Ford Motor Company
Ford Motor Company is an American multinational automaker that has its main headquarter in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit. It was founded by Henry Ford and incorporated on June 16, 1903; the company sells automobiles and commercial vehicles under the Ford brand and most luxury cars under the Lincoln brand. Ford owns Brazilian SUV manufacturer Troller, an 8% stake in Aston Martin of the United Kingdom and a 32% stake in Jiangling Motors, it has joint-ventures in China, Thailand and Russia. The company is controlled by the Ford family. Ford introduced methods for large-scale manufacturing of cars and large-scale management of an industrial workforce using elaborately engineered manufacturing sequences typified by moving assembly lines. Ford's former UK subsidiaries Jaguar and Land Rover, acquired in 1989 and 2000 were sold to Tata Motors in March 2008. Ford owned the Swedish automaker Volvo from 1999 to 2010. In 2011, Ford discontinued the Mercury brand, under which it had marketed entry-level luxury cars in the United States, Canada and the Middle East since 1938.
Ford is the second-largest U. S.-based automaker and the fifth-largest in the world based on 2015 vehicle production. At the end of 2010, Ford was the fifth largest automaker in Europe; the company went public in 1956 but the Ford family, through special Class B shares, still retain 40 percent voting rights. During the financial crisis at the beginning of the 21st century, it was close to bankruptcy, but it has since returned to profitability. Ford was the eleventh-ranked overall American-based company in the 2018 Fortune 500 list, based on global revenues in 2017 of $156.7 billion. In 2008, Ford produced 5.532 million automobiles and employed about 213,000 employees at around 90 plants and facilities worldwide. Henry Ford's first attempt at a car company under his own name was the Henry Ford Company on November 3, 1901, which became the Cadillac Motor Company on August 22, 1902, after Ford left with the rights to his name; the Ford Motor Company was launched in a converted factory in 1903 with $28,000 in cash from twelve investors, most notably John and Horace Dodge.
The first president was not Ford, but local banker John S. Gray, chosen to assuage investors' fears that Ford would leave the new company the way he had left its predecessor. During its early years, the company produced just a few cars a day at its factory on Mack Avenue and its factory on Piquette Avenue in Detroit, Michigan. Groups of two or three men worked on each car, assembling it from parts made by supplier companies contracting for Ford. Within a decade, the company would lead the world in the expansion and refinement of the assembly line concept, Ford soon brought much of the part production in-house in a vertical integration that seemed a better path for the era. Henry Ford was 39 years old when he founded the Ford Motor Company, which would go on to become one of the world's largest and most profitable companies, it has been in continuous family control for over 100 years and is one of the largest family-controlled companies in the world. The first gasoline powered automobile had been created in 1885 by the German inventor Carl Benz.
More efficient production methods were needed to make automobiles affordable for the middle class, to which Ford contributed by, for instance, introducing the first moving assembly line in 1913 at the Ford factory in Highland Park. Between 1903 and 1908, Ford produced the Models A, B, C, F, K, N, R, S. Hundreds or a few thousand of most of these were sold per year. In 1908, Ford introduced the mass-produced Model T, which totalled millions sold over nearly 20 years. In 1927, Ford replaced the T with the first car with safety glass in the windshield. Ford launched the first low-priced car with a V8 engine in 1932. In an attempt to compete with General Motors' mid-priced Pontiac and Buick, Ford created the Mercury in 1939 as a higher-priced companion car to Ford. Henry Ford purchased the Lincoln Motor Company in 1922, in order to compete with such brands as Cadillac and Packard for the luxury segment of the automobile market. In 1929, Ford was contracted by the government of the Soviet Union to set up the Gorky Automobile Plant in Russia producing Ford Model A and AAs thereby playing an important role in the industrialisation of that country.
