Gladstone is an unincorporated community in Nelson County, United States. Edge Hill was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 2008. GNIS reference
Buchanan is a town in Botetourt County, United States. The population was 1,178 at the 2010 census, it is part of the Roanoke Metropolitan Statistical Area. It was the western terminus of the James River and Kanawha Canal when construction on the canal ended. Buchanan was incorporated in 1832; the town of Pattonsburg was founded on the opposite side of the James River, connected to Buchanan via a bridge. An 1855 gazetteer described Buchanan and Pattonsburg together containing "3 or 4 churches, 1 bank, 1 printing office, several tobacco factories and mills."The Buchanan Historic District, Lauderdale, Looney Mill Creek Site, Wilson Warehouse are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Buchanan is located at 37°31′31″N 79°41′0″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 2.2 square miles, of which 2.2 square miles is land and 0.039 square miles, or 2.09%, is water. U. S. Route 11 runs through the center of town as Main Street. Interstate 81 runs along the northwest side of the town, with access from Exit 167 to the north and Exit 162 to the south, both with Route 11.
State Route 43 crosses the James River with Route 11 in the center of town. S. Route 220 at southeast to the Blue Ridge Parkway and the Peaks of Otter; as of the census of 2000, there were 1,233 people, 540 households, 359 families residing in the town. The population density was 510.1 people per square mile. There were 579 housing units at an average density of 239.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 90.84% White, 7.95% African American, 0.08% Native American, 0.32% Asian, 0.81% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.73% of the population. There were 540 households out of which 25.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.5% were married couples living together, 11.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.5% were non-families. 29.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.28 and the average family size was 2.79. In the town, the population was spread out with 20.6% under the age of 18, 6.6% from 18 to 24, 29.2% from 25 to 44, 23.9% from 45 to 64, 19.7% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.1 males. The median income for a household in the town was $32,500, the median income for a family was $37,443. Males had a median income of $29,405 versus $20,565 for females; the per capita income for the town was $16,238. About 6.9% of families and 10.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.2% of those under age 18 and 9.2% of those age 65 or over. Mary Johnston and women's rights activist Matthew Ramsey and lead singer of country-rock music group Old Dominion Hughie Thomasson, Lynyrd Skynyrd born in Buchanan The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Buchanan has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps. Town of Buchanan official website
James River and Kanawha Canal
The James River and Kanawha Canal was a built canal in Virginia intended to facilitate shipments of passengers and freight by water between the western counties of Virginia and the coast. Its towpath became the roadbed for a rail line following the same course. Surveyed and planned by George Washington, the canal project was begun in 1785 as the James River Company, restarted under the James River and Kanawha Canal Company, it was an expensive project which failed several times financially and was damaged by floods. Though financed by the Commonwealth of Virginia through the Virginia Board of Public Works, it was only half completed by 1851, reaching Buchanan, in Botetourt County; when work to extend it further west stopped permanently, railroads were overtaking the canal as a far more productive mode of transportation. After the American Civil War funds for resuming construction were unavailable from either the war-torn Commonwealth or private sources and the project did poorly against railroad competition succumbing to damage done by massive flooding in 1877.
In the end its right-of-way was bought and the canal was dismantled by the new Richmond and Allegheny Railroad, which laid tracks on the former towpath. The R&A became part of the Chesapeake and Ohio Railway in the 1890s, which developed much of the former canal route into an important line for West Virginia bituminous coal headed eastbound for the Peninsula Extension to reach the Hampton Roads coal piers at Newport News for worldwide export aboard large colliers; the James River and Kanawha Canal was a project first proposed by George Washington when he was a young man surveying the mountains of western Virginia, which at the time consisted of what is today West Virginia, to the north bank of the Ohio river. He was searching for a way to open a water route to the West, he believed, the key to helping Virginia become an economic powerhouse in what would emerge as the United States quite a few years later. In those times, waterways were the major highways of commerce. Early developments along the east coast of the colonies tended to end at the Fall Line of the rivers that emptied into its great bays.
