New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. It is located on a peninsula, bordered on the north and east by the state of New York along the extent of the length of New York City on its western edge. New Jersey is the fourth-smallest state by area but the 11th-most populous, with 9 million residents as of 2017, the most densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. New Jersey lies within the combined statistical areas of New York City and Philadelphia. New Jersey was the second-wealthiest U. S. state by median household income as of 2017. New Jersey was inhabited by Native Americans for more than 2,800 years, with historical tribes such as the Lenape along the coast. In the early 17th century, the Dutch and the Swedes founded the first European settlements in the state; the English seized control of the region, naming it the Province of New Jersey after the largest of the Channel Islands and granting it as a colony to Sir George Carteret and John Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton.
New Jersey was the site of several decisive battles during the American Revolutionary War in the 18th century. In the 19th century, factories in cities, Paterson, Trenton, Jersey City, Elizabeth helped to drive the Industrial Revolution. New Jersey's geographic location at the center of the Northeast megalopolis, between Boston and New York City to the northeast, Philadelphia and Washington, D. C. to the southwest, fueled its rapid growth through the process of suburbanization in the second half of the 20th century. In the first decades of the 21st century, this suburbanization began reverting with the consolidation of New Jersey's culturally diverse populace toward more urban settings within the state, with towns home to commuter rail stations outpacing the population growth of more automobile-oriented suburbs since 2008. Around 180 million years ago, during the Jurassic Period, New Jersey bordered North Africa; the pressure of the collision between North America and Africa gave rise to the Appalachian Mountains.
Around 18,000 years ago, the Ice Age resulted in glaciers. As the glaciers retreated, they left behind Lake Passaic, as well as many rivers and gorges. New Jersey was settled by Native Americans, with the Lenni-Lenape being dominant at the time of contact. Scheyichbi is the Lenape name for the land, now New Jersey; the Lenape were several autonomous groups that practiced maize agriculture in order to supplement their hunting and gathering in the region surrounding the Delaware River, the lower Hudson River, western Long Island Sound. The Lenape society was divided into matrilinear clans; these clans were organized into three distinct phratries identified by their animal sign: Turtle and Wolf. They first encountered the Dutch in the early 17th century, their primary relationship with the Europeans was through fur trade; the Dutch became the first Europeans to lay claim to lands in New Jersey. The Dutch colony of New Netherland consisted of parts of modern Middle Atlantic states. Although the European principle of land ownership was not recognized by the Lenape, Dutch West India Company policy required its colonists to purchase the land that they settled.
The first to do so was Michiel Pauw who established a patronship called Pavonia in 1630 along the North River which became the Bergen. Peter Minuit's purchase of lands along the Delaware River established the colony of New Sweden; the entire region became a territory of England on June 24, 1664, after an English fleet under the command of Colonel Richard Nicolls sailed into what is now New York Harbor and took control of Fort Amsterdam, annexing the entire province. During the English Civil War, the Channel Island of Jersey remained loyal to the British Crown and gave sanctuary to the King, it was from the Royal Square in Saint Helier that Charles II of England was proclaimed King in 1649, following the execution of his father, Charles I. The North American lands were divided by Charles II, who gave his brother, the Duke of York, the region between New England and Maryland as a proprietary colony. James granted the land between the Hudson River and the Delaware River to two friends who had remained loyal through the English Civil War: Sir George Carteret and Lord Berkeley of Stratton.
The area was named the Province of New Jersey. Since the state's inception, New Jersey has been characterized by religious diversity. New England Congregationalists settled alongside Scots Presbyterians and Dutch Reformed migrants. While the majority of residents lived in towns with individual landholdings of 100 acres, a few rich proprietors owned vast estates. English Quakers and Anglicans owned large landholdings. Unlike Plymouth Colony and other colonies, New Jersey was populated by a secondary wave of immigrants who came from other colonies instead of those who migrated directly from Europe. New Jersey remained agrarian and rural throughout the colonial era, commercial farming developed sporadically; some townships, such as Burlington on the Delaware River and Perth Amboy, emerged as important ports for shipping to New York City and Philadelphia. The colony's fertile lands and tolerant religious policy drew more settlers, New Jersey's population had increased to 120,000 by 1775. Settlement for the first 10 years of English rule took place along Hackensack River and Arthur Kill –
Bogota, New Jersey
Bogota is a borough in Bergen County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the borough's population was 8,187, reflecting a decline of 62 from the 8,249 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 425 from the 7,824 counted in the 1990 Census. Bogota was formed on November 14, 1894, from portions of Ridgefield Township, based on the results of a referendum held that day; the borough was formed during the "Boroughitis" phenomenon sweeping through Bergen County, in which 26 boroughs were formed in the county in 1894 alone. Portions of Bogota were taken in 1895 to form part of the newly created Township of Teaneck. Bogota was named in honor of the Bogert family, the first to occupy the area, may be a portmanteau of Bogert and Banta, another early family, with an "O" added to ease pronunciation; the borough's name is pronounced bə-GOH-tə, unlike Bogotá, capital city of Colombia, whose name is accented on the final syllable. Coincidentally, 1.54% of Bogota's residents are from Colombia.
