A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions. It is to be distinguished from musical form and musical style, although in practice these terms are sometimes used interchangeably. Academics have argued that categorizing music by genre is inaccurate and outdated. Music can be divided into different genres in many different ways; the artistic nature of music means that these classifications are subjective and controversial, some genres may overlap. There are varying academic definitions of the term genre itself. In his book Form in Tonal Music, Douglass M. Green distinguishes between form, he lists madrigal, canzona and dance as examples of genres from the Renaissance period. To further clarify the meaning of genre, Green writes, "Beethoven's Op. 61 and Mendelssohn's Op. 64 are identical in genre – both are violin concertos – but different in form. However, Mozart's Rondo for Piano, K. 511, the Agnus Dei from his Mass, K. 317 are quite different in genre but happen to be similar in form."
Some, like Peter van der Merwe, treat the terms genre and style as the same, saying that genre should be defined as pieces of music that share a certain style or "basic musical language." Others, such as Allan F. Moore, state that genre and style are two separate terms, that secondary characteristics such as subject matter can differentiate between genres. A music genre or subgenre may be defined by the musical techniques, the style, the cultural context, the content and spirit of the themes. Geographical origin is sometimes used to identify a music genre, though a single geographical category will include a wide variety of subgenres. Timothy Laurie argues that since the early 1980s, "genre has graduated from being a subset of popular music studies to being an ubiquitous framework for constituting and evaluating musical research objects". Among the criteria used to classify musical genres are the trichotomy of art and traditional musics. Alternatively, music can be divided on three variables: arousal and depth.
Arousal reflects the energy level of the music. These three variables help explain why many people like similar songs from different traditionally segregated genres. Musicologists have sometimes classified music according to a trichotomic distinction such as Philip Tagg's "axiomatic triangle consisting of'folk','art' and'popular' musics", he explains that each of these three is distinguishable from the others according to certain criteria. The term art music refers to classical traditions, including both contemporary and historical classical music forms. Art music exists in many parts of the world, it emphasizes formal styles that invite technical and detailed deconstruction and criticism, demand focused attention from the listener. In Western practice, art music is considered a written musical tradition, preserved in some form of music notation rather than being transmitted orally, by rote, or in recordings, as popular and traditional music are. Most western art music has been written down using the standard forms of music notation that evolved in Europe, beginning well before the Renaissance and reaching its maturity in the Romantic period.
The identity of a "work" or "piece" of art music is defined by the notated version rather than by a particular performance, is associated with the composer rather than the performer. This is so in the case of western classical music. Art music may include certain forms of jazz, though some feel that jazz is a form of popular music. Sacred Christian music forms an important part of the classical music tradition and repertoire, but can be considered to have an identity of its own; the term popular music refers to any musical style accessible to the general public and disseminated by the mass media. Musicologist and popular music specialist Philip Tagg defined the notion in the light of sociocultural and economical aspects: Popular music, unlike art music, is conceived for mass distribution to large and socioculturally heterogeneous groups of listeners and distributed in non-written form, only possible in an industrial monetary economy where it becomes a commodity and in capitalist societies, subject to the laws of'free' enterprise... it should ideally sell as much as possible.