Such early communities in Virginia included what we now know as Alexandria on the Potomac River, Fredericksburg on the Rappahannock River and Lynchburg on the James River and Petersburg on the Appomattox River. It was known by that the Ohio River flowed into the Mississippi River, which flowed into the Gulf of Mexico, it was known that the Allegheny Mountains formed the Eastern Continental Divide, that there was no inland waterway to sail between the two large watersheds. By 1772, Washington had identified the Potomac and James rivers as the most promising locations for canals to be built to join with the western rivers, his preference was the James, as the Potomac led to rivers in land disputed with Pennsylvania and would be helpful to Maryland. The James could be aligned with the Kanawha River, would best serve only Virginia, his priority. In 1785, the James River Company was formed, with former Revolutionary War Commander in Chief George Washington as honorary president, to build locks around the falls at Richmond.
By Washington was quite busy with the affairs of the new nation, in 1789 being elected its first president. Promoted by such men as George Washington, Edmund Randolph, John Marshall, the James River Company opened in 1790 as the first commercial canal in the United States. Stretching from Richmond, Virginia to Westham and paralleling the James for 7 miles, it supplemented existing bateaux transportation on the James River; these flat-bottomed boats floated down the James to Richmond laden with tobacco hogsheads and returned with French and English imports, furniture and clothing. In addition to bateaux, many canal boats were packets, which drew more water than the smaller bateaux. Mules and horses pulled the packets along the towpaths. Locks were necessary at points; the American Revolutionary War and the War of 1812 each slowed construction. Work was slow and labor-intensive through the rocky terrain of Virginia's Piedmont region, a transitional area between the sandy coastal plain and the mountains.
Enslaved Africans hired from plantation owners who lived near the route of the canal did most of the labor. After work stalled for a number of years the canal company gave up. In 1820, the Commonwealth of Virginia took control of the project and with state funds provided through the Virginia Board of Public Works resumed construction. Work stalled yet again resumed in 1835 under the new James River and Kanawha Company, with Judge Benjamin Wright as Chief Engineer, he was assisted by Charles Ellet Jr. and Daniel Livermore. By 1840, the canal was completed to Lynchburg. Service was inaugurated by William Henry Harrison, elected president that same year. In 1847, Walter W. Gwynn was hired with Edward Lorraine as his assistant; the canal extended 196.5 miles west of Richmond to Buchanan by 1851. There, the plan was to link it to the James River and Kanawha Turnpike to provide passage through the most rugged portions of the mountains; the goal was to reach the Kanawha River at its head of navigation, about 30 miles east of today's Charleston, West Virginia.
The portage necessary made competition with railroads along the same route a real threat. Construction of a planned railroad there was delayed by the American Civil War. However, both war damage and interruption in the flow of commerce along the canal did gre
The Appalachian Mountains called the Appalachians, are a system of mountains in eastern North America. The Appalachians first formed 480 million years ago during the Ordovician Period, they once reached elevations similar to those of the Alps and the Rocky Mountains before experiencing natural erosion. The Appalachian chain is a barrier to east–west travel, as it forms a series of alternating ridgelines and valleys oriented in opposition to most highways and railroads running east–west. Definitions vary on the precise boundaries of the Appalachians; the United States Geological Survey defines the Appalachian Highlands physiographic division as consisting of thirteen provinces: the Atlantic Coast Uplands, Eastern Newfoundland Atlantic, Maritime Acadian Highlands, Maritime Plain, Notre Dame and Mégantic Mountains, Western Newfoundland Mountains, Blue Ridge and Ridge, Saint Lawrence Valley, Appalachian Plateaus, New England province, the Adirondack areas. A common variant definition does not include the Adirondack Mountains, which geologically belong to the Grenville Orogeny and have a different geological history from the rest of the Appalachians.
