Kew Gardens, Queens
Kew Gardens is a neighborhood in the central area of the New York City borough of Queens. Kew Gardens, shaped like a triangle, is bounded to the north by Union Turnpike and the Jackie Robinson Parkway, to the east by Van Wyck Expressway and 131st Street, to the south by Hillside Avenue, to the west by Park Lane, Abingdon Road, 118th Street. Forest Park and the neighborhood of Forest Hills are to the west, Flushing Meadows–Corona Park north, Richmond Hill south, Briarwood southeast, Kew Gardens Hills east. Kew Gardens was one of seven planned garden communities built in Queens from the late 19th century to 1950. Much of the area was acquired in 1868 by Englishman Albon P. Man, who developed the neighborhood of Hollis Hill to the south, chiefly along Jamaica Avenue, while leaving the hilly land to the north undeveloped. Maple Grove Cemetery on Kew Gardens Road opened in 1875. A Long Island Rail Road station was built for mourners in October and trains stopped there from mid-November; the station was named Hopedale, after Hopedale Hall, a hotel located at what is now Queens Boulevard and Union Turnpike.
In the 1890s, the executors of Man's estate laid out the Queens Bridge Golf Course on the hilly terrains south of the railroad. This remained in use until it was bisected in 1908 by the main line of the Long Island Rail Road, moved 600 feet to the south to eliminate a curve; the golf course was abandoned and a new station was built in 1909 on Lefferts Boulevard. Man's heirs, Aldrick Man and Albon Man Jr. decided to lay out a new community and called it at first Kew and Kew Gardens after the well-known botanical gardens in England. The architects of the development favored English and neo-Tudor styles, which still predominate in many sections of the neighborhood. In 1910, the property was sold piecemeal by the estate and during the next few years streets were extended, land graded and water and sewer pipes installed; the first apartment building was the Kew Bolmer at 80–45 Kew Gardens Road, erected in 1915. In 1920, the Kew Gardens Inn at the railroad station opened for residential guests, who paid $40 a week for a room and a bath with meals.
Elegant one-family houses were built in the 1920s, as were apartment buildings such as Colonial Hall and Kew Hall that numbered more than twenty by 1936. In July 1933, the Grand Central Parkway opened from the Kew Gardens Interchange to the edge of Nassau County. Two years the Interboro Parkway was opened, linking Kew Gardens to Pennsylvania Avenue in East New York. Since the parkways used part of the roadbed of Union Turnpike, no houses were demolished. Around the same time, the construction of the Queens Boulevard subway line offered the possibility of quick commutes to the central business district in Midtown Manhattan. In the late 1920s, upon learning the route of the proposed line bought up property on and around Queens Boulevard, real estate prices soared, older buildings were demolished in order to make way for new development. In order to allow for the speculators to build fifteen-story apartment buildings, several blocks were rezoned, they built apartment building in order to accommodate the influx of residents from Midtown Manhattan that would desire a quick and cheap commute to their jobs.
Since the new line had express tracks, communities built around express stations, such as in Forest Hills and Kew Gardens became more desirable to live. With the introduction of the subway into the community of Forest Hills, Queens Borough President George U. Harvey predicted that Queens Boulevard would become the "Park Avenue of Queens". With the introduction of the subway, Forest Hills and Kew Gardens were transformed from quiet residential communities of one-family houses to active population centers; the line was extended from Jackson Heights–Roosevelt Avenue to Kew Gardens–Union Turnpike on December 30, 1936. Following the line's completion, there was an increase in the property values of buildings around Queens Boulevard. For example, a property along Queens Boulevard that would have sold for $1,200 in 1925, would have sold for $10,000 in 1930. Queens Boulevard, prior to the construction of the subway, was just a route to allow people to get to Jamaica, running through farmlands. Since the construction of the line, the area of the thoroughfare that stretches from Rego Park to Kew Gardens has been home to apartment buildings, a thriving business district that the Chamber of Commerce calls the "Golden Area".