Popular music is found on most commercial and public service radio stations, in most commercial music retailers and department stores, in movie and television soundtracks. It is noted on the Billboard charts and, in addition to singer-songwriters and composers, it involves music producers more than other genres do; the distinction between classical and popular music has sometimes been blurred in marginal areas such as minimalist music and light classics. Background music for films/movies draws on both traditions. In this respect, music is like fiction, which draws a distinction between literary fiction and popular fiction, not always precise. Country music known as country and western, hillbilly music, is a genre of popular music that originated in the southern United States in the early 1920s; the polka is a Czech dance and genre of dance music familiar throughout Europe and the Americas. Rock music is a broad genre of popular music that originated as "rock and roll" in the United States in the early 1950s, developed into a range of different styles in the 1960s and particular
Latin music is a genre used by the music industry as a catch-all term for music that comes from Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking areas of the world, namely Ibero America and Iberian Peninsula, as well as music sung in either language. In the United States, the music industry defines Latin music as any recording sung in Spanish regardless of its genre or the artist's nationality; the Recording Industry Association of America and Billboard magazine use this definition of Latin music to track sales of Spanish-language records in the US. Spain, Brazil and the United States are the largest Latin music markets in the world. Since the late 1990s, the US has had a rising population of "Latinos", a term popularized since the 1960s due to the wrong and confusing use of the term "Spanish" and the more proper but less popular term "Hispanic". A great part of the English-speaking media started to refer to any kind of music featuring Spanish vocals as "Latin music". Major record labels such as Universal Music Group, Sony Music, Warner Music have two divisions dedicated to the Latin market: one which focuses on Latin America and the Iberian Peninsula, the other for the Hispanic market in the United States.
Since 1990, Billboard has held the Latin Music Conference every year. The week-long conference features speakers including key personnel such as executives and producers from the Latin music industry and notable artists in the Latin music scene; the conference concludes with the annual Billboard Latin Music Awards. In 2000, the Latin Recording Academy inaugurated the Latin Grammy Awards to recognize musicians who perform in Spanish or Portuguese; the awards encompass music from Latin America, Spain and the United States. The Latin Songwriters Hall of Fame was established in 2012 to recognize songwriters from Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking regions around the world; the term "Latin music" originated from the US due to the growing influence of Hispanic and Latino Americans in the American music market, with notable pioneers including Xavier Cugat and Tito Puente and accelerating in decades. As one author explained the rising popularity from the 1940s: "Latin America, the one part of the world not engulfed in World War II, became a favorite topic for songs and films for Americans who wanted momentarily to forget about the conflagration."
Wartime propaganda for America's "Good Neighbor Policy" further enhanced the cultural impact. The Brazilian bossa nova became widespread in Latin America and became an international trend, led by Antônio Carlos Jobim. Rock en español became popular with the younger generation of Latinos in Latin America, notably including Argentine bands such as Almendra. Mexican-American Latin rock guitarist Carlos Santana began his decades of popularity. Salsa music became the dominant genre of tropical music in the 1970s. Fania Records was credited for popularizing salsa music, with acts such as Rubén Blades, Héctor Lavoe, Celia Cruz expanding the audience. In the late 1970s, an influx of balladeers from Spain such as Julio Iglesias, Camilo Sesto, Raphael established their presence on the music charts both in Latin America and the US Latin market. In 1972, OTI Festival was established by the Organización de Telecomunicaciones de Iberoamérica as a songwriting contest to connect the Ibero-American countries together.
Ramiro Burr of Billboard noted that the contest was considered to be the "largest and most prestigious songwriting festival in the Latin music world". In the 1980s, the Latin ballad continued to be the main form of Latin pop music, with Juan Gabriel, José José, Julio Iglesias, Roberto Carlos, José Luis Rodríguez dominating the charts. Salsa music lost some traction, its musical style changed to a slower rhythm with more emphasis on romantic lyrics; this became known as the salsa romantica era. Bolero music saw a resurgence of popularity with the younger audience. Mexican singer Luis Miguel was credited for the renewed interest due to the success of his album, Romance, a collection of classics covered by the artist. By the mid-1990s, Latin pop music was dominated by younger artists such as Menudo alumnus Ricky Martin, Colombian teen Shakira, Julio's son Enrique Iglesias. Around the same time, artists from Italy such as Eros Ramazzotti, Laura Pausini, Nek crossed over to the Latin music field by recording Spanish-language versions of their songs.