The mountain range is in the United States but it extends into southeastern Canada, forming a zone from 100 to 300 mi wide, running from the island of Newfoundland 1,500 mi southwestward to Central Alabama in the United States. The range covers parts of the islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, which comprise an overseas territory of France; the system is divided into a series of ranges, with the individual mountains averaging around 3,000 ft. The highest of the group is Mount Mitchell in North Carolina at 6,684 feet, the highest point in the United States east of the Mississippi River; the term Appalachian refers to several different regions associated with the mountain range. Most broadly, it refers to the entire mountain range with its surrounding hills and the dissected plateau region; the term is used more restrictively to refer to regions in the central and southern Appalachian Mountains including areas in the states of Kentucky, Virginia, West Virginia, North Carolina, as well as sometimes extending as far south as northern Alabama and western South Carolina, as far north as Pennsylvania, southern Ohio, parts of southern upstate New York.
The Ouachita Mountains in Arkansas and Oklahoma were part of the Appalachians as well but became disconnected through geologic history. While exploring inland along the northern coast of Florida in 1528, the members of the Narváez expedition, including Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca, found a Native American village near present-day Tallahassee, Florida whose name they transcribed as Apalchen or Apalachen; the name was soon altered by the Spanish to Apalachee and used as a name for the tribe and region spreading well inland to the north. Pánfilo de Narváez's expedition first entered Apalachee territory on June 15, 1528, applied the name. Now spelled "Appalachian," it is the fourth-oldest surviving European place-name in the US. After the de Soto expedition in 1540, Spanish cartographers began to apply the name of the tribe to the mountains themselves; the first cartographic appearance of Apalchen is on Diego Gutierrez's map of 1562. The name was not used for the whole mountain range until the late 19th century.
A competing and more popular name was the "Allegheny Mountains", "Alleghenies", "Alleghania". In the early 19th century, Washington Irving proposed renaming the United States either Appalachia or Alleghania. In U. S. dialects in the southern regions of the Appalachians, the word is pronounced, with the third syllable sounding like "latch". In northern parts of the mountain range, it is pronounced or. There is great debate between the residents of the regions as to which pronunciation is the more correct one. Elsewhere, a accepted pronunciation for the adjective Appalachian is, with the last two syllables "-ian" pronounced as in the word "Romanian"; the whole system may be divided into three great sections: Northern: The northern section runs from the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador to the Hudson River. It includes the Long Range Mountains and Annieopsquotch Mountains on the island of Newfoundland, Chic-Choc Mountains and Notre Dame Range in Quebec and New Brunswick, scattered elevations and small ranges elsewhere in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, the Longfellow Mountains in Maine, the White Mountains in New Hampshire, the Green Mountains in Vermont, The Berkshires in Massachusetts and Connecticut.
The Metacomet Ridge Mountains in Connecticut and south-central Massachusetts, although contained within the Appalachian province, is a younger system and not geologically associated with the Appalachians. The Monteregian Hills, which cross the Green Mountains in Quebec, are unassociated with the Appalachians. Central: The central section goes from the Hudson Valley to the New River running through Virginia and West Virginia, it comprises the Valley Ridges between the Allegheny Front of the Allegheny Plateau and the Great Appalachian Valley, the New York–New Jersey Highlands, the Taconic Mountains in New York, a large portion of the Blue Ridge. Southern: The southern section runs from the New River onwards, it consists of the prolongation of the Blue Ridge, divided into the Western Blue Ridge Front and the Eastern Blue Ridge Front, the Ridge-and-Valley Appalachians, the Cumberland Plateau. The Adirondack Mountains in New Y
Maymont is a 100-acre Victorian estate and public park in Richmond, Virginia. It contains Maymont Mansion, now a historic house museum, an arboretum, formal gardens, a carriage collection, native wildlife exhibits, a nature center, Children's Farm. In 1893, Major James H. Dooley, a wealthy Richmond lawyer and philanthropist, his wife, completed their elaborate Gilded Age estate on a site high above the James River. According to their wishes, after their deaths Maymont was left to the people of Richmond. Over the next 75 years, additional attractions were added. Maymont was named for Sallie May. Construction began in 1890, with the mansion completed in 1893; the Dooleys built a summer home on Afton Mountain, completed in 1913. In 2011, Maymont was named one of the top 10 public spaces by the American Planning Association; the Japanese Garden features a koi pond and a large waterfall. The Japanese Garden has a torii arch, rock gardens, various red maples, it is a mixture of many styles of gardens. In 1911, a section of the Kanawha Canal was bought to be a part of the garden.