Despite its historical significance, Kew Gardens lacks any landmark protection. On November 22, 1950, two Long Island Rail Road trains collided in Kew Gardens; the trains collided between Kew Gardens and Jamaica stations, killing 78 people and injuring 363. The crash became the worst railway accident in LIRR history, one of the worst in the history of New York state. In 1964, the neighborhood gained news notoriety when Kitty Genovese was murdered near the Kew Gardens Long Island Railroad station. A New York Times article reported; the story came to represent the anonymity of urban life. The circumstances of the case are disputed to this day, it has been alleged that the critical fact reported by The New York Times that "none of the neighbors responded" was false. The case of Kitty Genovese is an oft-cited example of the bystander effect, the case that spurred research on this social psychological phenomenon. Kew Gardens remains a densely populated residential community, but Kew Gardens is becoming an upper-class residential area, with a mix of one-family homes above the million-dollar range, complex apartments, c
The Bronx is the northernmost of the five boroughs of New York City, in the U. S. state of New York. It is south of Westchester County. Since 1914, the borough has had the same boundaries as Bronx County, the third-most densely populated county in the United States; the Bronx has a land area of 42 square miles and a population of 1,471,160 in 2017. Of the five boroughs, it has the fourth-largest area, fourth-highest population, third-highest population density, it is the only borough predominantly on the U. S. mainland. The Bronx is divided by the Bronx River into a hillier section in the west, a flatter eastern section. East and west street names are divided by Jerome Avenue—the continuation of Manhattan's Fifth Avenue; the West Bronx was annexed to New York City in 1874, the areas east of the Bronx River in 1895. Bronx County was separated from New York County in 1914. About a quarter of the Bronx's area is open space, including Woodlawn Cemetery, Van Cortlandt Park, Pelham Bay Park, the New York Botanical Garden, the Bronx Zoo in the borough's north and center.
These open spaces are situated on land deliberately reserved in the late 19th century as urban development progressed north and east from Manhattan. The name "Bronx" originated with Jonas Bronck, who established the first settlement in the area as part of the New Netherland colony in 1639; the native Lenape were displaced after 1643 by settlers. In the 19th and 20th centuries, the Bronx received many immigrant and migrant groups as it was transformed into an urban community, first from various European countries and from the Caribbean region, as well as African American migrants from the southern United States; this cultural mix has made the Bronx a wellspring of hip hop and rock. The Bronx contains the poorest congressional district in the United States, the 15th, but its wide diversity includes affluent, upper-income, middle-income neighborhoods such as Riverdale, Spuyten Duyvil, Pelham Bay, Pelham Gardens, Morris Park, Country Club; the Bronx the South Bronx, saw a sharp decline in population, livable housing, the quality of life in the late 1960s and the 1970s, culminating in a wave of arson.
Since the communities have shown significant redevelopment starting in the late 1980s before picking up pace from the 1990s until today. The Bronx was called Rananchqua by the native Siwanoy band of Lenape, while other Native Americans knew the Bronx as Keskeskeck, it was divided by the Aquahung River. The origin of the person of Jonas Bronck is contested; some sources claim he was a Swedish born emigrant from Komstad, Norra Ljunga parish in Småland, who arrived in New Netherland during the spring of 1639. Bronck became the first recorded European settler in the area now known as the Bronx and built a farm named "Emmanus" close to what today is the corner of Willis Avenue and 132nd Street in Mott Haven, he leased land from the Dutch West India Company on the neck of the mainland north of the Dutch settlement in Harlem, bought additional tracts from the local tribes. He accumulated 500 acres between the Harlem River and the Aquahung, which became known as Bronck's River or the Bronx. Dutch and English settlers referred to the area as Bronck's Land.
The American poet William Bronk was a descendant of Pieter Bronck, either Jonas Bronck's son or his younger brother. The Bronx is referred to with the definite article as "The Bronx", both and colloquially; the County of Bronx does not place "The" before "Bronx" in formal references, unlike the coextensive Borough of the Bronx, nor does the United States Postal Service in its database of Bronx addresses. The region was named after the Bronx River and first appeared in the "Annexed District of The Bronx" created in 1874 out of part of Westchester County, it was continued in the "Borough of The Bronx", which included a larger annexation from Westchester County in 1898. The use of the definite article is attributed to the style of referring to rivers. Another explanation for the use of the definite article in the borough's name stems from the phrase "visiting the Broncks", referring to the settler's family; the capitalization of the borough's name is sometimes disputed. The definite article is lowercase in place names except in official references.
