Spider-Man is a fictional superhero created by writer-editor Stan Lee and writer-artist Steve Ditko. He first appeared in the anthology comic book Amazing Fantasy #15 in the Silver Age of Comic Books, he appears in American comic books published by Marvel Comics, as well as in a number of movies, television shows, video game adaptations set in the Marvel Universe. In the stories, Spider-Man is the alias of Peter Parker, an orphan raised by his Aunt May and Uncle Ben in New York City after his parents Richard and Mary Parker were killed in a plane crash. Lee and Ditko had the character deal with the struggles of adolescence and financial issues, accompanied him with many supporting characters, such as J. Jonah Jameson, Flash Thompson, Harry Osborn, romantic interests Gwen Stacy and Mary Jane Watson, foes such as Doctor Octopus, Green Goblin and Venom, his origin story has him acquiring spider-related abilities after a bite from a radioactive spider. When Spider-Man first appeared in the early 1960s, teenagers in superhero comic books were relegated to the role of sidekick to the protagonist.
The Spider-Man series broke ground by featuring Peter Parker, a high school student from Queens behind Spider-Man's secret identity and with whose "self-obsessions with rejection and loneliness" young readers could relate. While Spider-Man had all the makings of a sidekick, unlike previous teen heroes such as Bucky and Robin, Spider-Man had no superhero mentor like Captain America and Batman. Marvel has featured Spider-Man in several comic book series, the first and longest-lasting of, The Amazing Spider-Man. Over the years, the Peter Parker character developed from a shy, nerdy New York City high school student to troubled but outgoing college student, to married high school teacher to, in the late 2000s, a single freelance photographer. In the 2010s, he joins Marvel's flagship superhero team. Spider-Man's nemesis Doctor Octopus took on the identity for a story arc spanning 2012–2014, following a body swap plot in which Peter appears to die. Marvel has published books featuring alternate versions of Spider-Man, including Spider-Man 2099, which features the adventures of Miguel O'Hara, the Spider-Man of the future.
Miles is brought into mainstream continuity, where he works alongside Peter. Spider-Man is one of the commercially successful superheroes; as Marvel's flagship character and company mascot, he has appeared in countless forms of media, including several animated and live action television series, syndicated newspaper comic strips, in a series of films. The character was first portrayed in live action by Danny Seagren in Spidey Super Stories, a The Electric Company skit which ran from 1974 to 1977. In films, Spider-Man has been portrayed by actors Tobey Maguire, Andrew Garfield, Tom Holland. Reeve Carney starred as Spider-Man in the 2010 Broadway musical Spider-Man: Turn Off the Dark. Spider-Man has been well received as a superhero and comic book character, he is ranked as one of the most popular and iconic comic book characters of all time. In 1962, with the success of the Fantastic Four, Marvel Comics editor and head writer Stan Lee was casting about for a new superhero idea, he said the idea for Spider-Man arose from a surge in teenage demand for comic books, the desire to create a character with whom teens could identify.
In his autobiography, Lee cites the non-superhuman pulp magazine crime fighter the Spider as a great influence, in a multitude of print and video interviews, Lee stated he was further inspired by seeing a spider climb up a wall—adding in his autobiography that he has told that story so he has become unsure of whether or not this is true. Although at the time teenage superheroes were given names ending with "boy", Lee says he chose "Spider-Man" because he wanted the character to age as the series progressed, moreover felt the name "Spider-Boy" would have made the character sound inferior to other superheroes. At that time Lee had to get only the consent of Marvel publisher Martin Goodman for the character's approval. In a 1986 interview, Lee described in detail his arguments to overcome Goodman's objections. Goodman agreed to a Spider-Man tryout in what Lee in numerous interviews recalled as what would be the final issue of the science-fiction and supernatural anthology series Amazing Adult Fantasy, renamed Amazing Fantasy for that single issue, #15.
