The Ottawa River is a river in the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Quebec. For most of its length, it defines the border between these two provinces, it is a major tributary of the St. Lawrence River; the river rises at Lac des Outaouais, north of the Laurentian Mountains of central Quebec, flows west to Lake Timiskaming. From there its route has been used to define the interprovincial border with Ontario; the river reaches great depths of nearly 460 feet in some places. From Lake Timiskaming, the river flows southeast to Ottawa and Gatineau, where it tumbles over Chaudière Falls and further takes in the Rideau and Gatineau rivers; the Ottawa River drains into the Lake of the St. Lawrence River at Montreal; the river is 1,271 kilometres long. The average annual mean waterflow measured at Carillon dam, near the Lake of Two Mountains, is 1,939 cubic metres per second, with average annual extremes of 749 to 5,351 cubic metres per second. Record historic levels since 1964 are a low of 529 cubic metres per second in 2005 and a high of 8,190 cubic metres per second in 1976.
The river flows through large areas of deciduous and coniferous forest formed over thousands of years as trees recolonized the Ottawa Valley after the ice age. The coniferous forests and blueberry bogs occur on old sand plains left by retreating glaciers, or in wetter areas with clay substrate; the deciduous forests, dominated by birch, beech and ash occur in more mesic areas with better soil around the boundary with the La Varendrye Park. These primeval forests were affected by natural fire started by lightning, which led to increased reproduction by pine and oak, as well as fire barrens and their associated species; the vast areas of pine were exploited by early loggers. Generations of logging removed hemlock for use in tanning leather, leaving a permanent deficit of hemlock in most forests. Associated with the logging and early settlement were vast wild fires which not only removed the forests, but led to soil erosion. Nearly all the forests show varying degrees of human disturbance. Tracts of older forest are uncommon, hence they are considered of considerable importance for conservation.
The Ottawa River has large areas of wetlands. Some of the more biologically important wetland areas include, the Westmeath sand dune/wetland complex, Mississippi Snye, Breckenridge Nature Reserve, Shirleys Bay, Ottawa Beach/Andrew Haydon Park, Petrie Island, the Duck Islands and Greens Creek; the Westmeath sand dune/wetland complex is significant for its pristine sand dunes, few of which remain along the Ottawa River, the many associated rare plants. Shirleys Bay has a biologically diverse shoreline alvar, as well as one of the largest silver maple swamps along the river. Like all wetlands, these depend upon the seasonal fluctuations in the water level. High water levels help create and maintain silver maple swamps, while low water periods allow many rare wetland plants to grow on the emerged sand and clay flats. There are five principal wetland vegetation types. One is swamp silver maple. There are four herbaceous vegetation types, named for the dominant plant species in them: Scirpus, Eleocharis and Typha.
Which type occurs in a particular location depends upon factors such as substrate type, water depth, ice-scour and fertility. Inland, south of the river, older river channels, which date back to the end of the ice age, no longer have flowing water, have sometimes filled with a different wetland type, peat bog. Examples include Alfred Bog. Major tributaries include: Communities along the Ottawa River include: The Ottawa River lies in the Ottawa-Bonnechere Graben, a Mesozoic rift valley that formed 175 million years ago. Much of the river flows through the Canadian Shield, although lower areas flow through limestone plains and glacial deposits; as the glacial ice sheet began to retreat at the end of the last ice age, the Ottawa River valley, along with the St. Lawrence River valley and Lake Champlain, had been depressed to below sea level by the glacier's weight, filled with sea water; the resulting arm of the ocean is known as the Champlain Sea. Fossil remains of marine life dating 12 to 10 thousand years ago have been found in marine clay throughout the region.