Bogota is located on the east shore of the Hackensack River. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough had a total area of 0.813 square miles, including 0.765 square miles of land and 0.048 square miles of water. The borough borders Hackensack to the west, Ridgefield Park to the south and Teaneck on the north and east; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 8,187 people, 2,773 households, 2,079.750 families residing in the borough. The population density was 10,702.5 per square mile. There were 2,888 housing units at an average density of 3,775.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 61.00% White, 9.42% Black or African American, 0.78% Native American, 9.81% Asian, 0.09% Pacific Islander, 14.80% from other races, 4.10% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 38.71% of the population. There were 2,773 households out of which 36.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.9% were married couples living together, 14.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.0% were non-families.
20.7% of all households were made up of individuals, 7.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.94 and the average family size was 3.43. In the borough, the population was spread out with 23.7% under the age of 18, 9.5% from 18 to 24, 26.4% from 25 to 44, 28.6% from 45 to 64, 11.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38.6 years. For every 100 females there were 91.8 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 86.9 males. The Census Bureau's 2006-2010 American Community Survey showed that median household income was $77,375 and the median family income was $96,563. Males had a median income of $53,460 versus $46,350 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $31,844. About 8.2% of families and 7.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.9% of those under age 18 and 3.4% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2000 United States Census there were 8,249 people, 2,874 households, 2,126 families residing in the borough.
The population density was 10,841.3 people per square mile. There were 2,915 housing units at an average density of 3,831.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 75.72% White, 5.73% African American, 0.15% Native American, 7.75% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 6.76% from other races, 3.83% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 21.32% of the population. There were 2,874 households out of which 36.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.0% were married couples living together, 13.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.0% were non-families. 21.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.85 and the average family size was 3.38. In the borough the population was spread out with 25.3% under the age of 18, 8.2% from 18 to 24, 32.1% from 25 to 44, 23.3% from 45 to 64, 11.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years.
For every 100 females, there were 90.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.1 males. The median income for a household in the borough was $59,813, the median income for a family was $69,841. Males had a median income of $49,347 versus $36,406 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $25,505. About 2.6% of families and 4.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 2.3% of those under age 18 and 4.2% of those age 65 or over. Bogota is governed under the borough form of New Jersey municipal government; the governing body consists of a mayor and a borough council comprising six council members, with all positions elected at-large on a partisan basis as part of the November general election. A mayor is elected directly by the voters to a four-year term of office; the borough council consists of six members elected to serve three-year terms on a staggered basis, with two seats coming up for election each year in a three-year cycle. The borough form of government used by Bogota, the most common system used in the state, is a "weak mayor / strong council" government in which council members act as the legislative body, with the mayor presiding at meetings and voting only in the event of a tie.
The mayor can veto ordinances subject to an override by a two-thirds majority vote of the council. The mayor makes committee and liaison assignments for council members, most appointments are made by
Yale University is a private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut. Founded in 1701, it is the third-oldest institution of higher education in the United States and one of the nine Colonial Colleges chartered before the American Revolution. Chartered by Connecticut Colony, the "Collegiate School" was established by clergy to educate Congregational ministers, it moved to New Haven in 1716 and shortly after was renamed Yale College in recognition of a gift from British East India Company governor Elihu Yale. Restricted to theology and sacred languages, the curriculum began to incorporate humanities and sciences by the time of the American Revolution. In the 19th century, the college expanded into graduate and professional instruction, awarding the first Ph. D. in the United States in 1861 and organizing as a university in 1887. Its faculty and student populations grew after 1890 with rapid expansion of the physical campus and scientific research. Yale is organized into fourteen constituent schools: the original undergraduate college, the Yale Graduate School of Arts and Sciences and twelve professional schools.
