen on the Surrey bank of the Thames, 10 miles west of the City of London or 16 miles by river, had been the site of a royal palace since 1299. After it was destroyed by fire in 1497, Henry VII built a new palace on the site, naming it Richmond Palace after his historic title of Earl of Richmond, the central part of Sheen became known as Richmond. Although a ferry had certainly existed at the site of the present-day bridge since Norman times, the earliest known crossing of the river at Richmond dates from 1439; the service was owned by the Crown, operated by two boats, a small skiff for the transport of passengers and a larger boat for horses and small carts. However, due to the steepness of the hill leading to the shore-line on the Surrey side neither ferry service was able to transport carriages or laden carts, forcing them to make a lengthy detour via Kingston Bridge. In the 18th century Richmond and neighbouring Twickenham on the opposite bank of the Thames, both of which were distant from London but enjoyed efficient transport links to the city via the river, became fashionable, their populations began to grow rapidly.
As the ferry was unable to handle large loads and was cancelled due to weather conditions, the river crossing became a major traffic bottleneck. Local resident William Windham had been sub-tutor to Prince William, Duke of Cumberland, was the former husband of Mary, Lady Deloraine, mistress to George II; as a reward for his services, George II leased Windham the right to operate the ferry until 1798. Windham sub-let the right to operate the ferry to local resident Henry Holland. With the ferry unable to serve the demands of the area, in 1772 Windham sought Parliamentary approval to replace the ferry with a wooden bridge, to be paid for by tolls; the plans for a wooden bridge proved unpopular, in 1772 the Richmond Bridge Act was passed by Parliament, selecting 90 commissioners, including landscape architect Lancelot "Capability" Brown and politician Horace Walpole and playwright and actor David Garrick, to oversee the construction of a stone bridge on the site of the ferry. The Act stipulated that no tax of any sort could be used to finance the bridge, fixed a scale of tolls, ranging from ½d for a pedestrian to 2s 6d for a coach drawn by six horses.
Henry Holland was granted £5,350 compensation for the loss of the ferry service. The commission appointed James Kenton Couse to design and build the new bridge; the Act specified that the bridge was to be built on the site of the existing ferry "or as much lower down the river as the Commission can settle". Local residents lobbied for it to be built at Water Lane, a short distance downstream from the ferry site; the approach to the river was flat, avoiding the steep slope to the existing ferry pier on the Surrey bank. However, the Dowager Duchess of Newcastle refused to allow the approach road on the Middlesex bank to pass through her land at Twickenham Park, the commission was forced to build on the site of the ferry, despite a steep 1 in 16 incline; the bridge was designed as a stone arch bridge of 300 feet in length and 24 feet 9 inches in width, supported by five elliptical arches of varying heights. The tall 60-foot wide central span was designed to allow shipping to pass, giving Richmond Bridge a distinctive humpbacked appearance.
It was built in Portland stone, ran between Ferry Hill on the Surrey side and Richmond Road on the Middlesex side. Palladian toll houses were built in alcoves at each end; the building was put out to tender, on 16 May 1774 Thomas Kerr was awarded the contract to build the bridge for the sum of £10,900. With additional costs, such as compensating landowners and building new approach roads, total costs came to £26,000. Most of the money needed was raised from the sale of shares at £100 each in two tontine schemes, the first for £20,000 and the second for £5,000; the first was appropriately called the Richmond-Bridge Tontine, but when it became clear that the initial £20,000 would not be sufficient to complete construction a second tontine was set up. Each investor was guaranteed a return of 4% per annum, so £1,000 per annum from the income raised from tolls was divided amon
Network Rail is the owner and infrastructure manager of most of the railway network in Great Britain. Network Rail is an arm's length public body of the Department for Transport with no shareholders, which reinvests its income in the railways. Network Rail's main customers are the private train operating companies, responsible for passenger transport, freight operating companies, who provide train services on the infrastructure that the company owns and maintains. Since 1 September 2014, Network Rail has been classified as a "public sector body". To cope with rising passenger numbers, Network Rail is undertaking a £38 billion programme of upgrades to the network, including Crossrail, electrification of lines, upgrading Thameslink and a new high-speed line. Britain's railway system was built by private companies, but it was nationalised by the Transport Act 1947 and run by British Railways until re-privatisation, begun in 1994 and completed in 1997. Infrastructure and freight services were separated at that time.