In particular, Lee stated that the fact that it had been decided that Amazing Fantasy would be cancelled after issue #15 was the only reason Goodman allowed him to use Spider-Man. While this was indeed the final issue, its editorial page anticipated the comic continuing and that "The Spiderman... will appear every month in Amazing."Regardless, Lee received Goodman's approval for the name Spider-Man and the "ordinary teen" concept and approached artist Jack Kirby. As comics historian Greg Theakston recounts, Kirby told Lee about an unpublished character on which he had collaborated with Joe Simon in the 1950s, in which an orphaned boy living with an old couple finds a
The Stratford Festival is an internationally renowned repertory theatre festival which operates from April to October in the city of Stratford, Canada. Founded by local journalist-turned-producer Tom Patterson, the festival was known as the Stratford Shakespearean Festival, the Shakespeare Festival and Stratford Shakespeare Festival before changing to the current name. Theatre-goers and playwrights flock to Stratford to take part — many of the greatest Canadian and American actors play roles at the Stratford festival, it was one of the first and is still one of the most prominent arts festivals in Canada and is recognized worldwide for its productions of Shakespearean plays. The Festival's primary mandate is to present productions of William Shakespeare's plays, but it produces a wide variety of theatre from Greek tragedy to Broadway style musicals and contemporary works. For some years, Shakespeare's work represented about a third of the offerings in the largest venue, the Festival Theatre.
By 2017 however, only three of the 14 productions were Shakespeare's works. The success of the festival changed the image of Stratford into one of a city where the arts and tourism play important roles in its economy; the festival attracts many tourists from outside Canada those British and American, is seen as a important part of Stratford's tourism sector. The Festival was founded as the Stratford Shakespearean Festival of Canada, due to Tom Patterson, a Stratford-native journalist who wanted to revitalize his town's economy by creating a theatre festival dedicated to the works of William Shakespeare, as the town shares the name of Shakespeare's birthplace, Stratford-upon-Avon, England. Stratford was a railway junction and major locomotive shop, was facing a disastrous loss of employment with the imminent elimination of steam power. Patterson achieved his goal after gaining encouragement from Mayor David Simpson and the local council, the Stratford Shakespearean Festival became a legal entity on October 31, 1952.
Established in Canadian theatre, Dora Mavor Moore helped put Patterson in touch with British actor and director Tyrone Guthrie, first with a transatlantic telephone call. On July 13, 1953, actor Alec Guinness spoke the first lines of the first play produced by the festival, a production of Richard III: "Now is the winter of our discontent / Made glorious summer by this son of York." Alec Guinness and Irene Worth were among the cast of Stratford's inaugural performance of Richard III, working for expenses only. This first performances took place in a concrete amphitheatre covered by giant canvas tent on the banks of the River Avon; the first of many years of Stratford Shakespeare Festival production history started with a six-week season opening on 13 July 1953 with Richard III and All's Well That Ends Well both starring Alec Guinness. The 1954 season ran for nine weeks and included Sophocles’ Oedipus Rex and two Shakespeare plays, Measure for Measure and The Taming of the Shrew. Young actors during the first four seasons included several who went on to great success in subsequent years, Douglas Campbell, Timothy Findley, Don Harron, William Hutt and Douglas Rain.
Fund raising to build a permanent theatre was slow but was helped by donations from Governor General Vincent Massey and the Perth Mutual Insurance Company. The new Festival Theatre was dedicated on 30 June 1957, with seating for over 1,800 people; the design was deliberately intended to resemble a huge tent. That season's productions included Hamlet, Twelfth Night, the satirical My Fur Lady, The Turn of the Screw and Ibsen's Peer Gynt; the Festival Theatre's thrust stage was designed by British designer Tanya Moiseiwitsch to resemble both a classic Greek amphitheatre and Shakespeare's Globe Theatre, has become a model for other stages in North America and Great Britain. Tony Award-nominee Scott Wentworth has performed within the festival's stage productions on numerous occasions since 1985, beginning with The Glass Menagerie, the festival has helped Sara Topham found herself with a career in acting, performing from 2000 to 2011, a young, unknown Christopher Walken appeared in Stratford's 1968 stage productions of Romeo and Juliet and A Midsummer Night's Dream, portraying Romeo and Lysander respectively.
