Rickets is a condition that results in weak or soft bones in children. Symptoms include bowed legs, stunted growth, bone pain, large forehead, trouble sleeping. Complications may include bone fractures, muscle spasms, an abnormally curved spine, or intellectual disability; the most common cause of rickets is a vitamin D deficiency. This can result from eating a diet without enough vitamin D, dark skin, too little sun exposure, exclusive breastfeeding without vitamin D supplementation, celiac disease, certain genetic conditions. Other factors may include not enough phosphorus; the underlying mechanism involves insufficient calcification of the growth plate. Diagnosis is based on blood tests finding a low calcium, low phosphorus, a high alkaline phosphatase together with X-rays. Prevention for breastfed babies is vitamin D supplements. Otherwise, treatment depends on the underlying cause. If due to a lack of vitamin D, treatment is with vitamin D and calcium; this results in improvements within a few weeks.
Bone deformities may improve over time. Surgery may be done to correct bone deformities. Genetic forms of the disease require specialized treatment. Rickets occurs commonly in the Middle East and Asia, it is uncommon in the United States and Europe, except among certain minority groups. It begins in childhood between the ages of 3 and 18 months old. Rates of disease are equal in females. Cases of what is believed to have been rickets have been described since the 1st century, the condition was widespread in the Roman Empire; the disease was common into the 20th century. Early treatments included the use of cod liver oil. Signs and symptoms of rickets can include bone tenderness, a susceptibility for bone fractures greenstick fractures. Early skeletal deformities can arise in infants such as soft, thinned skull bones – a condition known as craniotabes, the first sign of rickets. Young children may have bowed thickened ankles and wrists. Spinal curvatures of kyphoscoliosis or lumbar lordosis may be present.
The pelvic bones may be deformed. A condition known as rachitic rosary can result as the thickening caused by nodules forming on the costochondral joints; this appears as a visible bump in the middle of each rib in a line on each side of the body. This somewhat resembles a rosary; the deformity of a pigeon chest may result in the presence of Harrison's groove. Hypocalcemia, a low level of calcium in the blood can result in tetany – uncontrolled muscle spasms. Dental problems can arise. An X-ray or radiograph of an advanced sufferer from rickets tends to present in a classic way: the bowed legs and a deformed chest. Changes in the skull occur causing a distinctive "square headed" appearance known as "caput quadratum"; these deformities persist into adult life. Long-term consequences include permanent curvatures or disfiguration of the long bones, a curved back. Maternal deficiencies may be the cause of overt bone disease from before birth and impairment of bone quality after birth; the primary cause of congenital rickets is vitamin D deficiency in the mother's blood, which the baby shares.
Vitamin D ensures that serum phosphate and calcium levels are sufficient to facilitate the mineralization of bone. Congenital rickets may be caused by other maternal diseases, including severe osteomalacia, untreated celiac disease, pre-eclampsia, premature birth. Rickets in children is similar to osteoporosis in the elderly, with brittle bones. Pre-natal care includes ensuring that any deficiencies are supplemented. Breast-fed infants may require rickets prevention by vitamin D supplementation or an increased exposure to sunlight. In sunny countries such as Nigeria, South Africa, Bangladesh, there is sufficient endogenous vitamin D due to exposure to the sun. However, the disease occurs among older toddlers and children in these countries, which in these circumstances is attributed to low dietary calcium intakes due to a cereal-based diet; those at higher risk for developing rickets include: Breast-fed infants whose mothers are not exposed to sunlight Breast-fed infants who are not exposed to sunlight Breast-fed babies who are exposed to little sunlight Adolescents, in particular when undergoing the pubertal growth spurt Any child whose diet does not contain enough vitamin D or calciumDiseases causing soft bones in infants, like hypophosphatasia or hypophosphatemia can lead to rickets.