In the Regional Mexican field, Tejano became the most prominent genre. Selena helped push Tejano music into the mainstream market with her albums Entre a Mi Mundo and Amor Prohibido, although the genre's popularity declined following her death in 1995. In the tropical music field, which gained attention in the 1980s, rivaled salsa in popularity. In the mid-2000s, reggaeton became popular in the mainstream market, with Daddy Yankee, Don Omar, Wisin & Yandel considered to be the frontiers of the genre. In the tropical music scene, bachata music became popular in the field, with artists such as Monchy & Alexandra and Aventura finding success in the urban areas of Latin America. Banda was the dominant genre in the Regional Mexican music field. By the turn of the decade, the Latin music field became dominated by up-tempo rhythms, including electropop, urban and contemporary bachata music, as Latin ballads and crooners fell out of favor among U. S. Latin radio programmers. Streaming has become the dominant form of revenue in the Latin music industry in the United States, Latin America and Spain.
Latin trap gained mainstream attention in the mid-2010s with notable artists such as Ozuna, Bad Bunny, Anuel AA, Karol G, Bryant Myers, Arcangel and Noriel. Categ
Ricky Martin singles discography
Puerto Rican singer Ricky Martin has released seventy-nine Spanish and English-language singles. In 1984, thirteen-year-old Martin became a member of the Puerto Rican boy band Menudo. After recording eleven albums with the group, he left Menudo in 1989, hoping to rest and evaluate his career path. In 1990, he was signed to the Sony Music's Latin imprint. Martin released his debut solo album, the Spanish-language Ricky Martin, in November 1991, it included hit singles: "Fuego Contra Fuego", "El Amor de Mi Vida" and "Vuelo". His second Spanish-language solo album, Me Amarás featured further successful singles: "Me Amarás", "Que Dia Es Hoy" and "Entre el Amor y los Halagos". Martin's third Spanish-language album, A Medio Vivir included his international breakthrough single, "María"; the song topped the chart in France for nine consecutive weeks in early 1997 and was certified Diamond after selling 1.4 million copies. "María" topped the chart in Belgium Wallonia for ten weeks and in Australia for six weeks, reached top ten in the United Kingdom, Austria, Belgium Flanders, Finland, the Netherlands and New Zealand.
It was certified double Platintum in Belgium, Platinum in Australia, Gold in Germany, Switzerland and the Netherlands. "María" has sold over five million copies worldwide. A Medio Vivir included two other successful singles: "Te Extraño, Te Olvido, Te Amo" and "Volverás". "Vuelve", the lead single from the album of the same name released in 1998 became Martin's first track to top three Billboard charts: Hot Latin Songs, Latin Pop Airplay and Tropical Songs. "La Copa de la Vida", released as the second single and the official song of the 1998 FIFA World Cup, became a worldwide hit. It topped the charts in Germany, Spain, Sweden, Belgium Wallonia and in Australia, was certified Platinum and Gold in various countries. "The Cup of Life", released in Australia as a double A-side single with "María", became the best-selling single of 1998 in this country. On the same night Martin performed "The Cup of Life" at the 41st Annual Grammy Awards, Vuelve won Grammy Award for Best Latin Pop Performance. Vuelve included "La Bomba", "Perdido Sin Ti" and "Por Arriba, Por Abajo".
Martin's first English-language album, Ricky Martin, was released in 1999 and included his biggest hit and signature song, "Livin' la Vida Loca". It topped the Billboard Hot 100 for five consecutive weeks and was certified Platinum by the RIAA for selling over 1.1 million of physical copies. "Livin' la Vida Loca" topped many other Billboard charts including Hot Latin Songs and Latin Pop Airplay. It became Martin's first number-one on the UK Singles Chart where it has sold 900,000 copies and was certified Platinum. "Livin' la Vida Loca" reached number one in Canada and New Zealand. In other countries, it was a top ten hit, certified multi-Platinum, Platinum and Silver around the world; the second single, "She's All I Ever Had" topped the US Hot Latin Songs and Latin Pop Airplay charts, reached number two on the Billboard Hot 100, number three in Canada, number eight in New Zealand and number ten in Finland. It was certified Gold in the United States and Australia. Ricky Martin included "Shake Your Bon-Bon" and "Private Emotion".