Sand deposits from this era have produced vast plains dominated by pine forests, as well as localized areas of sand dunes, such as Westmeath and Constance Bay. Clay deposits from this period have resulted in areas of poor drainage, large swamps, peat bogs in some ancient channels of this river. Hence, the distribution of forests and wetlands is much a product of these past glacial events. Large deposits of a material known as Leda clay formed; these deposits become unstable after heavy rains. Numerous landslides have occurred as a result; the former site of the town of Lemieux, Ontario collapsed into the South Nation River in 1993. The town's residents had been relocated because of the suspected instability of the earth in that location; as the land rose again the sea coast retreated and the fresh water courses of today took shape. Following the demise of the Champlain Sea the Ottawa River Valley continued to drain the waters of the emerging Upper Great Lakes basin through Lake Nipissing and the Mattawa River.
Owing to the ongoing uplift of the la
Not to be confused with Richmond Hill, Ontario. Richmond is a village and former municipality within the city limits of Ottawa, Canada. Founded in 1818, it spans a tributary of the Rideau River. Like many communities in eastern Ontario, Richmond houses several unique populations; some residents have economic roots in the immediate area. Richmond operates as a small core to its residents. To others, the village serves as a bedroom community for the larger urban area of Ottawa. Richmond is 15 km from North Gower, 32 km from Carleton Place, 36 km from Downtown Ottawa, 41 km from Smiths Falls and 45 km from Perth, its population at the Canada 2006 Census was 3,301. After the War of 1812, loyal settlers were sought for Upper Canada; the United Empire Loyalists, after the American Revolution, had helped to settle areas further south and west in Upper Canada were being regarded with increasing suspicion. Instead, disbanded soldiers were the most immediate loyal settlers for this new era of development; the village was laid out for the Government in 1817 by Major George Thew Burke, settlement commenced as early as 1818.
This was a military point for a number of years. The Duke of Richmond Governor General of Canada, died here in 1819 from the bite of a rabid fox, in a frame barn on Chapman's farm, about 4 miles from the village, on the Goodwood river. Renamed the Jock River; the Masonic Arms Tavern, his abode on the previous night, was renamed Duke of Richmond Tavern in his honour. The village derives its name from the Duke of Richmond. Richmond was selected by the British Army in 1818 as one of the first military settlements. Others included Lanark. Named after the Duke of Richmond, the newly appointed Governor General of the Canadas, the village of Richmond was laid out in a grid on the north bank of the Jock River. Richmond was the centre for the administration of lands in the area. Military supervisor, Major Burke, placed Irish soldiers of his 99th Regiment in Goulbourn. Scottish settlers from Perthshire were placed in the adjoining area of northeast Beckwith, while Irish civilians were settled in southeast Beckwith and other parts of the neighbouring townships.
In the spring of 1818 the officers and men of 99th were at Quebec, and, in common with those of other regiments, had their choice of a passage home to Ireland or, if they so elected, to remain here in Canada where they would receive free grants of land in the new country to be settled on the Ottawa and Rideau rivers. Thus, in late 1818 the village of Richmond was born. From 1818 to 1822, the village was managed by the Settling Branch of Upper Canada's Military Department. Village life was dominated by military culture and institutions during these early years. While official plans of the village demonstrate an optimism for its future growth and importance, this never came to pass. By the time the military relinquished control of the village in 1822 few civilians had settled. Many historians argue that the planned villages of early nineteenth century Ottawa Valley were a failure compared to villages and towns that sprang up in a more "organic" nature in response to such factors as proximity to transportation routes, natural resources, quality farm land.
In the case of Richmond, the rising importance of Bytown and the building of the Rideau Canal several kilometres east of Richmond contributed to its failure to thrive. By 1832, Hamnett Pinhey described the state of Richmond to the Freeholders of Carleton as, "a jail in itself." He goes on to note that, "I have known that place these thirteen years, it was a rising place, but it has been falling since, is now nothing. For a number of years the trade and business was active, but by the 1860s appears to have declined. By 1866, the village with a population of 600, contained several general stores, flouring mills and tannery. There were four churches-Church of England, built of stone, Rev. J. C. B. Pettit, rector, it was annexed by Goulbourn Township in 1974. In 1969, Richmond became part of Regional Municipality of Ottawa-Carleton until 2001, it has been within the City of Ottawa since January 1, 2001 as one of the many rural villages recognized by the City of Ottawa. Each of these amalgamations has resulted in a significant reduction in democratic representation for villagers.