The creation of a scientific laboratory in Dearborn, Michigan in 1951, doing unfettered basic research, led to Ford's unlikely involvement in superconductivity research. In 1964, Ford Research Labs made a key breakthrough with the invention of a superconducting quantum interference device or SQUID. Ford offered the Lifeguard safety package from 1956, which included such innovations as a standard deep-dish steering wheel, optional front, for the first time in a car, rear seatbelts, an optional padded dash. Ford introduced child-proof door locks into its products in 1957, and, in the same year, offered the first retractable hardtop on a mass-produced six-seater car. In late 1955, Ford established the Continental division as a separate luxury car division; this division was responsible for the manufacture and sale of the famous Continental Mark II. At the same time, the Edsel division was created to design and market that car starting with the 1958 model year. Due to limited sales of the Continental and the Edsel disaster, Ford merged Lincoln and Edsel into "M
Riverside International Raceway
Riverside International Raceway was a motorsports race track and road course in the Moreno Valley area, a suburb just east of Riverside, California. Riverside was a dusty place, it was at times a dangerous place, yet it is remembered with affection by drivers and fans alike, as the home of road racing in southern California. It was considered one of USA's finest tracks; the track was in operation from September 22, 1957, to July 2, 1989, with the last race, The Budweiser 400, won by Rusty Wallace, held in 1988. After that final race, a shortened version of the circuit was kept open for car clubs and special events until 1989. In the beginning it was called The Riverside International Motor Raceway, it was built in early 1957 by a company called West Coast Automotive Testing Corp.. The head of West Coast Auto Testing was a man by the name of Rudy Cleye, from Los Angeles, who had raced in Europe; however the building of the raceway met with funding difficulties early on and a businessman by the name of John Edgar provided a much needed cash bailout.
This action prevented any halt in the track's construction. The first weekend of scheduled races in September 1957, a California Sports Car Club event, John Lawrence of Pasadena, lost his life. Lawrence, a former Cal Club member, piloting a 1500 cc Production champion, went off at Turn 5. With no crash barrier in place, no rollbar on the car, Lawrence's MGA went up the sand embankment rolled back onto the track. Though Lawrence survived the incident, appeared only injured, he died at the hospital of a brain injury; the second major event at the track, in November 1957, was a sports car race featuring some of the top drivers of the day, including Carroll Shelby, Masten Gregory and Ken Miles. Another driver entered was an inexperienced local youngster named Dan Gurney, offered the opportunity to drive a powerful but ill-handling 4.9-liter Ferrari after better-known drivers such as Shelby and Miles had rejected it. Shelby spun and fell back. Gurney led for much of the event. Shelby, driving furiously to catch up overtook Gurney late in the race and won.
Gurney's performance caught the eye of North American Ferrari importer Luigi Chinetti, who arranged for Gurney to drive a factory-supported Ferrari at Le Mans in 1958 launching the Californian's European career. Footage exists of classic races like the 1986 Los Angeles Times Grand Prix in which the Chevy Corvette of Doc Bundy, attempting a three-wide pass, hit the Ford Probe of Lyn St. James and the Jaguar of Chip Robinson at Turn 1. St. James' car caught Chip Robinson nearly cartwheeled into the crowd. St. James survived Robinson escaped uninjured within the track bounds; the track was known as a dangerous course, with its long, downhill back straightaway and brake-destroying slow 180-degree Turn 9 at the end. During the 1965 Motor Trend 500 NASCAR race, Indycar great A. J. Foyt suffered a brake failure at the end of the straight, shot off the road and went end-over-end through the infield at high speed. Crash crews assumed Foyt was dead at the scene, until fellow driver Parnelli Jones noticed a twitch of movement.
Ford factory sports car driver Ken Miles was killed there in a testing accident in August 1966 when his Ford sports car prototype became aerodynamically unstable and flew out of control at the end of the back straight. In December 1968, American Formula 5000 champion Dr. Lou Sell crashed and overturned in Turn 9 on the first lap of the Rex Mays 300 Indianapolis-style race, suffering near-fatal burns. In January 1967, Canadian driver Billy Foster crashed at Turn 9 during a practice-session just prior to the start of qualifying for the Motor Trend 500 NASCAR race; these accidents and others caused track management to reconfigure Turn 9, giving the turn a dogleg approach and a much wider radius. In January 1964, Riverside claimed the life of 1962–'63 NASCAR champion Joe Weatherly, who refused to wear a shoulder harness and wore his lap belt loosely. Weatherly died when he lost control entering Turn 6, hitting the steel barrier broadside and had his head snapped out the window against the barrier.