"She Bangs", the lead single from Martin's second English-language album Sound Loaded, topped the charts in Italy and Sweden, reached number one on the US Hot Latin Songs and Tropical Songs. It was a top ten hit in the UK, Canada, Ireland, New Zealand, Switzerland and Norway. "She Bangs" was certified Platinum in Australia, Gold in Sweden and Silver in the UK. It won Latin Grammy Award for Best Short Form Music Video; the second single, "Nobody Wants to Be Lonely" was successful reaching number one in New Zealand and the top ten in Australia and most European countries, including the UK. It was certified Gold in various countries; the solo Spanish-language version of "Nobody Wants to Be Lonely" titled "Sólo Quiero Amarte" topped Hot Latin Songs, Latin Pop Airplay and Tropical Songs in the US. The third single, "Loaded" reached top forty in Sweden, Spain and the UK; the lead single from the next Spanish-language album Almas del Silencio, "Tal Vez" debuted at number one on the US Hot Latin Songs and spent eleven weeks at the top.
It spent thirteen weeks at the top of Latin Pop Airplay and peaked at number one on the Tropical Songs. It was number-one song on two 2003 Billboard Year-End charts: Hot Latin Songs and Latin Pop Airplay; the second single, "Jaleo" reached number one in Spain and on the Hot Latin Songs in the US. It was a top ten hit in Italy and Sweden. Other singles included: "Asignatura Pendiente", "Juramento" and "Y Todo Queda en Nada"; the third English-language album, Life was promoted by "I Don't Care". The single reached top ten in Italy and Finland, on three Billboard charts: Dance Club Songs, Hot Latin Songs and Tropical Airplay. Another song form the album, "It's Alright" was re-recorded with M. Pokora and became a hit in Francophone countries, reaching number four in France and being certified Silver. Martin's 2006 Latin Grammy Award-winning album, MTV Unplugged included a hit song, "Tu Recuerdo", it was a number one on Hot Latin Songs and Latin Pop Airplay in the US, number one on
Ricky Martin albums discography
Puerto Rican recording artist Ricky Martin has released ten studio albums, eight compilation albums, two live albums, one soundtrack album and four box sets. As of April 2013, the singer has sold over 70 million records worldwide. Martin's self-titled debut studio album was released in November 1991 by Sony Discos. Two years Columbia Records released Martin's second studio album, Me Amarás. Despite both albums failing to achieve a significant commercial success, they pushed Martin towards superstar status in many Latin American countries, his third studio album, A Medio Vivir, was released in September 1995 by Sony Latin. The album features a "harder rock edge style" than his previous efforts, while being mixed with Latin references such as flamenco and cumbia. A Medio Vivir charted in several countries and peaked at number seven in Spain and number 11 on the US Latin Albums chart. In 1998, Martin released his fourth studio album, which became his first record to chart on the US Billboard 200 chart, peaking at number 40.
Additionally, it peaked at number one on the US Latin Albums chart and in Spain, where it was certified six-times platinum by Promusicae. He released his fifth studio and second eponymous album in 1999, it was certified seven-times platinum by the Recording Industry Association of America, denoting shipments of over seven million copies in the United States. As of April 2011, Ricky Martin has sold over 15 million copies worldwide, making it his best selling-album. Martin released his sixth studio album, Sound Loaded, in 2000; the album peaked in the top five in Australia, Sweden and the United States, where it was certified double platinum for shipments of over two million units. In 2001, Martin released two greatest hit albums: The Best of Ricky Martin. La Historia compiled his biggest Spanish-language hits and charted at number 83 on the US Billboard 200 and number one on the US Latin Albums chart, while The Best of Ricky Martin which consisted of his biggest English-language hits, peaked at number 23 in Australia and 17 in Finland.