Long-serving Artistic Director Richard Monette retired in 2007 after holding the position for fourteen seasons. He was replaced with an artistic team consisting of General Director Antoni Cimolino and Artistic Directors Marti Maraden, Des McAnuff, Don Shipley. On March 12, 2008 it was announced that Shipley and Maraden would be stepping down, leaving Des McAnuff as sole Artistic Director. In 2013 Des McAnuff was replaced by Antoni Cimolino as Artistic DirectorAs of 2012, the Festival was in a deficit of $3.4 million, but had a surplus of $3.1 million by 2015, under the control of Cimolino and executive director Anita Gaffney. They had not yet reached the target of a half million ticket sales for the season but had achieved a significant increase in the number of new patrons to the theatres; the 2018 season offers a wide range of productions. Those at the Festival Theatre include The Tempest, Julius Caesar, To Kill a Mockingbird and The Music Man. Two other Shakespeare plays and The Comedy of Errors are joined by Oscar Wilde's An Ideal Husband and Eugene O'Neill's Long Day's Journey Into Night.
On 17 February 2015, AP News reported that the Stratford Shakespeare Festival plans to film all of Shakespeare's plays. Well known actors who have participated in the festival include Alan Bates, Brian Bedford, Martha Burns, Jackie Burroughs, Zoe Caldwell, Douglas Campbell, Len Cariou, Brent Carver, P
Waterworld is a 1995 American post-apocalyptic science fiction action film directed by Kevin Reynolds and co-written by Peter Rader and David Twohy. It was based on Rader's original 1986 screenplay and stars Kevin Costner, who produced it with Charles Gordon and John Davis, it was distributed by Universal Pictures. The setting of the film is in the distant future. Although no exact date was given in the film itself, it has been suggested that it takes place in 2500; the polar ice cap has melted, the sea level has risen over 7,600 m, covering nearly all of the land. The plot of the film centers on an otherwise nameless antihero, "The Mariner", a drifter who sails the Earth in his trimaran; the most expensive film made at the time, Waterworld was released to mixed reviews, praising the futuristic setting and premise but criticizing the characterization and acting performances. The film was unable to recoup its massive budget at the box office; the film was nominated for an Academy Award in the category Best Sound at the 68th Academy Awards.
The film's release was accompanied by a novelization, video game, three themed attractions at Universal Studios Hollywood, Universal Studios Singapore, Universal Studios Japan called Waterworld: A Live Sea War Spectacular, all of which are still running as of 2019. Long after the melting of the polar ice caps in the 21st century, the sea levels have covered every continent on Earth; the remains of human civilization live on ramshackle floating communities known as atolls, having long forgotten about living on land. People believe; the Mariner, a lone drifter, arrives on his trimaran to trade dirt, a rare commodity, for other supplies. The atoll's residents see that the Mariner is a mutant with gills and webbed feet and decide to drown him in the atoll's recycling pit—a kind of liquid compost facility. Just the atoll is attacked by the Smokers, a gang of pirates seeking a girl named Enola who, according to their leader the Deacon, has a map to Dryland tattooed on her back. Enola's guardian, attempts to escape with Enola on a gas balloon with Gregor, an inventor, but the balloon is released too early.
Helen instead insists that he take the two of them with him. The three escape to open sea aboard the trimaran, they are pursued by the Smokers, though they escape, Helen's naïve actions result in damage to the Mariner's boat and he angrily cuts her hair, followed by Enola's hair for taking his crayons. Helen explains that she believes humans once lived on land and demands to know where the Mariner collected his dirt, he provides her with a diving bell and dives with her underwater, showing the remains of a city and the dirt on the ocean's floor, affirming Helen's belief. When they surface, they find that the Smokers have caught up to them, threatening to kill them if they do not reveal Enola, hiding aboard the boat; the Smokers abduct try to kill Helen and the Mariner. The Mariner takes Helen, they dive underwater to avoid capture, with the gilled Mariner helping Helen to breathe; when they surface, they find. Gregor manages to catch up to and rescue them, taking them to a new makeshift atoll inhabited by the survivors of the first attack.