In 1983 Turn 9 was the site of the only fatality in IMSA GTP history. In the 1983 Times Grand Prix, Rolf Stommelen's Joest-constructed Porsche 935 lost its rear wing at the Dogleg and hit two freeway-type barriers sending it into a horrific roll at Turn 9. Of the entire road course races run at RIR, there was one, run in a counter-clockwise direction, sometime around 1960. In 1966 Dan Gurney tested his first Eagle racing car on a shorter, counter-clockwise version of the track tailored for his car's Indianapolis-specific left-turn oiling system; the test caused Gurney to ask track president Les Richter to hold an Indianapolis-style race there. From 1967 to 1969 the Rex Mays 300 served as the season-ending USAC Indianapolis-car race. ESPN taped the June 12, 1988, Budweiser 400 race at RIR and caught racer Ruben Garcia crashing hard off turn 9 and his car went through two cement barriers before coming to rest near a catch fence where fans were sitting, he was not injured and neither were the race fans.
After 14 years of NASCAR as a driver and a car owner, Richard Childress won his first NASCAR race in 1983, when Ricky Rudd drove his #3 Piedmont Airlines Chevrolet to victory in the 1983 Budweiser 400k. From 1981 until 1987, NASCAR's championship race was at Riverside; the USAC Championship Trail held their season ending race from 1967 to 1969. Riverside was home to track announcer
The Indianapolis 500-Mile Race is an automobile race held annually at Indianapolis Motor Speedway in Speedway, United States, an enclave suburb of Indianapolis, Indiana. The event is held over Memorial Day weekend in late May, it is contested as part of the IndyCar Series, the top level of American Championship Car racing, an open-wheel open-cockpit formula colloquially known as "Indy Car Racing". The name of the race is shortened to Indy 500, the track itself is nicknamed "the Brickyard", as the racing surfacing was paved in brick in the fall of 1909; the event, billed as The Greatest Spectacle in Racing, is considered part of the Triple Crown of Motorsport, which comprises three of the most prestigious motorsports events in the world including the Monaco Grand Prix and the 24 Hours of Le Mans. The official attendance is not disclosed by Speedway management, but the permanent seating capacity is upwards of 250,000, infield patrons raise the race-day attendance to 300,000; the inaugural race was won by Ray Harroun.
The event celebrated its 100th anniversary in 2011, the 100th running was held in 2016. Will Power is the current champion; the most successful drivers are A. J. Foyt, Al Unser Sr. and Rick Mears, each of whom have won the race four times. The active driver with the most victories is Hélio Castroneves, with three. Rick Mears holds the record for most career pole positions with six; the most successful car owner is Roger Penske, owner of Team Penske, which has 17 total wins and 17 poles. The event is steeped in tradition, in pre-race ceremonies, post-race celebrations, race procedure; the most noteworthy and most popular traditions are the 33-car field, the annual singing of "Back Home Again in Indiana," and the victory lane bottle of milk. The Indianapolis 500 is held annually at a 2.5-mile oval circuit. Technically, the track is a unique rounded-rectangle, with four distinct turns of identical dimensions, connected by four straightaways. Drivers race 200 laps, counter-clockwise around the circuit, for a distance of 500 miles.