Some say they hired a master Japanese gardener by the name of Muto, who had designed other gardens along the East Coast. Years following Mrs. Dooley's passing, the Japanese garden lost its magnificence and design; the garden still has its winding watercourse that leads to its large pond. After realizing the decline of the quality of the garden, Earth Design renovated it in 1978; the new design of the Japanese is considered a "stroll garden" which offers guests at Maymont to see how the changing impact of nature has on the grounds. Created by Noland and Baskervill of Richmond, The Italian Garden features a pergola, fountains and roses; the creators of the garden modeled their design after the 15th and 16th century Italian classical style. The garden is laid out on many levels; the design of the Cascade and the Fountain Court is patterned like the Villa Torlonia near Rome. The Italian Garden was completed in 1910; the arboretum contains more than 200 species of trees and woody plants. It includes a number of "exotic champions" including a Cedrus atlantica, Cryptomeria japonica, Parrotia persica, Tilia europea.
It's said that this collection of exotic and native species of trees was not just used for beauty, but for scientific purposes. The Dooley's were of sophisticated people and their tree choice only adds on to that description; some examples of exotic flora that are on grounds include the False Larch and Pseudolarix kaempferia from Japan. A characteristic of all these trees is the fact; this is credited to the same landscaper who helped with the design of the Italian garden, Henry E. Baskervill. Credit goes to the Dooleys as well. Maymont's gardens are popular for outdoor weddings focused around the Italian Garden, the Japanese Garden and numerous gazebos located throughout the grounds. There are ten specialty gardens as well. There is the "Marie's Butterfly Garden", finished in 2009, it starts east of the Children's Farm and goes along the horse and cow pastures, down to the Bobcat habitat. Examples of flowers include yarrow, butterfly weed, cone flowers, butterfly bushes, blue spirea and herbs. There is an Herb Garden on grounds as well.
This was donated by the Richmond Council of Garden Clubs in 1957. It has been maintained by the Old Dominion Herb Society since 1978. There is an "Herbs Galor" festival that this garden is a centerpiece for; the herbs are grown for medicinal potpourri uses. In addition to the farm animals that it keeps in the Children's Farm, Maymont is the permanent home of several animals that are native to the Commonwealth. Many of these are otherwise unable to live in the wild; these animals include a bobcat, black bears and foxes. Visitors are able to see white-tailed deer and American bison. A nature center is on the grounds, which exhibits many aquatic animals found in and around Virginia such as otters and sharks. Throughout the park, Canada geese, American snapping turtles, numerous species of snakes, American bullfrogs can be found wild. List of botanical gardens in the United States National Register of Historic Places listings in Richmond, Virginia The Maymont Foundation Richmond, Virginia, a National Park Service Discover Our Shared Heritage Travel Itinerary Maymont National Register Nomination on the Virginia Department of Historic Resources Site Maymont: Richmond Commission of Architectural Review Slide Collection
Philanthropy means the love of humanity. A conventional modern definition is "private initiatives, for the public good, focusing on quality of life", which combines an original humanistic tradition with a social scientific aspect developed in the 20th century; the definition serves to contrast philanthropy with business endeavors, which are private initiatives for private good, e.g. focusing on material gain, with government endeavors, which are public initiatives for public good, e.g. focusing on provision of public services. A person who practices philanthropy is called a philanthropist. Philanthropy has distinguishing characteristics separate from charity. A difference cited is that charity aims to relieve the pain of a particular social problem, whereas philanthropy attempts to address the root cause of the problem—the difference between the proverbial gift of a fish to a hungry person, versus teaching them how to fish. In the second century CE, Plutarch used the Greek concept of philanthrôpía to describe superior human beings.