The Mariner takes a captured Smoker's jet ski to chase down the Deacon aboard the hulk of the Exxon Valdez. With most of the Smokers below deck to row the tanker, the Mariner confronts the Deacon, threatening to ignite the reserves of oil still on the tanker unless he returns Enola; the Deacon calls the Mariner's bluff, knowing that would destroy the ship, but, to his surprise, the Mariner drops a flare into the oil. The lower decks of the ship are engulfed in flame, the ship starts to sink; the Mariner rescues Enola and escapes via a rope from Gregor's balloon with Helen and the Atoll Enforcer aboard. As the Mariner brings Enola to Helen, the Deacon manages to grab the rope to escape the sinking ship, he climbs aboard a jet ski. He fires upon shaking Enola from the balloon and into the ocean; as The Deacon and some of his men converge on Enola to capture her, The Mariner makes an impromptu bungee jump from the balloon to grab Enola right before the Deacon and his men collide and die in the explosion.
Sometime Gregor has been able to identify the tattoo on Enola's back as coordinates with reversed directions. Following the map, the Mariner, the Atoll Enforcer and Enola discover Dryland, the top of Mount Everest, filled with vegetation and wildlife, they find a crude hut with the remains of Enola's parents. Realizing he does not belong on Dryland, the Mariner decides that he cannot stay as the sea calls to him, he departs as Helen and Enola bid their goodbyes to him. The film marked the fourth collaboration between Costner and Reynolds, who had worked together on Fandango, Robin Hood: Prince of Thieves, Rapa Nui, the latter of which Costner co-produced but did not star in. Waterworld was co-written by David Twohy, who cited Mad Max 2: The Road Warrior as a major inspiration. Both films employed Dean Semler as director of photography. During production, the film was plagued by a series of cost overruns and production setbacks. Universal authorized a budget of $100 million, but production costs ran to an estimated $175 million, a record sum for a film production at the time.
Filming took place in a large artificial seawater enclosure similar to that used
Sound design is the art and practice of creating sound tracks for a variety of needs. It involves specifying, acquiring or creating auditory elements using audio production techniques and tools, it is employed in a variety of disciplines including filmmaking, television production, video game development, sound recording and reproduction, live performance, sound art, post-production and musical instrument development. Sound design involves performing and editing of composed or recorded audio, such as sound effects and dialogue for the purposes of the medium. A sound designer is one; the use of sound to evoke emotion, reflect mood and underscore actions in plays and dances began in prehistoric times. At its earliest, it was used in religious practices for recreation. In ancient Japan, theatrical events called kagura were performed in Shinto shrines with music and dance. Plays were performed in medieval times in a form of theatre called Commedia dell'arte, which used music and sound effects to enhance performances.
The use of music and sound in the Elizabethan Theatre followed, in which music and sound effects were produced off stage using devices such as bells and horns. Cues would be written in the script for music and sound effects to be played at the appropriate time. Italian composer Luigi Russolo built mechanical sound-making devices, called "intonarumori," for futurist theatrical and music performances starting around 1913; these devices were meant to simulate man-made sounds, such as trains and bombs. Russolo's treatise, The Art of Noises, is one of the earliest written documents on the use of abstract noise in the theatre. After his death, his intonarumori' were used in more conventional theatre performances to create realistic sound effects; the first use of recorded sound in the theatre was a phonograph playing a baby’s cry in a London theatre in 1890. Sixteen years Herbert Beerbohm Tree used recordings in his London production of Stephen Phillips’ tragedy NERO; the event is marked in the Theatre Magazine with two photographs.