Since its inception in 1911, the race has always been scheduled around Memorial Day. Since 1974, the race has been scheduled for the Sunday of Memorial Day weekend; the Sunday of Memorial Day weekend is considered one of the most important days on the motorsports calendar, as it is the day of the Indianapolis 500, Coca-Cola 600, the Monaco Grand Prix. Practice and time trials are held in the two weeks leading up to the race, while other preliminary testing is held as early as April. Traditionally, the field consists of 33 starters, aligned in a starting grid of eleven rows of three cars apiece; the event is contested by "Indy cars", a formula of professional-level, single-seat, open cockpit, open-wheel, purpose-built race cars. As of 2018, all entrants utilize 2.2 L V6, twin-turbocharged engines, tuned to produce a range of 550–700 horsepower. Chevrolet and Honda are the current engine manufacturers involved in the sport. Dallara is at present the sole chassis supplier to the series. Firestone, which has a deep history in the sport, dating back to the first 500, is the exclusive tire provider.
The race is the most prestigious event of the IndyCar calendar, one of the oldest and most important automobile races. It has been avouched to be the largest single-day sporting event in the entire world; the Indianapolis Motor Speedway itself is regarded as the world's largest sporting facility in terms of capacity. The total purse exceeded $13 million in 2011, with over $2.5 million awarded to the winner, making it one of the richest cash prize funds in sports. Similar to NASCAR's Daytona 500, the Indianapolis 500 is held early in the IndyCar Series season; that is unique to most sports where major events are at the end of the respective season. The Indy 500 is the sixth event of the 17-race IndyCar schedule. From the 1970s to the 1990s, Indianapolis was the second or third race of the season, as late as the 1950s, it was sometimes the first championship event of the year. Due to the high prestige of the Indianapolis 500—rivaling or surpassing the season championship—it is not uncommon for some teams and drivers to concentrate on preparation for the 500 during the early part of the season, not focus on the championship battle until after Indy.
The traditional 33-car starting field at Indianapolis is larger than the fields at the other IndyCar races. The field at Indy consists of all of the full-time IndyCar Series entries, along with 10–15 part-time or "Indy-only" entries; the "Indy-only" entries popularly called "One-Offs", may be an extra car added to an existing full-time team, or a part-time team altogether that does not enter any of the other races. The "Indy-only" drivers may come from a wide range of pedigrees, but are experienced Indy car drivers that either lack a full-time ride, are former full-time drivers that have elected to drop down to part-time status, or occasional one-off drivers from other racing disciplines, it is not uncommon for some drivers, to quit full-time driving during the season, but race at Indy singly for numerous years afterwards before entering full retirement. Due to safety issues such as aquaplaning, the race is not held in wet conditions. In the event of a rain delay, the race will be postponed until rain showers cease, the track is sufficiently dried.
If rain falls during the race, officials can end the race and declare the results official if more than half of the scheduled distance (i.e. 101 lap
1971 Indianapolis 500
The 55th 500 Mile International Sweepstakes was held at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway in Speedway, Indiana on Saturday, May 29, 1971. Al Unser, Sr. won for the second consecutive year. The race was marred by a crash involving the pace car at the start. Eldon Palmer, a local Indianapolis-area Dodge dealer, lost control of the Dodge Challenger pace car at the south end of the pit area, it crashed into a photographers' stand, injuring 29 people, two seriously. Peter Revson started on the pole with a speed of over 178 miles per hour, more than a mile per hour faster than any other qualifier, with defending champ Al Unser in the middle of the second row. Mark Donohue, who qualified in the middle of the front row, took the lead at the start of the race and led the first 50 laps. A mechanical issue ended his day after just 66 laps, Unser assumed the lead, he and Joe Leonard swapped the lead several times during the middle portion of the race, but Unser led for the final 83 laps, giving him a win for the second year in a row.
Unser became the only driver to date to win the race on his birthday. It was his second of an eventual four Indy victories. Unser became the first winner to celebrate in the new victory lane; the new winner's area, now featuring black and white checkered ramps, was moved from the south end of the pits to the "horseshoe" area below the Master Control Tower, near the start/finish line. The 1971 Indy 500 was part of the newly re-organized USAC Marlboro Championship Trail, in which dirt tracks were separated from the paved ovals and road courses. From on, the Gold Crown championship schedule would consist of paved tracks, giving the national championship a decidedly new look for the 1970s and beyond. In addition, with 500-mile races at Ontario and Pocono now on the schedule, Indy car racing formed its first "triple crown." The city of Indianapolis celebrated its Sesquicentennial in 1971, the occasion was reflected on the bronze and silver pit badges for the month of May. During the week leading up to the race, Indianapolis was the site of 1971 NATO International Conference of Cities.