Between 1994 and 2002 the infrastructure was operated by Railtrack. The Hatfield train crash on 17 October 2000 was a defining moment in the collapse of Railtrack; the immediate major repairs undertaken across the whole British railway network were estimated to have cost in the order of £580 million and Railtrack had no idea how many more'Hatfields' were waiting to happen because it had lost considerable in-house engineering skill following the sale or closure of many of the engineering and maintenance functions of British Rail to external companies. The costs of modernising the West Coast Main Line were spiralling. In 2001, Railtrack announced that, despite making a pre-tax profit before exceptional expenses of £199m, the £733m of costs and compensation paid out over the Hatfield crash had plunged Railtrack from profit into a loss of £534m, it approached the government for funding, which it used to pay a £137m dividend to its shareholders in May 2001. Network Rail Ltd took over control by buying Railtrack plc, in "railway administration", from Railtrack Group plc for £500 million.
The purchase was completed on 3 October 2002. The former company had thus never ceased to exist but continued under another name: for this reason Network Rail Infrastructure Ltd was the defendant in prosecutions in respect of events which had occurred in the days of Railtrack. Following an initial period in which Network Rail established itself and demonstrated its competence in addressing the principal challenges of improving asset condition, reducing unit costs and tackling delay, the Government's Rail Review in 2004 said that Network Rail should be given responsibility for whole-industry performance reporting, timetable development, specification of small and medium network enhancements, the delivery of route-specific utilisation strategies; some of these are functions which Network Rail had. The SRA was abolished in November 2006; the company moved its headquarters to Kings Place, 90 York Way, from 40 Melton Street, Euston, in August 2008. In October 2008, Sir Ian McAllister announced that he would not stand for re-election as chairman of Network Rail.
He had held the position for six years. He noted that as Network Rail moved to a "new phase in its development" it was appropriate for a new chairman to lead it there. Many track safety initiatives have been introduced in the time Network Rail has been responsible for this area; the latest, announced in December 2008, known as "All Orange", states that all track personnel must not only wear orange hi-vis waistcoats or jackets, but must wear orange hi-vis trousers at all times when working on or near the track. This ruling came into force in January 2009 for maintenance and property workers and in April 2009 for infrastructure and investment sites. In 2009, allegations appeared in the media from the Transport Salaried Staffs' Association concerning treatment of Network Rail employees. Former chief executive Iain Coucher was accused of financial impropriety involving unspecified payments to his business partner Victoria Pender during his tenure at Network Rail. An internal investigation held by Network Rail in 2010, vetted by its auditors PricewaterhouseCoopers, uncovered no evidence of wrongdoing.
An independent enquiry headed by Anthony White QC in 2011 further examined the claims, but exonerated Coucher. Critical commentary appeared in the media concerning the knighthood awarded to John Armitt in the 2012 New Year Honours for services to engineering and construction. Armitt was Chief Executive of Network Rail at the time of the 2007 Grayrigg derailment and the family of a victim of the accident criticised the award, which coincidentally was conferred on the same day that Network Rail were prosecuted for the accident. In 2011 the company began the process of reorganising its operational structure into nine semi-autonomous regional entities, each with their own managing director; the reorganisation has been interpreted as a move back towards vertical integration of track and train operations. In 2016 Network Rail failed to check whether the Flying Scotsman could fit through tunnels along the Borders Route resulting in the ca
Sir Nikolaus Bernhard Leon Pevsner was a German British scholar of the history of art of architecture. Pevsner is best known for his monumental 46-volume series of county-by-county guides, The Buildings of England simply referred to by his surname. Nikolaus Pevsner was born in Leipzig, the son of Hugo Pevsner, a Russian-Jewish fur merchant, his wife, Anna, he attended St. Thomas School and went on to study at several universities, Munich and Frankfurt am Main, before being awarded a doctorate by Leipzig in 1924 for a thesis on the Baroque architecture of Leipzig. In 1923, he married the daughter of distinguished Leipzig lawyer, Alfred Kurlbaum, he worked as an assistant keeper at the Dresden Gallery. He converted to Lutheranism early in life. During this period he became interested in establishing the supremacy of German modernist architecture after becoming aware of Le Corbusier's Pavillon de l'Esprit Nouveau at the Paris Exhibition of 1925. In 1928 he contributed the volume on Italian baroque painting to the Handbuch der Kunstwissenschaft, a multi-volume series providing an overview of the history of European art.