The definite article is capitalized at the beginning of a sentence or in any other situation when a lowercase word would be capitalized. However, some people and groups refer to the borough with a capital letter at all times, such as Lloyd Ultan, a historian for The Bronx County Historical Society, the Great and Glorious Grand Army of The Bronx, a Bronx-based organization; these people say. In particular, the Great and Glorious Grand Army of The Bronx is leading efforts to make the city refer to the borough with an uppercase definite article in all uses, comparing the lowercase article in the Bronx's name to "not capitalizing the's' in'Staten Island.'" European colonization of the Bronx began in 1639. The Bronx was part of Westchester County, but it was ceded to New York County in two major parts before it became Bronx County; the area was part of the Lenape's Lenapehoking territory inhabited by Siwanoy of the Wappinger Confederacy. Over
American Journal of Public Health
The American Journal of Public Health is a monthly peer-reviewed public health journal published by the American Public Health Association covering health policy and public health. The journal was established in 1911 and its stated mission is "to advance public health research, policy and education." The journal publishes themed supplements. The editor-in-chief is Alfredo Morabia; the journal has been criticized for extending its open access embargo from 2 to 10 years as of June 1, 2013. The journal was voted one of the 100 most influential journals in biology and medicine over the last 100 years by the Special Libraries Association. According to the Journal Citation Reports, the journal has a 2015 impact factor of 4.138. The journal is abstracted and indexed in: Progress in Community Health Partnerships Official website
National Institutes of Health
The National Institutes of Health is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and public health research. It was founded in the late 1870s and is now part of the United States Department of Health and Human Services; the majority of NIH facilities are located in Maryland. The NIH conducts its own scientific research through its Intramural Research Program and provides major biomedical research funding to non-NIH research facilities through its Extramural Research Program; as of 2013, the IRP had 1,200 principal investigators and more than 4,000 postdoctoral fellows in basic and clinical research, being the largest biomedical research institution in the world, while, as of 2003, the extramural arm provided 28% of biomedical research funding spent annually in the U. S. or about US$26.4 billion. The NIH comprises 27 separate institutes and centers of different biomedical disciplines and is responsible for many scientific accomplishments, including the discovery of fluoride to prevent tooth decay, the use of lithium to manage bipolar disorder, the creation of vaccines against hepatitis, Haemophilus influenzae, human papillomavirus.
NIH's roots extend back to the Marine Hospital Service in the late 1790s that provided medical relief to sick and disabled men in the U. S. Navy. By 1870, a network of marine hospitals had developed and was placed under the charge of a medical officer within the Bureau of the Treasury Department. In the late 1870s, Congress allocated funds to investigate the causes of epidemics like cholera and yellow fever, it created the National Board of Health, making medical research an official government initiative. In 1887, a laboratory for the study of bacteria, the Hygienic Laboratory, was established at the Marine Hospital in New York. In the early 1900s, Congress began appropriating funds for the Marine Hospital Service. By 1922, this organization changed its name to Public Health Services and established a Special Cancer Investigations laboratory at Harvard Medical School; this marked the beginning of a partnership with universities. In 1930, the Hygienic Laboratory was re-designated as the National Institute of Health by the Ransdell Act, was given $750,000 to construct two NIH buildings.
Over the next few decades, Congress would increase funding tremendously to the NIH, various institutes and centers within the NIH were created for specific research programs. In 1944, the Public Health Service Act was approved, the National Cancer Institute became a division of NIH. In 1948, the name changed from National Institute of Health to National Institutes of Health. In the 1960s, virologist and cancer researcher Chester M. Southam injected HeLa cancer cells into patients at the Jewish Chronic Disease Hospital; when three doctors resigned after refusing to inject patients without their consent, the experiment gained considerable media attention. The NIH was a major source of funding for Southam's research and had required all research involving human subjects to obtain their consent prior to any experimentation. Upon investigating all of their grantee institutions, the NIH discovered that the majority of them did not protect the rights of human subjects. From on, the NIH has required all grantee institutions to approve any research proposals involving human experimentation with review boards.
In 1967, the Division of Regional Medical Programs was created to administer grants for research for heart disease and strokes. That same year, the NIH director lobbied the White House for increased federal funding in order to increase research and the speed with which health benefits could be brought to the people. An advisory committee was formed to oversee further development of the NIH and its research programs. By 1971 cancer research was in full force and President Nixon signed the National Cancer Act, initiating a National Cancer Program, President's Cancer Panel, National Cancer Advisory Board, 15 new research and demonstration centers. Funding for the NIH has been a source of contention in Congress, serving as a proxy for the political currents of the time. In 1992, the NIH encompassed nearly 1 percent of the federal government's operating budget and controlled more than 50 percent of all funding for health research, 85 percent of all funding for health studies in universities. While government funding for research in other disciplines has been increasing at a rate similar to inflation since the 1970s, research funding for the NIH nearly tripled through the 1990s and early 2000s, but has remained stagnant since then.