In 2003, the singer released Almas del Silencio. It peaked at number one on the US Latin Albums chart and number 12 on the US Billboard 200. Martin's eight studio album, was released in October 2005 to moderate success, peaking at number six in the United States and number 40 in the United Kingdom. In 2006, Martin's first live album, MTV Unplugged, was released by Sony Music Norte, it peaked at number 38 on number one on the US Latin Albums chart. Martin's ninth studio album, Música + Alma + Sexo was released by Sony Music Latin in January 2011, it peaked at number three in the United States and received a platinum certification in the Latin field by the RIAA, indicating shipments of over 100,000 copies in the country. In April 2013, he released his sixth compilation album, Greatest Hits: Souvenir Edition in Australia, where it peaked at number two and was certified gold by the Australian Recording Industry Association. A Quien Quiera Escuchar, Martin's tenth studio album, was released in February 2015.
Ricky Martin singles discography
La Historia (Ricky Martin album)
La Historia is a 2001 compilation album by singer Ricky Martin. The recordings are in Spanish; the album contains reworkings of two of Martin's early songs: "Fuego Contra Fuego" and "El Amor de Mi Vida". La Historia wasn't promoted by any single, did not include any new recordings, contains only Spanish-language songs. In the United States, La Historia peaked at number one for five weeks on the Billboard's Top Latin Albums and number eighty-three on the Billboard 200, it was certified 4× Platinum Latin award for shipping 400,000 units in the US, has sold 220,000 copies, according to Nielsen SoundScan. The album topped the chart in Argentina and Sweden, was certified Platinum in both countries. Other achievements include peaks at number thirteen in Spain, number sixteen in Italy, number twenty-three in Switzerland, number thirty-seven in Japan. La Historia was certified Gold in Spain. La Historia was nominated as the Latin Greatest Hits Album of the Year at the 2002 Latin Billboard Music Awards but lost to Vicente Fernández's Historia de un Ídolo, Vol. 1
In the music industry, a single is a type of release a song recording of fewer tracks than an LP record or an album. This can be released for sale to the public in a variety of different formats. In most cases, a single is a song, released separately from an album, although it also appears on an album; these are the songs from albums that are released separately for promotional uses such as digital download or commercial radio airplay and are expected to be the most popular. In other cases a recording released. Despite being referred to as a single, singles can include up to as many as three tracks; the biggest digital music distributor, iTunes Store, accepts as many as three tracks less than ten minutes each as a single, as does popular music player Spotify. Any more than three tracks on a musical release or thirty minutes in total running time is either an extended play or, if over six tracks long, an album; when mainstream music was purchased via vinyl records, singles would be released double-sided.
That is to say, they were released with an A-side and B-side, on which two singles would be released, one on each side. Moreover, only the most popular songs from a released album would be released as a single. In more contemporary forms of music consumption, artists release most, if not all, of the tracks on an album as singles; the basic specifications of the music single were set in the late 19th century, when the gramophone record began to supersede phonograph cylinders in commercially produced musical recordings. Gramophone discs were manufactured in several sizes. By about 1910, the 10-inch, 78 rpm shellac disc had become the most used format; the inherent technical limitations of the gramophone disc defined the standard format for commercial recordings in the early 20th century. The crude disc-cutting techniques of the time and the thickness of the needles used on record players limited the number of grooves per inch that could be inscribed on the disc surface, a high rotation speed was necessary to achieve acceptable recording and playback fidelity.
78 rpm was chosen as the standard because of the introduction of the electrically powered, synchronous turntable motor in 1925, which ran at 3600 rpm with a 46:1 gear ratio, resulting in a rotation speed of 78.26 rpm. With these factors applied to the 10-inch format and performers tailored their output to fit the new medium; the 3-minute single remained the standard into the 1960s, when the availability of microgroove recording and improved mastering techniques enabled recording artists to increase the duration of their recorded songs. The breakthrough came with Bob Dylan's "Like a Rolling Stone". Although CBS tried to make the record more "radio friendly" by cutting the performance into halves, separating them between the two sides of the vinyl disc, both Dylan and his fans demanded that the full six-minute take be placed on one side, that radio stations play the song in its entirety; as digital downloading and audio streaming have become more prevalent, it has become possible for every track on an album to be available separately.