The article states: “these sounds are all realistically reproduced by the gramophone”. As cited by Bertolt Brecht, there was a play about Rasputin written in by Alexej Tolstoi and directed by Erwin Piscator that included a recording of Lenin's voice. Whilst the term "sound designer" was not in use at this time, a number of stage managers specialised as "effects men", creating and performing offstage sound effects using a mix of vocal mimicry and electrical contraptions and gramophone records. A great deal of care and attention was paid to the construction and performance of these effects, both naturalistic and abstract. Over the course of the twentieth century the use of recorded sound effects began to take over from live sound effects, though it was the stage manager's duty to find the sound effects and an electrician played the recordings during performances. Between 1980 and 1988, Charlie Richmond, USITT's first Sound Design Commissioner, oversaw efforts of their Sound Design Commission to define the duties, responsibilities and procedures which might be expected of a theatre sound designer in North America.
This subject is still discussed by that group, but during that time, substantial conclusions were drawn and he wrote a document which, although now somewhat dated, provides a succinct record of what was expected at that time. It was subsequently provided to both the ADC and David Goodman at the Florida USA local when they were both planning to represent sound designers in the 1990s. MIDI and digital audio technology have contributed to the evolution of sound production techniques in the 1980s and 1990s. Digital audio workstations and a variety of digital signal processing algorithms applied in them allow more complicated sound tracks with more tracks as well as auditory effects to be realized. Features such as unlimited undo and sample-level editing allow fine control over the sound tracks. In theatre sound, features of computerized theatre sound design systems have been recognized as being essential for live show control systems at Walt Disney World and, as a result, Disney utilized systems of that type to control many facilities at their Disney-MGM Studios theme park, which opened in 1989.
These features were incorporated into the MIDI Show Control specification, an open communications protocol used to interact with diverse devices. The first show to utilize the MSC specification was the Magic Kingdom Parade at Walt Disney World's Magic Kingdom in September, 1991; the rise of interest in game audio has brought more advanced interactive audio tools that are accessible without a background in computer programming. Some of such software tools feature a workflow that's similar to that in more conventional digital audio workstation programs and can allow the sound production personnel to undertake some of the more creative interactive sound tasks that would have required a computer programmer. Interactive applications have given rise to a plethora of techniques in "dynamic audio" that loosely means sound that's "parametrically" adjusted during the run-time of the program; this allows for a broader expression in sounds, more similar to that in films, because this way the sound designer can e.g. create footstep sounds that vary in a believable and non-repeating way and that corresponds to what's seen in the picture
CobraNet is a combination of software and network protocols designed to deliver uncompressed, multi-channel, low-latency digital audio over a standard Ethernet network. Developed in the 1990s, CobraNet is regarded as the first commercially successful implementation of audio over Ethernet. CobraNet was designed for and is used in large commercial audio installations such as convention centers, airports, theme parks, concert halls, it has applications where a large number of audio channels must be transmitted over long distances or to multiple locations. CobraNet is an alternative to analog audio, which suffers from signal degradation over long cable runs due to electromagnetic interference, high-frequency attenuation, voltage drop. Additionally, the use of digital multiplexing allows audio to be transmitted using less cabling than analog audio. CobraNet was developed in 1996 by Colorado-based Peak Audio. Initial demonstrations were of a 10 Mbit/s point-to-point system with limited channel capacity.
The first permanent installation of CobraNet in this early form was to provide background music throughout Disney's Animal Kingdom theme park. The first commercial use of CobraNet as an interoperable standard was during the half-time show at Super Bowl XXXI in 1997. CobraNet was first introduced as an interoperable standard in collaboration with manufacturer QSC Audio Products. QSC marketed it under the RAVE brand. At this point CobraNet had graduated to fast Ethernet and used a unique collision avoidance technique to carry up to 64 channels per Ethernet collision domain. CobraNet was subsequently enhanced to support and require a switched Ethernet network. An SNMP agent was added for remote monitoring. Support for higher sample rates, increased bit resolutions and lowered latency capabilities were introduced in an incremental and backwards-compatible manner. In May 2001, Cirrus Logic announced. Leveraging Cirrus DSP technology, a low-cost SoC implementation of CobraNet was developed and marketed.