By the 1990s, the NIH committee focus had shifted to DNA research, launched the Human Genome Project. The NIH Office of the Director is the central office responsible for setting policy for NIH, for planning and coordinating the programs and activities of all NIH components; the NIH Director plays an active role in shaping outlook. The Director is responsible for providing leadership to the Institutes and Centers by identifying needs and opportunities in efforts involving multiple Institutes. Within this Office is the Division of Program Coordination and Strategic Initiatives with 12 divisions including: Office of AIDS Research Office of Research on Women's Health Office of Disease Prevention Sexual and Gender Minority Research Office Tribal Heath Research Office Office of Program Evaluation and PerformancePrevious directors: Joseph J. Kinyoun, served August 1887 – April 30, 1899 Milton J. Rosenau, served May 1, 1899 – September 30, 1909 John F. Anderson, served October 1, 1909 – November 19, 1915 George W. McCoy, served November 20, 1915 – January 31, 1937 Lewis R. Thompson, served February 1, 1937 – January 31, 1942 R
A lymph node or lymph gland is an ovoid or kidney-shaped organ of the lymphatic system, of the adaptive immune system, present throughout the body. They are linked by the lymphatic vessels as a part of the circulatory system. Lymph nodes are major sites of B and T lymphocytes, other white blood cells. Lymph nodes are important for the proper functioning of the immune system, acting as filters for foreign particles and cancer cells. Lymph nodes do not have a detoxification function, dealt with by the liver and kidneys. In the lymphatic system the lymph node is a secondary lymphoid organ. A lymph node is enclosed in a fibrous capsule and is made up of an outer cortex and an inner medulla. Lymph nodes have clinical significance, they become inflamed or enlarged in various diseases which may range from trivial throat infections, to life-threatening cancers. The condition of the lymph nodes is important in cancer staging, which decides the treatment to be used, determines the prognosis; when swollen, inflamed or enlarged, lymph nodes can be hard, tender.
Lymph nodes are oval shaped and range in size from a few millimeters to about 1 -- 2 cm long. Each lymph node is surrounded by a fibrous capsule, which extends inside the lymph node to form trabeculae; the substance of the lymph node is divided into the inner medulla. The cortex is continuous around the medulla except where the medulla comes into direct contact with the hilum. Thin reticular fibers of reticular connective tissue, elastin form a supporting meshwork called a reticulin inside the node. B cells are found in the outer cortex where they are clustered together as follicular B cells in lymphoid follicles and the T cells are in the paracortex; the lymph node is divided into compartments called lymph nodules each consisting of a cortical region of combined follicle B cells, a paracortical region of T cells, a basal part of the nodule in the medulla. The number and composition of follicles can change when challenged by an antigen, when they develop a germinal center. Elsewhere in the node, there are only occasional leukocytes.
As part of the reticular network there are follicular dendritic cells in the B cell follicle and fibroblastic reticular cells in the T cell cortex. The reticular network not only provides the structural support, but the surface for adhesion of the dendritic cells and lymphocytes, it allows exchange of material with blood through the high endothelial venules and provides the growth and regulatory factors necessary for activation and maturation of immune cells. Lymph enters the convex side of the lymph node through multiple afferent lymphatic vessels, flows through spaces called sinuses. A lymph sinus which includes the subcapsular sinus, is a channel within the node, lined by endothelial cells along with fibroblastic reticular cells and this allows for the smooth flow of lymph through them; the endothelium of the subcapsular sinus is continuous with that of the afferent lymph vessel and with that of the similar sinuses flanking the trabeculae and within the cortex. All of these sinuses drain the filtered lymphatic fluid into the medullary sinuses, from where the lymph flows into the efferent lymph vessels to exit the node at the hilum on the concave side.
These vessels are smaller and don't allow the passage of the macrophages so that they remain contained to function within the lymph node. In the course of the lymph, lymphocytes may be activated as part of the adaptive immune response; the lymph node capsule is composed of dense irregular connective tissue with some plain collagenous fibers, from its internal surface are given off a number of membranous processes or trabeculae. They pass inward, radiating toward the center of the node, for about one-third or one-fourth of the space between the circumference and the center of the node. In some animals they are sufficiently well-marked to divide the peripheral or cortical portion of the node into a number of compartments, but in humans this arrangement is not obvious; the larger trabeculae springing from the capsule break up into finer bands, these interlace to form a mesh-work in the central or medullary portion of the node. In these trabecular spaces formed by the interlacing trabeculae is contained the proper lymph node substance or lymphoid tissue.