He taught at the University of Göttingen, offering a specialist course on English art and architecture. According to biographer Stephen Games, Pevsner welcomed many of the economic and cultural policies of the early Hitler regime. However, due to Nazi race laws he was forced to resign his lectureship in 1933; that year Pevsner moved to England, settling in Hampstead, where poet Geoffrey Grigson was his neighbour in Wildwood Terrace. Pevsner's first post was an 18-month research fellowship at the University of Birmingham, found for him by friends in Birmingham and funded by the Academic Assistance Council. A study of the role of the designer in the industrial process, the research produced a critical account of design standards in Britain which he published as An Enquiry into Industrial Art in England, he was subsequently employed as a buyer of modern textiles and ceramics for the Gordon Russell furniture showrooms in London. By this time Pevsner had completed Pioneers of the Modern Movement: from William Morris to Walter Gropius, his influential pre-history of what he saw as Walter Gropius's dominance of contemporary design.
Pioneers ardently championed Gropius's first two buildings on the grounds that they summed up all the essential goals of 20th-century architecture. In spite of that, the book remains an important point of reference in the teaching of the history of modern design, helped lay the foundation of Pevsner's career in England as an architectural historian. Since its first publication by Faber & Faber in 1936, it has gone through several editions and been translated into many languages; the English-language edition has been renamed Pioneers of Modern Design. Pevsner was "more German than the Germans" to the extent that he supported "Goebbels in his drive for'pure' non-decadent German art", he was reported as saying of the Nazis: "I want this movement to succeed. There is no alternative but chaos.... There are things worse than Hitlerism." Nonetheless, he was included in the Nazi Black Book as hostile to the Hitler regime. In 1940, Pevsner was taken to the internment camp at Liverpool, as an enemy alien.
Geoffrey Grigson wrote in his Recollections: "When at last two hard-faced Bow Street runners arrived in the early hours of the morning to take... I managed, clutching my pyjama trousers, to catch them up with the best parting present I could think of, an elegant little edition, a new edition, of Shakespeare's Sonnets." Pevsner was released after three months on the intervention of, among others, Frank Pick Director-General of the Ministry of Information. He spent some time in the months after the Blitz clearing bomb debris, wrote reviews and art criticism for the Ministry of Information's Die Zeitung, an anti-Nazi publication for Germans living in England, he completed for Penguin Books the Pelican paperback An Outline of European Architecture, which he had begun to develop while in internment. Outline would go into seven editions, be translated into 16 languages, sell more than half a million copies. In 1942, Pevsner secured two regular positions. From 1936 onwards he had been a frequent contributor to the Architectural Review and from 1943 to 1945 he stood in as its acting editor while the regular editor J. M. Richards was on active service.
Under the AR's influence, Pevsner's approach to modern architecture became more complex and more moderate. Early signs of a lifelong interest in Victorian architecture influenced by the Architectural Review, appeared in a series written under the pseudonym of "Peter F. R. Donner": Pevsner's "Treasure Hunts" guided readers down selected London streets, pointing out architectural treasures of the 19th century, he was closely involved with the Review's proprietor, H. de C. Hastings, in evolving the magazine's theories on picturesque planning. In 1942, Pevsner was appointed a part-time lecturer at Birkbeck College, London, he lectured at Cambridge University for 30 years, having been Slade professor there for a record six years from 1949 to 1955, would become the Slade professorship at Oxford in 1968. Framing all this was his career as a writer and editor. After moving to England, Pevsn
Richmond is a suburban town in south-west London, 8.2 miles west-southwest of Charing Cross. It is on a meander of the River Thames, with a large number of parks and open spaces, including Richmond Park, many protected conservation areas, which include much of Richmond Hill. A specific Act of Parliament protects the scenic view of the River Thames from Richmond. Richmond was founded following Henry VII's building of Richmond Palace in the 16th century, from which the town derives its name. During this era the town and palace were associated with Elizabeth I, who spent her last days here. During the 18th century Richmond Bridge was completed and many Georgian terraces were built around Richmond Green and on Richmond Hill; these remain well preserved and many have listed building architectural or heritage status. The opening of the railway station in 1846 was a significant event in the absorption of the town into a expanding London. Richmond was part of the ancient parish of Kingston upon Thames in the county of Surrey.