Using CobraNet and fast Ethernet, 64 channels of uncompressed digital audio are carried through a single category 5 cable. Using gigabit or fiber optic Ethernet variants, the cost of cabling per audio channel is reduced further compared to the fast Ethernet implementation. CobraNet data can coexist with data traffic over existing Ethernet networks so a single network infrastructure can serve audio distribution and other networking needs. Audio routing can be changed at any time with network commands, does not require rewiring. Audio is transmitted in digital form, provides reduced susceptibility to electromagnetic interference, crosstalk and attenuation owing to cable impedance. Use of Ethernet by CobraNet offers many high availability features such as Spanning Tree Protocol, link aggregation, network management. For critical applications, CobraNet devices can be wired with redundant connections to the network. In this configuration, if one CobraNet device, cable, or Ethernet switch fails, the other takes over immediately.
Delays over the CobraNet transmission medium itself are at least 1 1⁄3 milliseconds per network traversal. For some applications, these delays can be unacceptable – when combined with further delays resulting from propagation time, digital signal processing and the conversions between analog and digital. Licensing the technology or purchasing the required CobraNet interfaces, which encode and decode the CobraNet signal, can be expensive. CobraNet is transmitted using standard Ethernet packets. Instead of using TCP/IP packets, CobraNet transfers data using data link layer packets, which travel through hubs and switches, are not as susceptible to the latency and QoS problems found in streaming protocols using a higher transport layer. However, since CobraNet does not use IP protocol, its packets cannot travel through routers, therefore it is limited to use on a LAN; the network over which CobraNet is transmitted must be able to operate at a minimum of 100 Mbit/s. All CobraNet packets are identified with a unique Ethernet protocol identifier assigned to Cirrus Logic.
CobraNet is not designed to work over wireless networks. Bandwidth and reliability issues associated with typical 802.11 wireless networks tend to cause frequent dropouts and errors. However, wireless communication of CobraNet data can be accomplished reliably using lasers. CobraNet data is organized into bundles. A typical CobraNet signal can contain up to 4 bundles of audio travelling in each direction, for a total of 8 bundles per device; each bundle houses up to 8 channels of 20-bit audio, for a total capacity of 64 channels. CobraNet is somewhat scalable, in that channel capacity increases when 16-bit audio is used, channel capacity decreases when 24-bit audio is used; the number of channels allowed per bundle is limited by the 1,500-byte Ethernet MTU. There are three types of bundles: multicast and private: Multicast bundles are sent from one CobraNet device to all other CobraNet devices in the network using Ethernet multicast addressing; each CobraNet device individually determines if it will discard it.
Therefore, multicast bundles are more bandwidth-intensive than other bundle types. Bundle numbers 1–255 are reserved for multicast bundles. Unicast bundles are sent from one CobraNet device to any other device or devices configured to receive the bundle number. Unicast bundles are much more efficient because network switches route them only to devices which want to receive them. Despite their name, unicast bundles may still be sent
EBay Inc. is an American multinational e-commerce corporation based in San Jose, California that facilitates consumer-to-consumer and business-to-consumer sales through its website. EBay was founded by Pierre Omidyar in the autumn of 1995, became a notable success story of the dot-com bubble. EBay is a multibillion-dollar business with operations in about 30 countries, as of 2011; the company manages the eBay website, an online auction and shopping website in which people and businesses buy and sell a wide variety of goods and services worldwide. The website is free to use for buyers, but sellers are charged fees for listing items after a limited number of free listings, again when those items are sold. In addition to eBay's original auction-style sales, the website has evolved and expanded to include: instant "Buy It Now" shopping. EBay offered online money transfers as part of its services; the AuctionWeb was founded in California on September 3, 1995, by French-born Iranian-American computer programmer Pierre Omidyar as part of a larger personal site.