The node pulp does not, however fill the spaces, but leaves, between its outer margin and the enclosing trabeculae, a channel or space of uniform width throughout. This is termed the subcapsular sinus. Running across it are a number of finer trabeculae of reticular connective tissue, the fibers of which are, for the most part, covered by ramifying cells; the subcapsular sinus is the space between the capsule and the cortex which allows the free movement of lymphatic fluid and so contains few lymphocytes. It is continuous with the similar lymph sinuses; the lymph node contains lymphoid tissue, i.e. a meshwork or fibers called reticulum with white blood cells enmeshed in it. The regions where there are few cells within the meshwork are known as lymph sinus, it is lined by reticular cells and fixed macrophages. The subcapsular sinus has clinical importance as it is the most location where the earliest manifestations of a metastatic carcinoma in a lymph node would be found; the cortex of the lymph node is the outer portion of the node, underneath the capsule and the subcapsular sinus.
It has a deeper part known as the paracortex. The subcapsular sinus drains to the trabecul sinuses, the lymph flows into the medullary sinuses; the outer cortex consists of the B c
The house mouse is a small mammal of the order Rodentia, characteristically having a pointed snout, large rounded ears, a long and hairy tail. It is one of the most abundant species of the genus Mus. Although a wild animal, the house mouse has benefited from associating with human habitation to the point that wild populations are less common than the semi-tame populations near human activity; the house mouse has been domesticated as the pet or fancy mouse, as the laboratory mouse, one of the most important model organisms in biology and medicine. The complete mouse reference genome was sequenced in 2002. House mice have an adult body length of 7.5 -- a tail length of 5 -- 10 cm. The weight is 40–45 g. In the wild they vary in colour from light to dark agouti, but domesticated fancy mice and laboratory mice are produced in many colors ranging from white to champagne to black, they have short hair and some. The ears and tail have little hair; the hind feet are short compared to only 15 -- 19 mm long.
The voice is a high-pitched squeak. House mice thrive under a variety of conditions. Newborn males and females can be distinguished on close examination as the anogenital distance in males is about double that of the female. From the age of about 10 days, females have five pairs of mammary nipples; when sexually mature, the most striking and obvious difference is the presence of testicles on the males. These can be retracted into the body; the tail, used for balance, has only a thin covering of hair as it is the main peripheral organ of heat loss in thermoregulation along with—to a lesser extent—the hairless parts of the paws and ears. Blood flow to the tail can be controlled in response to changes in ambient temperature using a system of arteriovenous anastomoses to increase the temperature of the skin on the tail by as much as 10 °C to lose body heat. Tail length varies according to the environmental temperature of the mouse during postnatal development, so mice living in colder regions tend to have shorter tails.
The tail is used for balance when the mouse is climbing or running, or as a base when the animal stands on its hind legs, to convey information about the dominance status of an individual in encounters with other mice. In addition to the regular pea-sized thymus organ in the chest, house mice have a second functional pinhead-sized thymus organ in the neck next to the trachea. Mice are mammals of the Glires clade, which means they are amongst the closest relatives of humans other than lagomorphs, flying lemurs and other primates; the three accepted subspecies are treated as distinct species: southeastern Asian house mouse western European house mouse. Some populations are hybrids including the Japanese house mouse; the standard species karyotype is composed of 40 chromosomes. Within Western Europe there are numerous populations - chromosomal races - with a reduced chromosome count arising from Robertsonian fusion. House mice run, walk, or stand on all fours, but when eating, fighting, or orienting themselves, they rear up on their hind legs with additional support from the tail - a behavior known as "tripoding".
Mice are good jumpers and swimmers, are considered to be thigmotactic, i.e. attempt to maintain contact with vertical surfaces. Mice are crepuscular or nocturnal; the average sleep time of a captive house mouse is reported to be 12.5 hours per day. They live in a wide variety of hidden places near food sources, construct nests from various soft materials. Mice are territorial, one dominant male lives together with several females and young. Dominant males respect each other's territories and enter another's territory only if it is vacant. If two or more males are housed together in a cage, they become aggressive unless they have been raised together from birth. House mice feed on plant matter, but are omnivorous, they eat their own faeces to acquire nutrients produced by bacteria in their intestines. House mice, like most other rodents, do not vomit. Mice are afraid of rats which kill and eat them, a behavior known as muricide. Despite this, free-living populations of rats and mice do exist together in forest areas in New Zealand, North America, elsewhere.