In the days leading up to the race, Speedway officials announced that female reporters would be allowed in the pit area and garage area for the first time. For the first time, USAC firmed up the rules regarding pole day qualifying; as had been done in previous years, a blind draw would be held to determine the order of qualifying on pole day. However, starting in 1971, all drivers/cars in the original qualifying draw order would be allowed the opportunity to make at least one attempt in the pole round regardless if rain halted the session and pushed it off to another day. If rain interrupted the qualifying line on pole day, any cars left in the original qualifying order at the time the track closed were out of luck, had to qualify on the next round. During practice, McLaren arrived at the track with the new M16 chassis, drawing attention and some controversy due to presence of a large rear wing affixed to the engine cover. USAC rules through 1971 required that any aerodynamic devices were to be an integral part of the bodywork.
After inspection, officials approved the device, as McLaren argued it was part of the engine cover. The engine cover was not much more than a flat, plate-like shape that ran along the top of the engine, with the wing affixed to the rear; as practice began, the McLaren entries established themselves as favorites for the pole position. McLaren M16 cars dominated qualifying during a record-shattering afternoon; the chassis took 1st, 2nd, 4th starting positions, with Peter Revson the surprise pole position winner. Revson's four-lap track record of 178.696 mph put the pole position far out of reach for the rest of the field. Penske Racing driver Mark Donohue qualified for the middle of the front row, while Bobby Unser in an Eagle chassis, squeezed between the McLaren cars by qualifying third. Three drivers completed runs, with Bud Tingelstad the fastest of the afternoon. Mike Mosley returned after two crashes the previous day, qualified solidly over 169 mph. A busy day saw the field filled to 33 cars car.
The day concluded with Steve Krisiloff bumping out rookie Sam Posey. Strong winds kept speeds down, only three drivers bumped their way into the field; the windy conditions led to six crashes, hopefuls waited until the final 45 minutes before they took to the track. The session started out with Mel Kenyon bumping out Carl Williams. Bob Harkey bumped Dick Simon, Art Pollard got back into the field by bumping Jim McElreath. Jim Hurtubise once again tried to qualify his front-engined roadster, but on his second lap, hit the outside wall at the head of the main stretch, his first two laps would not have been fast enough to bump his way in. The day ended as Dick Jerry Grant made unsuccessful attempts. After qualifying, car owner Dick Simon announced he was going to take over the machine qualified by John Mahler. By rule, the car must move to the rear of the grid on race day. For 1971, none of the Big Three auto manufacturers chose to supply pace car for the Indianapolis 500, as the muscle car market had dried up and marketing efforts were shifted elsewhere.
Four local Indianapolis-area Dodge dealers, spearheaded by Eldon Palmer, stepped up to supply the fleet of pace cars. The vehicle chosen was the Dodge Challenger 383-4V. Palmer was chosen to drive the pace car at the start of the race. In preparation for the race, Palmer set up an orange flag in the pit lane to provide himself with a braking
1980 Indianapolis 500
The 64th 500 Mile International Sweepstakes was held at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway in Speedway, Indiana on Sunday, May 25, 1980. Johnny Rutherford won the pole position, led 118 laps, won the race by a commanding 29.92 second margin. After failing to finish the race the year before, Jim Hall's radical new Chaparral 2K ground effects chassis was a heavy favorite entering the month, drove a flawless race. Rutherford, the winner in 1974 and 1976, became the sixth driver to win the Indy 500 three times. Tom Sneva broke an Indy 500 record by becoming the first driver to lead the race. Sneva led two times for 16 laps, finished the race in second position. Sneva became the first driver in Indy history to start last and finish second, it was Sneva's third runner-up finish in four years, matching Bill Holland's achievement 30 years earlier in 1947, 1948 and 1950. Sneva's efforts were branded afterwards with a "bridesmaid" reference, until he would go on to win the race in 1983; the starting lineup featured a sharp contrast from 1979, which had only one.