Strontium is allied with calcium uptake into bones. Sunlight ultraviolet light, lets human skin cells convert vitamin D from an inactive to active state. In the absence of vitamin D, dietary calcium is not properly absorbed, resulting in hypocalcaemia, leading to skeletal and dental deformities and neuromuscular symptoms, e.g. hyperexcitability. Foods that contain vitamin D include butter, fish liver oils, fortified milk and juice and shiitake mushrooms, oily fishes such as tuna and salmon. A rare X-linked dominant form exists called vitamin D-resistant rickets or X-linked hypophosphatemia. Cases have been reported in Britain in recent years of rickets in children of many social backgrounds caused by insufficient production in the body of vitamin D because the sun's ultraviolet light was not reaching the skin due to use of strong sunblock, too much "covering up" in sunlight, or not getting out into the sun. Other cases have been
AC Lens is a held company based in Columbus, Ohio that sells contact lenses and vision care products online. Arlington Contact Lens Service, Inc was formed in 1995 and launched in 1996 by Dr. Peter Clarkson in the back of an optometrist's office on the campus of The Ohio State University in Columbus, OH. AC Lens incorporated in the State of Ohio in 1998. In 2000, AC Lens acquired I-Ohio LLC in an exchange of private stock. AC Lens now operates various websites including United Kingdom based sites. Dr. Clarkson is a graduate of Southampton University in the UK and The Ohio State University College of Medicine. On February 4, 2004, the Fairness to Contact Lens Consumers Act went into effect; this federal law requires. AC Lens was provided the opportunity to comment and suggest changes to the FTC on March 31, 2004; the final ruling on the law was released by the FTC in July 2004. In October 2004, the FTC released a A Guide for Prescribes and Sellers AC Lens has been named to the INC. 5000 and the Columbus Business First Fast 50.
In May 2010, CEO Peter Clarkson was named a finalist for the Ernst & Young Entrepreneur of the Year Award for south central Ohio and Kentucky. AC Lens earned the fifth consecutive Biz Rate circle of excellence award for outstanding customer service. Company Website Shop and Compare Prices
Ambré Perkins is an American singer and songwriter from New Orleans, Louisiana, signed to Roc Nation. She has released two full-length projects with 2090's, her debut major label EP, was released in November 2019 by Roc Nation. She first gained recognition after collaborating with Kehlani on a cover of Drake's "Preach" in 2015, she co-wrote two tracks off of H. E. R.'s 2017 self-titled album, nominated for multiple Grammy Awards. Ambré Perkins was raised in New Orleans, Louisiana. At age 4, she entered into the foster care system and went in and out of multiple homes and schools as a child; as a teenager, she joined a church choir and performed at various talent competitions. At age 17 in 2014, she began making music with him. In April 2015, Ambré released her first full-length mixtape, produced by Erick Bardales; the following month, she collaborated with Kehlani on a cover of Drake's "Preach". This led to her opening for Kehlani on her "You Should Be Here" tour in the summer of 2015, she appeared at Kehlani's "Tsunami Christmas" concert in December 2015.
In April 2016, she released 2090's, which featured 15 tracks. In October of that year, she released a collaborative single with Kehlani called "No Service in the Hills". Ambré again appeared alongside Kehlani at the latter's "Tsunami Christmas" event in December 2016. In March 2017, Ambré performed at the BUKU Music + Art Project in New Orleans. In August 2017, she released the single, "Must Be The Fall"; the following month, she was featured alongside Isaiah Rashad and Joey Purp on the TOKiMONSTA track, "No Way". That year, two tracks she co-wrote appeared on H. E. R.'s self-titled album, which would go on to win the Grammy Award for Best R&B Album in 2019. In February 2018, Ambré was featured on the Keys N Krates track, "Glitter". In September of that year, she was featured on the Ryan Hemsworth song, "The Butterfly Effect", she starred in the song's accompanying music video. In March 2019, Ambré signed a contract with Universal Music Publishing Group through her management firm, Title 9. In September 2019, she released the single, "fubu", Pulp.
That month, she began touring with Lucky Daye on his "Painted" tour. In November 2019, it was announced; the label released her 10-track EP, Pulp, at the time of the announcement. Ambré on SoundCloud