During the Roman Catholic Middle Ages, philanthrôpía was superseded by Caritas charity, selfless love, valued for salvation and escape from purgatory. Philanthropy was modernized by Sir Francis Bacon in the 1600s, credited with preventing the word from being owned by horticulture. Bacon considered philanthrôpía to be synonymous with "goodness", correlated with the Aristotelian conception of virtue, as consciously instilled habits of good behaviour. Samuel Johnson defined philanthropy as "love of mankind; this definition still survives today and is cited more gender-neutrally as the "love of humanity." In London prior to the 18th century and civic charities were established by bequests and operated by local church parishes or guilds. During the 18th century, however, "a more activist and explicitly Protestant tradition of direct charitable engagement during life" took hold, exemplified by the creation of the Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge and Societies for the Reformation of Manners.
In 1739, Thomas Coram, appalled by the number of abandoned children living on the streets of London, received a royal charter to establish the Foundling Hospital to look after these unwanted orphans in Lamb's Conduit Fields, Bloomsbury. This was "the first children's charity in the country, one that'set the pattern for incorporated associational charities' in general." The hospital "marked the first great milestone in the creation of these new-style charities."Jonas Hanway, another notable philanthropist of the era, established The Marine Society in 1756 as the first seafarer's charity, in a bid to aid the recruitment of men to the navy. By 1763, the society had recruited over 10,000 men and it was incorporated in 1772. Hanway was instrumental in establishing the Magdalen Hospital to rehabilitate prostitutes; these organizations were run as voluntary associations. They raised public awareness of their activities through the emerging popular press and were held in high social regard—some charities received state recognition in the form of the Royal Charter.
Philanthropists, such as anti-slavery campaigner William Wilberforce, began to adopt active campaigning roles, where they would champion a cause and lobby the government for legislative change. This included organized campaigns against the ill treatment of animals and children and the campaign that succeeded in ending the slave trade throughout the Empire starting in 1807. Although there were no slaves allowed in Britain itself, many rich men owned sugar plantations in the West Indies, resisted the movement to buy them out until it succeeded in 1833. Financial donations to organized charities became fashionable among the middle-class in the 19th century. By 1869 there were over 200 London charities with an annual income, all together, of about £2 million. By 1885, rapid growth had produced with an income of about £ 4.5 million. They included a wide range of religious and secular goals, with the American import, the YMCA as one of the largest, many small ones such as the Metropolitan Drinking Fountain Association.
In addition to making annual donations wealthy industrialists and financiers left generous sums in their wills. A sample of 466 wills in the 1890s revealed a total wealth of £76 million, of which £20 million was bequeathed to charities. By 1900 London charities enjoyed an annual income of about £8.5 million. Led by the energetic Lord Shaftesbury, philanthropists organized themselves. In 1869 they set up the Charity Organisation Society, it was a federation of one in each of the 42 Poor Law divisions. Its central office had experts in coordination and guidance, thereby maximizing the impact of charitable giving to the poor. Many of the charities were designed to alleviate the harsh living conditions in the slums; such as the Labourer's Friend Society founded in 1830. This included the promotion of allotment of land to labourers for "cottage husbandry" that became the allotment movement, in 1844 it became the first Model Dwellings Company—an organization that sought to improve the housing conditions of the working classes by building new homes for them, while at the same time receiving a competitive rate of return on any investment.
This was one of the first housing associations, a philanthropic endeavor that flourished in the second half of the nineteenth century, brought about by the growth of the middle class. Associations included the Peabody Trust, t
Buckingham Branch Railroad
Buckingham Branch Railroad is a Class III short-line railroad operating over 275 miles of historic and strategic trackage in Central Virginia. Sharing overhead traffic with CSX and Amtrak, the company's headquarters are in Dillwyn, Virginia in the former Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad station, itself a historic landmark in the community; the railroad was featured in the January 2012 issue of Trains Magazine. Buckingham Branch Railroads' tracks are located in the heart of Central Virginia; the routing was constructed in the 19th century by several railroad companies. These include the Louisa Railroad, the Virginia Central Railroad, the state-owned Blue Ridge Railroad, the Covington and Ohio Railroad. All of those lines became part of Collis Huntington's Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad in the 1870s, which connected the Chesapeake Bay with the valleys of the New River and Kanawha River, leading to the Ohio River Valley and thence the Mississippi River. In the 1880s, Major James H. Dooley's Richmond and Allegheny Railroad was built along the James River along the former right-of-way of the James River and Kanawha Canal.