For the first time in Indy history, the three drivers that started in the eleventh and final row finished in the top eight — Tom Sneva 2nd, Gary Bettenhausen 3rd, Tom Bigelow 8th. After the tumultuous and controversial month of May at Indy in 1979, the landscape of Indy car racing was starting to settle into a more civilized fashion. During the offseason, USAC published their 1980 schedule, which featured such races as the Indianapolis 500, Ontario and Charlotte. Meanwhile, CART released their own schedule. Before the season began, the leaders of USAC and CART jointly formed the new Championship Racing League to co-sanction the season of events. Several of the USAC-planned events were scrapped, including Talladega, Charlotte and Road Atlanta, the two schedules were instead merged. A major change for 1980 designated the Indianapolis 500 now as an "Invitational" event, rather than an "Open" type event; this was done, in part, to prevent the uproar of denied entries as happened in 1979. The plan was to grant automatic invitations to the teams that competed in all three 500-mile "Triple Crown" races in 1979.
However, that plan was scuttled when only one car fulfilled those conditions, furthermore when Ontario switched alliances to the CART series. In January 1980, the criteria for receiving an invitation to the Indianapolis 500 was announced, included any certified team in USAC or CART, judged to have a realistic intent of making a qualifying attempt. Brand new teams were subject to review, required written documentation of the operational plans. In general, the new invitational rules would exclude few, if any, teams in Indy car racing, whether they were part of the USAC Trail or the CART series; the 1980 CART PPG Indy Car World Series began in April, Indianapolis was the second race of the season. CART awarded points for Indianapolis towards their championship. After Indianapolis, Speedway officials became unhappy with the CRL arrangement. In the middle of July, after a total of five races had been run, USAC would pull out of the CRL. Going into the month USAC dropped turbocharger "boost" levels to 48 inHG across the board.
The levels were 50 inHG, before that 80 inHG. The rule change slowed cars down by as much as 8-10 mph, drew the ire of many competitors. Outspoken critics included A. J. Foyt who referred to it as "taxicab racing," and Johnny Rutherford who said it made it difficult to pass other cars; the first day of time trials opened with cloudy temperatures in the low 70s. Scattered rain showers were in the forecast; the favorites for the pole included Mario Andretti, Johnny Rutherford, rookie Tim Richmond. A. J. Foyt was a dark horse for the front row. Richmond had set the fastest lap of the month in practice, but a crash on pole day morning sidelined him for the weekend. Defending champion and defending pole winner Rick Mears was the first driver out to qualify at 11:00 a.m. and he set the early pace at 187.490 mph. An hour Spike Gehlhausen knocked Mears off the top spot. At 12:45 p.m. Mario Andretti took over the provisional pole with a speed of 191.012 mph. A short rain shower closed the track for 20 minutes.
At 2:08 p.m. Johnny Rutherford in the Jim Hall Chaparral 2K chassis took to the track. Rutherford secured the pole position with a four-lap average speed of 192.256 mph. The next car out was Bobby Unser. A. J. Foyt, took to the track twice – the first attempt he waved off before taking the green flag, the second attempt was aborted due to a rain shower. After a rain and hail delay of over an hour and a half, Foyt got one last chance to qualify, his speed of 185.500 mph was good enough only for 12th starting position. At the end of the first day of time trials, the field was filled to 16 cars. Three cars completed runs. Gordon Johncock, who broke his ankle in a practice crash on Thursday, got in a back-up car to qualify for 18th starting position; the third day of time trials was rained out. With a starting spot at Indy secured for the middle of the front row, Mario Andretti flew to Monte Carlo for the Monaco Grand Prix. Andretti would finish 3 laps down in 7th would return to Indy on Carburetion Day.