Some residents in Richmond are displeased about the most recent amalgamation into the Ottawa city structure and would like to de-amalgamate along with other areas of rural Carleton County. Richmond's amalgamation into the city of Ottawa is a cause for concern for many local residents; these concerns are represented by groups such as the Carleton County Landowners Association. Amalgamation has gained the attention of several researchers concerned with sustainable community development and local governance. David Douglas' study of restructured rural commun
Bridlewood is a neighbourhood in Kanata South Ward in the western part of Ottawa, Canada. Bridlewood was part of the Township of Nepean until 1978, part of the City of Kanata until 2001, when that city amalgamated with the City of Ottawa. Bridlewood is located east of Eagleson Road and west of the National Capital Commission Greenbelt, north of Hope Side Road; this community is located in the southeast part of the former city of Kanata and is 12 km from the boundary of pre-amalgamation Ottawa proper. Bridlewood began to develop as a residential area in the 1980s in the northern part of the community. Previous to that, the land was used for agricultural purposes. William Teron spurred development with his purchase of agricultural land in order to create a model community that subsequently evolved into Kanata. Most of the land that became Bridlewood was part of the Deevy farm, in the Township of Nepean. On January 1, 1978, Bridlewood was amalgamated into the new City of Kanata; the farmhouse and barn remained in the centre of the community just off Equestrian Drive until it was demolished in 2013.
In the early 1970s, Ontario Hydro installed a hydro line corridor through what would become the community, in 1989 the voltage of the hydro lines was increased from a single 230 kV line to two towers with 500 kV lines. The Bridlewood Residents Hydro Line Committee opposed this change, citing concerns for children's health when exposed to electromagnetic radiation; the BRHLC struggle received national media attention, including by CBC's The Journal. According to the Canada 2006 Census, there were 19,167 people living in Bridlewood; the 2011 Census reported 21,247 people living in Bridlewood. According to the Canada 2016 Census, 24,400 people were reported living in Bridlewood; the Bridlewood Community Association serves not only Bridlewood but the adjacent community of Emerald Meadows. The BCA deals with various community matters including sports, outdoor hockey rinks, garage sales and security, business networking, traffic volume concerns, developer and zoning activity. Bridlewood is served by local councillor Allan Hubley.
Sports participation is significant in Bridlewood. The BCA estimates participance of over 800 children for the 2007 soccer program. Bridlewood is a community participant in the True Sport movement, a Canadian program espousing goals of ensuring positive and meaningful experiences for sport participants. There are six elementary schools in this area: W. O. Mitchell Elementary School Bridlewood Community Elementary School Roch Carrier Elementary School St. James Catholic School St. Anne Catholic School Elizabeth Bruyere Catholic School A. Y Jackson S. SNew public French language elementary school "École élémentaire publique Kanata-Sud" was opened in September 2010. There are three strip malls in this community: Located at 701 Eagleson Road. Optometrist Bridlewood Animal Hospital Big Bone BBQ Hair Tech Formerly known as Hair Tech 2000 Kanata Music Academy Scotiabank Located at 700 Eagleson Rd. Beer Store Bridlewood Chiropractic and Massage Therapy Bridlewood Home Hardware Domino's Pizza First Choice Haircutters Goodlife Fitness Harvey's Heavenly Spa Kanata Dental Centre Rogers Plus Shoppers Drug Mart Starbucks Coffee Subway TD Canada Trust Wild Wing Black Belt Excellence Martial Arts Bridlewood Medical Centre Bridlewood Dental Mac's Milk Gabriel Pizza and Italian Restaurant Population Hair Salon The Works Hurley's Tiny Hoppers Snap Fitness Gordon O'Connor - Member of Parliament Bridlewood Community Association, accessed 12 November 200645°17′N 75°51′W
Wellington Street West
Wellington Street West is a 2.3 km road and shopping area west of downtown Ottawa, Ontario. This road was once connected to - and is confused with - the prominent Wellington Street in downtown Ottawa, but the two Wellingtons were severed in the 1960s with the expropriation of LeBreton Flats and the demolition of the viaduct that connected them over the Canadian Pacific Railway tracks. A small remnant of the old Wellington alignment remains between Bayview Road and the small park, Somerset Square, but the modern Wellington Street West roadway is now connected with Somerset Street West, which becomes Wellington West at Garland Avenue. The section from Somerset Street West to Holland Avenue traverses the Hintonburg neighbourhood, while the section from Holland Avenue to Island Park Drive forms the backbone of the Wellington Village) community. At Island Park Drive, the roadway changes its name again to Richmond Road; the entire Wellington Street West corridor and the surrounding shopping district contain more than 500 individual businesses and restaurants.