One of the first items sold on AuctionWeb was a broken laser pointer for $14.83. Astonished, Omidyar contacted the winning bidder to ask if he understood that the laser pointer was broken. In his responding email, the buyer explained: "I'm a collector of broken laser pointers."Reportedly, eBay was a side hobby for Omidyar until his Internet service provider informed him he would need to upgrade to a business account due to the high volume of traffic to his website. The resulting price increase forced him to start charging those who used eBay, was not met with any animosity, it resulted in the hiring of Chris Agarpao as eBay's first additional employee to process mailed checks coming in for fees. Jeffrey Skoll was hired as the first new president of the company in early 1996. In November 1996, eBay entered into its first third-party licensing deal, with a company called Electronic Travel Auction, to use SmartMarket Technology to sell plane tickets and other travel products. Growth was phenomenal.
The company changed the name of its service from AuctionWeb to eBay in September 1997. The site belonged to Echo Bay Technology Group, Omidyar's consulting firm. Omidyar had tried to register the domain name echobay.com, but found it taken by the Echo Bay Mines, a gold mining company, so he shortened it to his second choice, eBay.com. In 1997 the company received $6.7 million in funding from the venture capital firm Benchmark Capital. Meg Whitman was hired by the board as eBay president and CEO in March 1998. At the time, the company had 30 employees, half a million users and revenues of $4.7 million in the United States. The repeated story that eBay was founded to help Omidyar's fiancée trade Pez candy dispensers was fabricated by a public relations manager, Mary Lou Song, in 1997 to interest the media, which were not interested in the company's previous explanation about wanting to create a "perfect market"; this was revealed in Adam Cohen's book, The Perfect Store, confirmed by eBay. After eBay went public, both Omidyar and Skoll became instant billionaires.
EBay's target share price of $18 was all but ignored as the price went to $53.50 on the first day of trading. The Pez dispenser myth generated enormous amounts of publicity and led to some of eBay's most explosive early growth among toy collectors; however at the time, Beanie Babies were the leader in the toy category and was the most difficult brand to find in retail stores. Beanie Babies became the dominant product on eBay accounting for 10% of all eBay listings in 1997. While still a held company, eBay's growing market share was contributed by two major factors: The growing collectibility of Beanie Babies in the mid-1990s – collectors internationally were trying to complete their collection of Beanie Babies Ty producing the first business-to-consumer Web site - the original Ty Web site contained an online trading post where people could trade their Beanie Babies, however the trading post was overwhelmed with unsortable listings creating a legitimate demand for a more efficient online system to buy and trade Beanie Babies in the secondary marketAs a result, eBay provided a user-friendly interface to search for specific Beanie Babies that collectors were searching for.
On September 21, 1998, eBay went public. In the risk factors section of the annual report filed with the US Securities and Exchange Commission in 1998, Omidyar notes eBay's dependence on the continued strength of the Beanie Babies market; as the company expanded product categories beyond collectibles into any saleable item, business grew quickly. In 2000, eBay had 12 million registered users and a cyberinventory of more than 4.5 million items on sale on any given day. In February 2002 the company purchased iBazar, a similar European auction web site founded in 1998, bought PayPal on October 3, 2002. By early 2008 the company had expanded worldwide, counting hundreds of millions of registered users as well as 15,000 employees and revenues of $7.7 billion. After nearly ten years at eBay, Whitman decided to enter politics. On January 23, 2008, the company announced that Whitman would step down on March 31, 2008, John Donahoe was selected to become president and CEO. Whitman remained on the board of directors and continued to advise
Universal's Islands of Adventure
Universal's Islands of Adventure is a theme park located in Orlando, Florida. It opened on May 28, 1999, along with CityWalk, as part of an expansion that converted Universal Studios Florida into the Universal Orlando Resort; the resort's slogan Vacation Like You Mean It was introduced in 2013. Islands of Adventure is modeled after a journey of exploration, where guests embark on an adventure to visit a variety of themed islands; the park featured six islands. A seventh, The Wizarding World of Harry Potter, was added in 2010, themed to the popular Harry Potter franchise, it was Universal's largest investment since the resort's founding in 1990. The expansion led to a significant increase in attendance, in 2013, Islands of Adventure ranked seventh domestically and eleventh internationally after hosting 8.1 million guests. The eighth island, Skull Island, opened on July 13, 2016. Like Universal Studios Florida next door, Islands of Adventure has not limited itself to Universal's own library, because it licensed other characters from rival studios, many of whom did not own theme parks of their own, as attractions and lands.