Tom Sneva, who had qualified 14th, wrecked his primary car during the second week of practice. His team obtained a back-up car, Sneva arranged to drive that car i
Kenneth Robert Howard known as Dutch, Von Dutch, or J. L. Bachs, was an American motorcycle mechanic, pinstriper, metal fabricator and gunsmith, his father, Wally Howard, was a Los Angeles sign painter. The "Von Dutch" nickname was intended to mean "stubborn as a Dutchman." However, von is German - for "of," whereas the Dutch cognate is van. As the son of a sign painter, Howard learned to letter and pinstripe professionally by the age of ten. While attending Compton High School, Howard excelled in track and field and was referred to as "the fastest man in LA." Family members gave him the nickname "Dutch" because he was "as stubborn as a Dutchman," he added the "Von" prefix as an artistic signature. Howard started earning money in the 1950s by pin-striping along with fellow striper Dean Jeffries. Von Dutch has been a major influence in the customizing of vehicles from the 1950s to today; some of his famous works include the flying eyeball and the custom Kenford truck, along with numerous custom motorcycles and many award-winning custom cars.
Among many custom car and motorcycle enthusiasts, he is thought of as one of the fathers of Kustom Kulture. An avid gunsmith and knife maker, Von Dutch made numerous art knives and embellished firearms. Most of these were adaptations of existing items. In 1958, Von Dutch designed and produced the "Mare's Leg", a cut-down Winchester rifle for the television series Wanted: Dead or Alive. Von Dutch completed pin striping the well known "Blue Velvet" Pontiac Firebird in 1979, complete with two parallel pin stripes 16 and a half feet long down each side of the vehicle; these pin stripes were completed by hand and attained a level of perfection that gave rise to the legend of Von Dutch as a pin striper. Von Dutch's lifelong alcoholism led to major medical issues in life, he died on September 19, 1992 from alcohol-related complications, leaving behind his two daughters and Lorna. His ashes were scattered in the Pacific Ocean. After his death, his daughters sold the "Von Dutch" name to Robert Vaughn. Von Dutch is now an American multinational brand licensing company named after Kenny Howard.
Considering that the Von Dutch name is now a lucrative, licensed brand, it is ironic that Kenny Howard had famously stated: "Use any of my stuff you want to. Nothing is original. Everything is in the subconscious, we just "tap" it sometimes and "think" we have originated something. Genes make us more or less interested in certain things but nothing is original! Copyright and patents are an ego trip." In January of 2004, an OC Weekly article revealed Howard's racist tendencies. Robert Williams, a friend and fellow artist, said Howard was "...quite a racist. He had all the trappings of being a neo-Nazi, he could not tolerate black people." The article alleges that a letter written shortly before Howard's death in 1992, when he was in the hospital, closed with “Bye, Heil Hitler.” After the publication of the article, a number of retailers removed Von Dutch from their inventory despite its profitability. In May 2004, Los Angeles Magazine profiled Howard describing his alcoholism and anti-social behavior.
Von Dutch clothing founder Ed Boswell described Howard as "...an artistic Nazi, an aesthetic Nazi and a racist. But he was not a white-power guy, he hated everybody too much to be one of those. He was a provocateur." Hot rod Ed Roth Koch, Richard. Sundays with Von Dutch. Osceola, Wis: Motorbooks. ISBN 0-7603-2626-6. A documentary of the life of Kenneth Howard, a.k.a. Von Dutch Video of Ed Roth interviewing Von Dutch on YouTube Rumpsville's Kenneth Howard Page
Alhambra is a city located in the western San Gabriel Valley region of Los Angeles County, United States eight miles from the Downtown Los Angeles civic center. It was incorporated on July 11, 1903; as of the 2010 census, the population was 83,089. The city's ZIP Codes are 91801 and 91803; the original inhabitants of the land where Alhambra now sits are the Tongva. The San Gabriel Mission was founded nearby on September 8, 1771 as part of the Spanish conquest and occupation of Alta California; the land that would become Alhambra was part of a 300,000 acre land grant given to Manuel Nieto, a soldier from the Los Angeles Presidio. In 1820 Mexico won its independence from the Spanish crown and lands once ruled by them became part of the Mexican Republic; these lands transferred into the hands of the United States following the defeat in the Mexican–American War. A wealthy developer, Benjamin Davis Wilson, married Ramona Yorba, daughter of Bernardo Yorba, who owned the land which would become Alhambra.