Since 2008, these have been represented by the Wellington West Business Improvement Area. The following is a list of major intersections along Wellington Street West, listed from east to west: Bayview Road Somerset Street West Fairmont Avenue Melrose Avenue Carruthers Avenue Parkdale Avenue Holland Avenue Harmer Avenue North Clarendon Avenue Western Avenue Island Park Drive
Liberal Party of Canada
The Liberal Party of Canada is the oldest and longest-serving governing political party in Canada. The Liberals form the current government, elected in 2015; the party has dominated federal politics for much of Canada's history, holding power for 69 years in the 20th century—more than any other party in a developed country—and as a result, it is sometimes referred to as Canada's "natural governing party". The party espouses the principles of liberalism, sits at the centre to centre-left of the Canadian political spectrum, with the Conservative Party positioned to the centre-right and the New Democratic Party, occupying the left. Like their federal Conservative Party rivals, the party is defined as a "big tent", attracting support from a broad spectrum of voters. In the late 1970s, Prime Minister Pierre Elliott Trudeau claimed that his Liberal Party adhered to the "radical centre"; the Liberals' signature policies and legislative decisions include universal health care, the Canada Pension Plan, Canada Student Loans, multilateralism, official bilingualism, official multiculturalism, patriating the Canadian constitution and the entrenchment of Canada's Charter of Rights and Freedoms, the Clarity Act, making same-sex marriage and cannabis use legal nationwide.
In the 2015 federal election, the Liberal Party under Justin Trudeau had its best result since the 2000 election, winning 39.5 percent of the popular vote and 184 seats, gaining a majority of seats in the House of Commons. The Liberals are descended from the mid-19th century Reformers who agitated for responsible government throughout British North America; these included George Brown, Alexander Mackenzie, Robert Baldwin, William Lyon Mackenzie and the Clear Grits in Upper Canada, Joseph Howe in Nova Scotia, the Patriotes and Rouges in Lower Canada led by figures such as Louis-Joseph Papineau. The Clear Grits and Parti rouge sometimes functioned as a united bloc in the legislature of the Province of Canada beginning in 1854, a united Liberal Party combining both English and French Canadian members was formed in 1861. At the time of confederation of the former British colonies of Canada, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, the radical Liberals were marginalized by the more pragmatic Conservative coalition assembled under Sir John A. Macdonald.
In the 29 years after Canadian confederation, the Liberals were consigned to opposition, with the exception of one stint in government. Alexander Mackenzie was the de facto leader of the Official Opposition after Confederation and agreed to become the first official leader of the Liberal Party in 1873, he was able to lead the party to power for the first time in 1873, after the MacDonald government lost a vote of no confidence in the House of Commons due to the Pacific Scandal. Mackenzie subsequently won the 1874 election, served as Prime Minister for an additional four years. During the five years the Liberal government brought in many reforms, which include the replacement of open voting by secret ballot, confining elections to one day and the creation of the Supreme Court of Canada, the Royal Military College of Canada, the Office of the Auditor General; however the party was only able to build a solid support base in Ontario, in 1878 lost the government to MacDonald. The Liberals would spend the next 18 years in opposition.