While the university is governed by the Yale Corporation, each school's faculty oversees its curriculum and degree programs. In addition to a central campus in downtown New Haven, the university owns athletic facilities in western New Haven, a campus in West Haven and forest and nature preserves throughout New England; the university's assets include an endowment valued at $29.4 billion as of October 2018, the second largest endowment of any educational institution in the world. The Yale University Library, serving all constituent schools, holds more than 15 million volumes and is the third-largest academic library in the United States. Yale College undergraduates follow a liberal arts curriculum with departmental majors and are organized into a social system of residential colleges. All members of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences—and some members of other faculties—teach undergraduate courses, more than 2,000 of which are offered annually. Students compete intercollegiately as the Yale Bulldogs in the NCAA Division I – Ivy League.
As of October 2018, 61 Nobel laureates, 5 Fields Medalists and 3 Turing award winners have been affiliated with Yale University. In addition, Yale has graduated many notable alumni, including five U. S. Presidents, 19 U. S. Supreme Court Justices, 31 living billionaires and many heads of state. Hundreds of members of Congress and many U. S. diplomats, 78 MacArthur Fellows, 247 Rhodes Scholars and 119 Marshall Scholars have been affiliated with the university. Its wealth and influence have led to Yale being reported as amoungst the most prestigious universities in the United States. Yale traces its beginnings to "An Act for Liberty to Erect a Collegiate School", passed by the General Court of the Colony of Connecticut on October 9, 1701, while meeting in New Haven; the Act was an effort to create an institution to train ministers and lay leadership for Connecticut. Soon thereafter, a group of ten Congregational ministers, Samuel Andrew, Thomas Buckingham, Israel Chauncy, Samuel Mather, Rev. James Noyes II, James Pierpont, Abraham Pierson, Noadiah Russell, Joseph Webb, Timothy Woodbridge, all alumni of Harvard, met in the study of Reverend Samuel Russell in Branford, Connecticut, to pool their books to form the school's library.
The group, led by James Pierpont, is now known as "The Founders". Known as the "Collegiate School", the institution opened in the home of its first rector, Abraham Pierson, today considered the first president of Yale. Pierson lived in Killingworth; the school moved to Saybrook and Wethersfield. In 1716, it moved to Connecticut. Meanwhile, there was a rift forming at Harvard between its sixth president, Increase Mather, the rest of the Harvard clergy, whom Mather viewed as liberal, ecclesiastically lax, overly broad in Church polity; the feud caused the Mathers to champion the success of the Collegiate School in the hope that it would maintain the Puritan religious orthodoxy in a way that Harvard had not. In 1718, at the behest of either Rector Samuel Andrew or the colony's Governor Gurdon Saltonstall, Cotton Mather contacted the successful Boston born businessman Elihu Yale to ask him for financial help in constructing a new building for the college. Through the persuasion of Jeremiah Dummer, Elihu "Eli" Yale, who had made a fortune through trade while living in Madras as a representative of the East India Company, donated nine bales of goods, which were sold for more than £560, a substantial sum at the time.
Cotton Mather suggested that the school change its name to "Yale College".. Meanwhile, a Harvard graduate working in England convinced some 180 prominent intellectuals that they should donate books to Yale; the 1714 shipment of 500 books represented the best of modern English literature, science and theology. It had a profound effect on intellectuals at Yale. Undergraduate Jonathan Edwards discovered John Locke's works and developed his original theology known as the "new divinity". In 1722 the Rector and six of his friends, who had a study group to discuss the new ideas, announced that they had given up Calvinism, become Arminians and joined the Church of England, they were returned to the colonies as missionaries for the Anglican faith. Thomas Clapp became president in 1745 and struggled to return the college to Calvinist orthodoxy, but he did not close the library. Other students found Deist books in the library. Yale was swept up by the great intellectual movements of the peri
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
Christopher James Christie is an American politician, former federal prosecutor, political commentator who served as the 55th Governor of New Jersey from 2010 to 2018. During his governorship, he chaired the Opioid and Drug Abuse Commission in 2017. Christie became an ABC News contributor in 2018 after leaving office. Christie was raised in Livingston, he volunteered for Thomas Kean's gubernatorial campaign at age 15. After graduating in 1984 from the University of Delaware, he earned a J. D. at Seton Hall. He practiced law from 1987 to 2002, he was elected county freeholder for Morris County, serving from 1995 to 1998. By 2002, he had campaigned for George W. Bush. S. Attorney for New Jersey, a position he held from 2002 to 2008. Christie won the 2009 Republican primary for Governor of New Jersey, defeating the incumbent Jon Corzine in the general election. During his first term, he was credited with cutting spending, capping property tax growth, was praised for his response to and recovery efforts after Hurricane Sandy, was re-elected by a wide margin in 2013.