With the persuasion of his daughter, Yorba named the land after a book she was reading, Washington Irving's Tales of the Alhambra, which he was inspired to write by his extended visit to the Alhambra palace in Granada, Spain. Alhambra was founded as a suburb of Los Angeles that remained an unincorporated area during the mid-19th century; the first school in Alhambra was Ramona Convent Secondary School, built on hillside property donated by the prominent James de Barth Shorb family. Thirteen years before the city was incorporated, several prominent San Gabriel Valley families interested in the Catholic education of their daughters established the school in 1890; the city's first public high school, Alhambra High School, was established in 1898, five years before the city's incorporation. On July 11, 1903, the City of Alhambra was incorporated; the Alhambra Fire Department was established in 1906. Alhambra was promoted as a "city of homes", many of its homes have historical significance, they include styles such as craftsman, Spanish Mediterranean, Spanish colonial, Italian beaux-arts, arts and crafts.
Twenty-six single-family residential areas have been designated historic neighborhoods by the city, including the Bean Tract, the Midwick Tract, the Airport Tract, the Emery Park area. There are a large number of condominiums, rental apartments, mixed-use residential/commercial buildings in the downtown area. Alhambra's main business district, at the intersection of Main and Garfield, has been a center of commerce since 1895. By the 1950s, it was "the" place to go in the San Gabriel Valley. While many of the classic historical buildings have been torn down over the years, the rebuilding of Main Street has led to numerous dining and entertainment establishments. Alhambra has experienced waves of new immigrants, beginning with Italians in the 1950s, Mexicans in the 1960s, Chinese in the 1980s; as a result, a active Chinese business district has developed on Valley Boulevard, including Chinese supermarkets, shops, banks and medical offices. The Valley Boulevard corridor has become a national hub for many Asian-owned bank headquarters, there are other nationally recognised retailers in the city.
The historic Garfield Theatre, located at Valley Boulevard and Garfield Avenue from 1925 until 2001, was a vaudeville venue and is rumored to have hosted the Gumm Sisters, featuring a young Judy Garland. Faded from its original glory, for its last few years it was purchased and ran Chinese-language films, in 2001 went out of business. Subsequently, developers have remodeled the dilapidated building, turning it into a vibrant commercial center with many Chinese stores and eateries. In 2003, actress Lana Clarkson was shot to death in the Alhambra home of record producer Phil Spector. Spector lived in Alhambra's largest and most notable residence, the Pyrenees Castle, built in 1926. In 2009, Spector was convicted of second-degree murder in connection with Clarkson's death. Alhambra is bordered by South Pasadena on the northwest, San Marino on the north, San Gabriel on the east, Monterey Park on the south, the Los Angeles districts of Monterey Hills and El Sereno on the west. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 7.6 square miles, over 99% of, land.
The 2010 United States Census reported that Alhambra had a population of 83,089. Its population density was 10,887.4 people per square mile. The racial makeup of Alhambra was 43,957 Asian, 23,521 White, 1,281 African American, 538 Native American, 81 Pacific Islander, 10,805 from other races, 2,906 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 28,582 persons; the census reported that 82,475 people lived in households, 132 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 482 were institutionalized. There were 29,217 households, of which 9,357 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 13,679 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 4,818 had a female householder with no husband present, 2,097 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 1,370 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 183 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 6,479 households were made up of individuals, 2,301 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.82.
There were 2