In their early history, the Liberals were the party of opposition to imperialism. The Liberals became identified with the aspirations of Quebecers as a result of the growing hostility of French Canadians to the Conservatives; the Conservatives lost the support of French Canadians because of the role of Conservative governments in the execution of Louis Riel and their role in the Conscription Crisis of 1917, their opposition to French schools in provinces besides Quebec. It was. Laurier was able to capitalize on the Tories' alienation of French Canada by offering the Liberals as a credible alternative. Laurier was able to overcome the party's reputation for anti-clericalism that offended the still-powerful Quebec Roman Catholic Church. In English-speaking Canada, the Liberal Party's support for reciprocity made it popular among farmers, helped cement the party's hold in the growing prairie provinces. Laurier led the Liberals to power in the 1896 election, oversaw a government that increased immigration in order to settle Western Canada.
Laurier's government created the provinces of Saskatchewan and Alberta out of the North-West Territories, promoted the development of Canadian industry. Until the early part of the century, the Liberal Party was a loose, informal coalition of local and regional bodies with a strong national party leader and caucus but with an informal and regionalized extra-parliamentary organizational structure. There was no national membership of the party, an individual became a member by joining a provincial Liberal party. Laurier called the party's first national convention in 1893 in order to unite Liberal supporters behind a programme and build the campaign that brought the party to power in 1896; as a result of the party's defeats in the 1911 and 1917 federal elections, Laurier attempted to organize the party on a national level by creating three bodies: the Central Liberal Information Office, the National Liberal Advisory Committee, the National Liberal Organization Committee. Howev
Lincoln Fields Shopping Centre
Lincoln Fields Shopping Centre is a community mall located in Ottawa, Canada. It is located between Carling Avenue and Richmond Road, just west of the MacDonald Parkway in the west-end Lincoln Heights neighbourhood, it is close to the Lincoln Fields transit station. It is served directly by OC Transpo bus routes 11, 16, 85 & 97; the mall features Metro Inc a Loeb, Moore's and other stores. The mall was built in 1972. At the time it was hailed as the city's "third-enclosed shopping centre.” Notably, the mall consisted of a Woolco - with an 160-seat Red Grille Restaurant inside, two mini movie theaters, a Loblaws, an Ogilvy's department store, Tamblyn Drugs, pizza shop, Hemsley's, Magoo's Ice Cream Parlor, Sam the Record Man, Parker Clean, Nelms Optician, Toronto-Dominion Bank, a shoe store and other stores. The mall was home to Woolco which became a Walmart in 1994. In 2016, the Walmart store relocated to Bayshore Shopping Centre; the mall was rebranded as a Lincoln Heights Galleria in 1985. In January 2019, it was announced the mall would be demolished and that leases would terminate on July 31st of that year.
A new Metro grocery store is slated to be built on the north-east side of the lot. Official website Directory of stores
Bank Street (Ottawa)
Bank Street is the major north-south road in Ottawa, Canada. It runs south from Wellington Street in downtown Ottawa, south through the neighbourhoods of Centretown, The Glebe, Old Ottawa South, Alta Vista, Hunt Club, through the villages of Blossom Park, South Gloucester, Metcalfe, Spring Hill, Vernon before exiting the city limits at Belmeade Road. Bank Street made up much of Ontario Highway 31 before it was downloaded in 1998, it is known as Ottawa Road #31. Between Wellington Street and Gladstone Avenue in downtown, Bank Street is a shopping and business development district known as the "Bank Street Promenade" and the street is lined with common signage affixed to streetlights and street-level advertising billboards showing this distinction; the area between Somerset Street West and Gladstone Avenue is considered the centre of Ottawa's burgeoning gay village, characterized by a small concentration of businesses targeted to Ottawa's gay community. In 2011, the city unveiled signs identifying the neighbourhood as Ottawa's gay village, at the intersections of Somerset and Nepean Streets with Bank Street.