Christie is a moderate Republican relative to the national GOP. After the start of his second term as governor, Christie's standing was damaged by the Fort Lee lane closure scandal. Since he has ranked among the least popular governors in the United States. By June 2017, he was found to have an approval rating of 15%, the lowest recorded for any New Jersey governor; as of July 2017, his disapproval rating of 69% was the highest of all governors in the nation. Christie chaired the Republican Governors Association for the 2014 election cycle. On June 30, 2015, he announced his candidacy for the Republican nomination in the 2016 presidential election, he suspended his candidacy on February 10, 2016, soon after endorsed Donald Trump, who named him head of his transition planning team. Christie was considered to be Trump's running mate but was not chosen. Soon after the election, Christie was replaced on the transition team by Mike Pence, as were three of Christie's associates, he chaired the Drug Abuse Commission in 2017 after being appointed by Trump.
He has been offered numerous positions in Donald Trump's cabinet, but only considered being the Attorney General. Christie was born in Newark, New Jersey, to Sondra A. a telephone receptionist, Wilbur James "Bill" Christie, a certified public accountant who graduated from Rutgers Business School. His mother was of Italian ancestry, father is of German and Irish descent. Christie's family moved to Livingston, New Jersey, after the 1967 Newark riots, Christie lived there until he graduated from Livingston High School in 1980. At Livingston High School, Christie served as class president and played catcher for the baseball team. Christie's father and mother were Democratic, respectively, he has credited, his Democratic-leaning mother for indirectly making him a Republican by encouraging him in 1977 to volunteer for the gubernatorial candidate who became his role model: Tom Kean. Christie had become interested in Kean after the politician a state legislator, spoke to Christie's junior high school class.
Christie graduated from the University of Delaware with a Bachelor of Arts in political science in 1984 and Seton Hall University School of Law with a J. D. in 1987. He was admitted to the New Jersey State Bar Association and the Bar of the United States District Court, District of New Jersey, in December 1987, he was awarded honorary doctorate degrees by Rutgers University and Monmouth University in 2010. In 1986, Christie married a fellow student at the University of Delaware. After marrying, they shared a studio apartment in New Jersey. Mary Pat Christie pursued a career in investment banking and worked at the Wall Street firm Cantor Fitzgerald. Through April 2015 she was a managing director at the Wall Street investment firm Angelo, Gordon & Co. Christie and Mary Pat have two daughters; the family resides in Mendham Township. Christie's hobbies have included coaching Little League, cheering for the New York Mets, attending Bruce Springsteen concerts. Christie's other favorite sports teams are the New York Knicks, New York Rangers, Dallas Cowboys.
In 1987, Christie joined the law firm of Hewit & Palatucci of Cranford, New Jersey. In 1993, he was named a partner in the firm. Christie specialized in securities law, appellate practice, election law, government affairs, he is a member of the American Bar Association and the New Jersey State Bar Association and was a member of the Election Law Committee of the New Jersey State Bar Association. From 1999 to 2001, Christie was registered statehouse lobbyist for Hewit. Christie volunteered for President George H. W. Bush's 1992 re-election campaign in New Jersey, became close to Bush's state director, Bill Palatucci. Following the campaign, Christie decided to run for office, moved to Mendham Township. In 1993, Christie launched a primary challenge against the New Jersey Senate Majority Leader, John H. Dorsey. However, Christie's campaign ended after Dorsey challenged the validity of Christie's petition to appear on the ballot. In 1994, Christie was elected as a Republican to the Board of Chosen Freeholders, or legislators, for Morris County, New Jersey, after he and a running mate defeated incumbent freeholders in the party primary.