Some of these include: Dr. Seuss properties Harry Potter book and film franchise Popeye Pre-2009 Marvel Comics. Before Islands of Adventure was built, the site was planned as a shopping mall called Galleria Orlando. Plans were first drawn up for the mall in 1985, but it was canceled in 1990. During the construction of the park, Universal opened a Preview Center at adjacent Universal Studios Florida. Opening two years before the new theme park, the Preview Center was designed to give guests a sneak peek at some of the themes and attractions for Islands of Adventure; the attraction was located in the Paradise Theater building located in the New York section of Universal Studios Florida, next to the Kongfrontation attraction. In the attraction, guests would walk through various rooms themed to the various "Islands" in the new park; the final room stated when the Islands of Adventure park would open, showed guests Universal's future plans for the Universal Orlando Resort. The Preview Center was closed shortly after the opening of Islands of Adventure.
Islands of Adventure had a soft opening beginning March 27, 1999, during which visitors could preview the park at a discounted price while the staff conducted a technical rehearsal and worked on the "finishing touches." During this soft opening, guests were informed that attractions might open and close throughout the day without notice and that some attractions might not be open at all. Initial plans were to open the park in mid-May, but this was delayed until May 28, 1999. After the enormous capital expenditure required to build Islands of Adventure, CityWalk, the resort hotels, Universal sought to overtake nearby Walt Disney World in attendance. However, with the addition of the second park, new resorts, entertainment district, the resort was named Universal Studios Escape, it seemed that visitors were confused by the name, assuming that Islands of Adventure was a new area added to the already-existing Universal Studios Florida theme park. For the first two years, attendance did not rise.
By 2001, the marketing was revamped, clarifying that Islands of Adventure was indeed a second separate park with new rides and attractions. Universal Studios Escape was renamed Universal Orlando Resort, ended up being the only resort in the Orlando area to have an increase in attendance after the September 11 attacks on the United States; as with any amusement park, older attractions are sometimes removed to make way for newer ones. At Islands of Adventure, some have been closed with no replacement like Island Skipper Tours while others like Poseidon's Fury were changed from their initial concept to the attraction that operates today. Islands of Adventure consists of eight themed "islands", the majority of which are based on licensed intellectual properties, with only two lands based on original Universal Studios works, they are, in clockwise order from entry: Port of Entry, Marvel Super Hero Island, Toon Lagoon, Skull Island, Jurassic Park, The Wizarding World of Harry Potter, The Lost Continent, Seuss Landing.
Port of Entry is the park's main entrance and is home to many shops and services including Guest Services aptly named The Open Arms Hotel. The park's centerpiece, Pharos Lighthouse, is located within Port of Entry; each night, this real, functioning lighthouse sends out a bright beam to lead visitors to and from the park's gates. Like many theme parks using the "hub and spokes" format, this entry Island contains no rides, is noted for its boulevard of restaurants and shops. Marvel Super Hero Island is based on the superhero characters featured in Marvel Comics; the area features comic-book styled architecture. Many exteriors are painted in a special paint which appears to change color based on the angle from which it is viewed – sometimes purple, sometimes orange; the buildings are all labelled generically: "Store," "Shop," "Food," and "Comics", etc. The area is home to a variety of dining outlets and merchandise shops. Food and beverage items can be purchased from Captain America Diner. Merchandise items can be bought from a variety of themed stores including Spider-Man Shop, Marvel Alterniverse Store, Comic Book Shop, Oakley.