In 1890 the town became a municipal borough, extended to include Kew, Ham and part of Mortlake. The municipal borough was abolished in 1965 when, as a result of local government reorganisation, Richmond was transferred from Surrey to Greater London. Richmond is now part of the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames, has a population of 21,469, it has a significant retail centre with a developed day and evening economy. The name Richmond upon Thames is used, incorrectly, to refer to the town of Richmond: in fact, the suffix should properly be used only in reference to the London Borough; until 1501, Richmond was known as Shene. Shene was not listed in Domesday Book, although it is depicted on the associated maps as Sceon, its Saxon spelling. Henry VII had a palace built there and in 1501 he named it Richmond Palace in recognition of his earldom and his ancestral home at Richmond Castle in Yorkshire; the town that developed nearby took the same name as the palace. Henry I lived in the King's house in "Sheanes".
In 1299 Edward I, the "Hammer of the Scots", took his whole court to the manor house at Sheen, a little east of the bridge and on the riverside, it thus became a royal residence. Edward II, following his defeat by the Scots at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314, founded a monastery for Carmelites at Sheen; when the boy-king Edward III came to the throne in 1327 he gave the manor to his mother Isabella. Edward spent over £ 2,000 on improvements, but in the middle of the work Edward himself died at the manor, in 1377. Richard II was the first English king to make Sheen his main residence, which he did in 1383. Twelve years Richard was so distraught at the death of his wife Anne of Bohemia at the age of 28 that, according to Holinshed, the 16th-century English chronicler, he "caused it to be thrown down and defaced, it was rebuilt between 1414 and 1422, but destroyed by fire in 1497. Following that fire Henry VII built a new residence at Sheen and in 1501 he named it Richmond Palace. There are unconfirmed beliefs.
When Elizabeth I became queen she spent much of her time at Richmond, as she enjoyed hunting stags in the "Newe Parke of Richmonde". She died at the palace on 24 March 1603; the palace was no longer in residential use after 1649, but in 1688 James II ordered its partial reconstruction: this time as a royal nursery. The bulk of the palace had decayed by 1779; this has five bedrooms and was made available on a 65-year lease by the Crown Estate Commissioners in 1986. Beyond the grounds of the old palace, Richmond remained agricultural land until the 18th century. White Lodge, in the middle of what is now Richmond Park, was built as a hunting lodge for George II and during this period the number of large houses in their own grounds – such as Asgill House and Pembroke Lodge – increased significantly; these were followed by the building of further important houses including Downe House, Wick House and The Wick on Richmond Hill, as this area became an fashionable place to live. Richmond Bridge was completed in 1777 to replace a ferry crossing that connected Richmond town centre on the east bank with its neighbouring district of East Twickenham.
Today, together with the well-preserved Georgian terraces that surround Richmond Green and line Richmond Hill to its crest, now has listed building status. As Richmond continued to prosper and expand during the 19th century, much luxurious housing was built on the streets that line Richmond Hill, as well as shops in the town centre to serve the increasing population. In July 1892 the Corporation formed a joint-stock company, the Richmond Electric Light and Power Company, this wired the town for electricity by around 1896. Like many other large towns in Britain, Richmond lost many young people in the First and Second World Wars. In the Second World War, 96 people were killed in air raids, which resulted in the demolition of 297 houses; the Richmond War Memorial, which now commemorates both wars, was installed in the 1920s at the end of Whittaker Avenue, between t