Following the election, the defeated incumbents filed a defamation lawsuit against Ch
University of Pennsylvania
The University of Pennsylvania is a private Ivy League research university located in the University City neighborhood of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It is one of the nine colonial colleges founded prior to the Declaration of Independence and the first institution of higher learning in the United States to refer to itself as a university. Benjamin Franklin, Penn's founder and first president, advocated an educational program that trained leaders in commerce and public service, similar to a modern liberal arts curriculum; the university's coat of arms features a dolphin on its red chief, adopted from Benjamin Franklin's own coat of arms. University of Pennsylvania is home many professional and graduate schools including, the first school of medicine in North America, the first collegiate business school and the first "student union" building and organization were founded at Penn; the university has four undergraduate schools which provide a combined 99 undergraduate majors in the humanities, natural sciences and engineering, as well twelve graduate and professional schools.
It provides the option to pursue specialized dual degree programs. Undergraduate admissions is competitive, with an acceptance rate of 7.44% for the class of 2023, the school is ranked as the 8th best university in the United States by the U. S. News & World Report. In athletics, the Quakers field varsity teams in 33 sports as a member of the NCAA Division I Ivy League conference and hold a total of 210 Ivy League championships as of 2017. In 2018, the university had an endowment of $13.8 billion, the seventh largest endowment of all colleges in the United States, as well as an academic research budget of $966 million. As of 2018, distinguished alumni include 14 heads of 64 billionaire alumni. S. House of Representatives. Other notable alumni include 27 Rhodes Scholars, 15 Marshall Scholarship recipients, 16 Pulitzer Prize winners, 48 Fulbright Scholars. In addition, some 35 Nobel laureates, 169 Guggenheim Fellows, 80 members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, many Fortune 500 CEOs have been affiliated with the university.
University of Pennsylvania considers itself the fourth-oldest institution of higher education in the United States, though this is contested by Princeton and Columbia Universities. The university considers itself as the first university in the United States with both undergraduate and graduate studies. In 1740, a group of Philadelphians joined together to erect a great preaching hall for the traveling evangelist George Whitefield, who toured the American colonies delivering open air sermons; the building was designed and built by Edmund Woolley and was the largest building in the city at the time, drawing thousands of people the first time it was preached in. It was planned to serve as a charity school as well, but a lack of funds forced plans for the chapel and school to be suspended. According to Franklin's autobiography, it was in 1743 when he first had the idea to establish an academy, "thinking the Rev. Richard Peters a fit person to superintend such an institution". However, Peters declined a casual inquiry from Franklin and nothing further was done for another six years.
In the fall of 1749, now more eager to create a school to educate future generations, Benjamin Franklin circulated a pamphlet titled "Proposals Relating to the Education of Youth in Pensilvania", his vision for what he called a "Public Academy of Philadelphia". Unlike the other Colonial colleges that existed in 1749—Harvard, William & Mary and Princeton—Franklin's new school would not focus on education for the clergy, he advocated an innovative concept of higher education, one which would teach both the ornamental knowledge of the arts and the practical skills necessary for making a living and doing public service. The proposed program of study could have become the nation's first modern liberal arts curriculum, although it was never implemented because William Smith, an Anglican priest who became the first provost and other trustees preferred the traditional curriculum. Franklin assembled a board of trustees from among the leading citizens of Philadelphia, the first such non-sectarian board in America.
At the first meeting of the 24 members of the Board of Trustees, the issue of where to locate the school was a prime concern. Although a lot across Sixth Street from the old Pennsylvania State House, was offered without cost by James Logan, its owner, the Trustees realized that the building erected in 1740, still vacant, would be an better site; the original sponsors of the dormant building still owed considerable construction debts and asked Franklin's group to assume their debts and, their inactive trusts. On February 1, 1750, the new board took over the building and trusts of the old board. On August 13, 1751, the "Academy of Philadelphia", using the great hall at 4th and Arch Streets, took in its first secondary students. A charity school was chartered July 13, 1753 in accordance with the intentions of the original "New Building" donors, although it lasted only a few years. On June 16, 1755, the "College of Philadelphia" was chartered, paving the way for the addition of undergraduate instruction.
All three schools shared the same Board of Trustees and were consider
United States Attorney for the District of New Jersey
The U. S. Attorney for the District of New Jersey is the chief federal law enforcement officer in New Jersey. On January 5, 2018, Craig Carpenito was appointed U. S. Attorney pursuant to 28 U. S. C. § 546 by US Attorney General Jeff Sessions. On April 27, 2018, the judges of the United States District Court for the District of New Jersey unanimously appointed Carpenito U. S. Attorney pursuant to its statutory powers; the U. S. District Court for the District of New Jersey has jurisdiction over all cases prosecuted by the U. S. Attorney; the Office is organized into divisions handling civil and appellate matters, in addition to the Special Prosecutions Division, which oversees political corruption investigations. The District of New Jersey is divided into three vicinages: Newark and Camden, with the southern two offices supervised by a Deputy U. S. Attorney; the office employs 135 Assistant U. S. Attorneys, it is the fifth-largest U. S. Attorney's Office in the nation, behind those in the District of Columbia, Los Angeles and Miami.