Travelling south, there exists a shopping district in The Glebe running along Bank Street from the Queensway to Holmwood Avenue. Bank Street is home to Lansdowne Park where the Ottawa RedBlacks play. Further south, after the road passes over the Rideau Canal on the Bank Street Bridge, Bank Street is home to the Billings Bridge Plaza and the South Keys Shopping Centre. Bank Street north of Billings Bridge is an historic urban arterial road with many more pedestrians than vehicular traffic and significant parking issues, hence the flow is quite slow. South of Billings Bridge to Leitrim Road, the street turns into a more modern four-lane urban arterial, which flows much better despite the 50 km/h speed limit on the northern half and 60 km/h from South Keys southward. South of Leitrim it is a rural two-lane highway with an 80 km/h speed limit until the community of Vernon. Just south of Leitrim Road, Bank Street gives access to a developing neighborhood called Findlay Creek that will become quite significant in the long term, it will provide access to the community of Riverside South.
Bank Street serves in some contexts as an unofficial division between "eastern" and "western" Ottawa. For example, prior to the takeover of Maclean-Hunter by Rogers Cable in 1994, the street marked the division between those cable companies' service areas in Ottawa: cable subscribers west of Bank Street were served by Maclean-Hunter, while cable subscribers east of Bank Street were served by Rogers. Contrary to popular belief, the street is not named after the Bank of Canada headquarters at the corner of Bank Street and Wellington Street; the street name dates back to the 19th century, whereas the bank was founded in 1934. It's believed that the road was named this because it went from the "bank" of the Ottawa River at its northern end to that of the Rideau River to the south. However, the road was called Esther Street in honour of Colonel By's wife. Bank Street ends at Wellington Street and the portion of the street running closest to the actual riverbank is federal Crown land for the Parliamentary Precinct of the Parliament of Canada.
Highway 31 was formed in 1927, started at the junction of Highway 2 in Morrisburg, Ontario. It traveled north through the town of Winchester, into Ottawa; the road was paved in stages, but was paved by 1936. The road's designation of Highway 31 was extended from the Dundas-Stormont-Glengary/Russell-Prescott county line into Ottawa that same year. While maintaining its alignment along Bank Street for its entire history, the road was re-aligned along Canal Drive. From here, it became less clear where the northern terminus of the road was located, as Ottawa posted Highway 31 as a scenic route within its limits along Heron Road and Bronson Avenue before terminating in downtown, while the Ministry of Transportation noted no changes in road length; this is presumed to be a connecting link between Highway 31 and The Queensway, but these scenic routes/connecting links were all decommissioned by 1960. The road was re-aligned along the Winchester Bypass, when it was completed and opened in 1974, but no other changes were made to the road since until being decommissioned as a provincial highway, in 1998.
Portions of Bank Street have undergone major reconstruction each year since 2006. The City of Ottawa held public consultations for a major redevelopment of Bank Street between Wellington Street and the Rideau Canal. Wellington Street Somerset Street Laurier Avenue Gladstone Avenue Highway 417 Riverside Drive Heron Road Alta Vista Drive Walkley Road Hunt Club Road Albion Road Conroy Road Leitrim Road Mitch Owens Road Snake Island Road Dalmeny Road Tiffany Road Downtown Ottawa Centretown The Glebe Ottawa South Billings Bridge South Keys Blossom Park Findlay Creek/Leitrim Greely Metcalfe Vernon Bank St Biz City of Ottawa: Transportation Master Plan Google Maps: route of Bank Street in Ottawa City of Ottawa: Bank Street profile Bank Street Promenade Shopping District Bank Street Rehabilitation Project Highway 31 at OntHighways.com