House mice are poor competitors and in most areas cannot survive away from human settlements in areas where other small mammals, such as wood mice, are present. However, in some areas, mice are able to coexist with other small rodent species; the social behavior of the house mouse is not r
New York City Department of Sanitation
The New York City Department of Sanitation is the department of the government of New York City responsible for garbage collection, recycling collection, street cleaning, snow removal. The New York City Department of Sanitation is the largest sanitation department in the world, with 7,201 uniformed sanitation workers and supervisors, 2,041 civilian workers, 2,230 general collection trucks, 275 specialized collection trucks, 450 street sweepers, 365 salt and sand spreaders, 298 front end loaders, 2,360 support vehicles, it handles over recyclables a day. It has a uniformed force of unionized sanitation workers, its regulations are compiled in Title 16 of the New York City Rules. There are nine uniformed titles in the New York City Department of Sanitation. From highest to lowest, the uniformed titles are described by Civil Service Title and/or Rank. BCC: Bureau of Cleaning and Collection The Bureau of Cleaning and Collection is responsible for collecting recycling and garbage, cleaning streets and vacant lots, clearing streets of snow and ice.
BCC assigns personnel and equipment to standard routes while managing the weekly allocation of personnel to address litter and illegal dumping. The Cleaning Office oversees the removal of litter and debris from city streets, collects material for recycling and garbage from public litter bins and coordinates with Derelict Vehicle Operations to remove abandoned vehicles; the Lot Cleaning Unit cleans vacant lots and the areas around them, around city-owned buildings in order to meet the city's Health Code standards. The Collection Office oversees scheduled recycling and garbage collection services to the city's residential households, public schools, public buildings, many large institutions SWM: Solid Waste Management The Solid Waste Management Bureau is responsible for the disposal of all municipal solid waste and recyclables managed by DSNY, for long-term waste export programs; the bureau consists of Solid Waste Management Engineering, the Export Contract Management Unit and land-based transfer stations, the Fresh Kills landfill and long-term export programs.
The Export Contract Management Unit handles DSNY contracts with private vendors who operate municipal solid waste disposal facilities, including transfer stations and waste-to-energy plants. DSNY has city-owned and operated transfer stations. Solid Waste Management Engineering is principally responsible for the design, construction and post-closure care, end-use development of the 2,200-acre Fresh Kills landfill, it develops and implements long-term waste export programs and the city's Comprehensive Solid Waste Management Plan for 2006–2025 and the Solid Waste Management Plan Final Environmental Impact Statement. BIT: Bureau of Information Technology The Bureau of Information Technology manages all aspects of computing and technology for DSNY, including networks, software and technical support; the bureau designed the Sanitation Management Analysis and Resource Tracking system, a web-based mobile system that provides DSNY field forces with digital operations and reporting technology, gives DSNY management instant access to real-time operational information.
It is integrated with citywide systems such as GIS mapping services, fleet management, building management, human resources, purchasing and financial applications. BOO: Bureau Operations Office The Bureau Operations Office is DSNY's primary communications center, handling interagency and intra-agency communications. To ensure efficient communications, the radio room maintains and monitors citywide radio communications, equipment repair, upgrades and inventory; the Bureau oversees all DSNY facilities, administers the expense budget, controls fuel and lubricant inventories, as well as tools and supplies for citywide use. It plans and directs citywide snow operations, including staffing plans, maintaining the fleet of snow fighting equipment, maintaining an inventory of salt and calcium chloride to cover the needs of the snow season; the Bureau's Equipment and Facilities Unit works with Support Services to make sure that DSNY facilities receive constant monitoring, repairs and emergency intervention.
The Bureau works with the Real Estate Division to properly plan for new facilities from an operational standpoint. OMD: Operations Management Division The Operations Management Division provides statistical review and analysis for evaluating DSNY's managerial and operational performance, most a comprehensive review and sweeping redevelopment of the methodology used for citywide snow clearing operations; the division provides performance results to executive staff, field managers, the public, to provide insight into organizational performance and help evaluate future initiatives. OMD develops all departmental forms and provides reprographic services for the agency. DSNY's Enterprise Geospatial Program Management Office, established in 2014, adds additional rigor to Operations Management functions by enabling and promoting purposeful geospatial data consumption and analysis throughout the agency, as well as the innovative technologies that ma