Hugh Addonizio - Conviction of former Newark mayor on conspiracy and extortion charges Andrew'weev' Auernheimer - Conviction of Goatse Security hacker involved in the aggregation of publicly published email address data from AT&T 3G iPad servers, who had his CFAA conviction vacated when the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit ruled that the venue in New Jersey was improper since no conduct element of his alleged crime occurred within the state of New Jersey. Wayne Bryant - Conviction of former chairman of New Jersey Senate Budget & Appropriations Committee for funneling money to the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey in exchange for a no-show job at the University. Crazy Eddie - Conviction of Eddie Antar, founder and CEO of Crazy Eddie, a consumer electronics chain, for fraud Walter Forbes - Conviction of former chairman of Cendant Corporation for fraud. Fort Dix Six - Conviction of group of six radical Islamist men plotting attack on Fort Dix military base Cornelius Gallagher - Guilty plea of New Jersey Congressman for tax evasion Nelson G. Gross - Conviction of former Republican state chairman on perjury and obstruction of justice charges Sharpe James - Conviction of former Newark mayor on corruption charges Robert C.
Janiszewski - Guilty plea of Hudson County Executive for tax evasion and bribery John V. Kenny - Conviction of former Jersey City mayor and chairman of Hudson County Democratic Party on conspiracy and extortion charges Charles Kushner - Guilty plea of real estate developer—and largest campaign donor to former New Jersey Governor James E. McGreevey—for filing false tax returns and for attempting to retaliate against a witness in a federal criminal case Hemant Lakhani - Conviction of black market arms dealer attempting to sell shoulder-fired missiles John A. Lynch, Jr. - Guilty plea of former president of New Jersey Senate for mail fraud and tax evasion Operation Bid Rig - Multi-stage political corruption sweep, resulting in arrest of Hoboken Mayor Peter Cammarano, Secaucus Mayor Dennis Elwell, New Jersey Assemblymen Daniel Van Pelt and L. Harvey Smith, Jersey City Council President Mariano Vega Sarah Brockington Bost, Mayor of Irvington, New Jersey Martin Taccetta & Michael Taccetta - Unsuccessful prosecution of high-ranking members of The Jersey Crew, a faction of the Lucchese crime family UMDNJ - Deferred prosecution agreement overseen by federal monitor Herbert Stern involving Medicaid double-billing and other cases of health care fraud at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey.
Thomas J. Whelan - Conviction of mayor of Jersey City on conspiracy and extortion charges Fort Lee lane closure scandal Samuel Alito, Jr. - Associate Justice, U. S. Supreme Court Maryanne Trump Barry - U. S. Circuit Court Judge, Third Circuit John Winslow Bissell - U. S. District Court Judge Matthew Boxer - Comptroller, State of New Jersey Garrett Brown, Jr. - U. S. District Court Judge Renee Bumb - U. S. District Court Judge Michael Chagares - U. S. Circuit Court Judge, Third Circuit Michael Chertoff - Former Secretary, Department of Homeland Security Stanley R. Chesler - U. S. District Court Judge Christopher J. Christie - Governor of New Jersey John Farmer Jr. - Former Attorney General, State of New Jersey Joseph Greenaway - U. S. Circuit Court Judge, Third Circuit Gurbir Grewal - Bergen County Prosecutor and Attorney General-designate of New Jersey Peter C. Harvey - Former Attorney General, State of New Jersey Katharine Hayden - U. S. District Court Judge Noel Hillman - U. S. District Court Judge.
S. Department of Justice Richard Hughes - Former Governor of New Jersey. S. District Court Judge. S. District Court Judge Herbert Stern - former U. S. District Court Judge. C. Elmer Garret D. Wall James S. Green William Halstead Garret S. Cannon Anthony Q. Keasbey Job H. Lippincott Samuel F. Bigelow George S. Duryee Henry S. White John W. Beekman J. Kearney Rice David Ogden Watkins Cortlandt Parker, Jr. John B. Vreeland J. Warr