It too became part of the C&O, offering a lower grade pathway for coal bound from the mountains to Newport News than the older line through Staunton, Crozet's Blue Ridge Tunnel complex, Charlottesville. Diverging from the older line at JD Cabin just east of Clifton Forge, this became known as the James River line, rejoining the old Virginia Central tracks near Main Street Station at Richmond; the short-line branch from Bremo Bluff on the James River line into Buckingham County transported kaolin clay from the unique and rare deposits of Willis Mountain, along with timber, quarried rock, minor amounts of general freight. As major railroads merged and consolidated in the late 20th century, many rail lines with low traffic were abandoned, spun off into short-line railroads, or became at risk for abandonment. With lower operating costs and personalized service to shippers, many of the short-lines were able to perpetuate rail service in areas where the Class 1 railroads could not operate profitably when subsidized by government entities.
The Buckingham Branch was founded in 1989 by retired CSX railroader Robert E. Bryant; the company began with the acquisition of a 16-mile long branch from the CSX Transportation's James River subdivision line near Bremo Bluff on the James River south to Dillwyn in Buckingham County. The interchange with CSX is at Strathmore yard, near the junction of the former Virginia Air Line Railway. Serving small industries and quarries, the BBRR began with one locomotive and a caboose, was staffed by Bryant's family. For a number of years, the Buckingham Branch operated the Shenandoah Valley Railroad under contract; that short-line extends from Staunton through Augusta County north to Pleasant Valley outside Harrisonburg in Rockingham County. In 2002, the operating contract was lost to another Virginia-based short-line road, the Eastern Shore Railroad. Today, the Shenandoah Valley Railroad, operated by the Durbin and Greenbrier Valley Railroad, interchanges with the Buckingham Branch at Staunton. In December 2004, Buckingham Branch entered into a 20-year lease with CSX Transportation to operate 200 miles of track in Virginia on the latter's Piedmont, North Mountain subdivisions.
Each were parts of the Virginia Central Railroad's line, extend from Richmond through Doswell, Orange to Charlottesville, Virginia. From there, the line extends through the Blue Ridge Tunnel complex to Waynesboro, Staunton to reconnect with CSX lines at Clifton Forge; the line, the backbone of Collis Huntington's newly completed Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad in the 1870s was supplanted by a lower-grade line along the path of the former James River and Kanawha Canal in the 1880s. Unlike the original branch in Buckingham County, the new section is leased for a 20-year period. CSX retains overhead trackage rights on the trackage leased to the Buckingham Branch, continues its same pattern of running empty westbound coal and grain trains over the route, sometimes as many as eight a day. Train crews must contend with this fact by continually dodging CSX westbounds, as well as Amtrak's thrice-weekly Cardinal by going into the various sidings along the lines. Amtrak continues to use the Buckingham Branch line between Orange and Clifton Forge on Wednesdays and Sundays, the only instance where an Amtrak train utilizes a Class III railway line.
This new section of the expanded Buckingham Branch was dispatched by CSX from Jacksonville, Florida for the first two years. Following the end of operations by the Bay Coast Railroad on May 18, 2018, the Buckingham Branch Railroad took action to lease and operate the BCR's tracks in Little Creek, VA. A filing with the STB dated June 13, 2018 stated, in part: Pursuant to regulations of the Surface Transportation Board at 49 C. F. R. § l 150.42, Buckingham Branch Railroad Company, a Class III rail carrier, hereby gives notice to employees of Cassatt Management, LLC d/b/a Bay Coast Railroad that, as soon as federal regulatory authorization permits, BB intends to lease and commence operations over lines of railroad owned by: Canonie Atlantic Co. on behalf of the Accomack-Northampton Transportation District Commission. The Lines are leased to, operated by, BCR; the CAC-owned portion of Lines are as follows: Between milepost 95.0 at Little Creek (Virgini