The concept of a single for an album has been retained as an identification of a more promoted or more popular song within an album collection. The demand for music downloads skyrocketed after the launch of Apple's iTunes Store in January 2001 and the creation of portable music and digital audio players such as the iPod. In September 1997, with the release of Duran Duran's "Electric Barbarella" for paid downloads, Capitol Records became the first major label to sell a digital single from a well-known artist. Geffen Records released Aerosmith's "Head First" digitally for free. In 2004, Recording Industry Association of America introduced digital single certification due to significant sales of digital formats, with Gwen Stefani's "Hollaback Girl" becoming RIAA's first platinum digital single. In 2013, RIAA incorporated on-demand streams into the digital single certification. Single sales in the United Kingdom reached an all-time low in January 2005, as the popularity of the compact disc was overtaken by the then-unofficial medium of the music download.
Recognizing this, On 17 April 2005, Official UK Singles Chart added the download format to the existing format of physical CD singles. Gnarls Barkley was the first act to reach No.1 on this chart through downloads alone in April 2006, for their debut single "Crazy", released physically the following week. On 1 January 2007 digital downloads became eligible from the point of release, without the need for an accompanying physical. Sales improved in the following years, reaching a record high in 2008 that still proceeded to be overtaken in 2009, 2010 and 2011. Singles have been issued in various formats, including 7-inch, 10-inch, 12-inch vinyl discs. Other, less common, formats include singles on Digital Compact Cassette, DVD, LD, as well as many non-standard sizes of vinyl disc; the most common form of the vinyl single is the 45 or 7-inch. The names are derived from its play speed, 45 rpm, the standard diameter, 7 inches; the 7-inch 45 rpm record was released 31 March 1949 by RCA Victor as a smaller, more durable and higher-fidelity replacement for the 78 rpm shellac discs.
The first 45
Columbia Records is an American record label owned by Sony Music Entertainment, a subsidiary of Sony Corporation of America, the North American division of Japanese conglomerate Sony. It was founded in 1887, evolving from the American Graphophone Company, the successor to the Volta Graphophone Company. Columbia is the oldest surviving brand name in the recorded sound business, the second major company to produce records. From 1961 to 1990, Columbia recordings were released outside North America under the name CBS Records to avoid confusion with EMI's Columbia Graphophone Company. Columbia is one of Sony Music's four flagship record labels, alongside former longtime rival RCA Records, as well as Arista Records and Epic Records. Artists who have recorded for Columbia include Harry Styles, AC/DC, Louis Armstrong, Tony Bennett, Beyoncé, Dave Brubeck, The Byrds, Johnny Cash, Mariah Carey, The Chainsmokers, The Clash, Miles Davis, Rosemary Clooney, Neil Diamond, Celine Dion, Bob Dylan, Wind & Fire, Duke Ellington, 50 Cent, Erroll Garner, Benny Goodman, Adelaide Hall, Billy Joel, Janis Joplin, John Mayer, George Michael, Billy Murray, Pink Floyd, Lil Nas X, Frank Sinatra and Garfunkel, Bessie Smith, Bruce Springsteen, Barbra Streisand, Andy Williams, Pharrell Williams, Bill Withers, Paul Whiteman, Joe Zawinul The Columbia Phonograph Company was founded in 1887 by stenographer and New Jersey native Edward D. Easton and a group of investors.
It derived its name from the District of Columbia. At first it had a local monopoly on sales and service of Edison phonographs and phonograph cylinders in Washington, D. C. Maryland, Delaware; as was the custom of some of the regional phonograph companies, Columbia produced many commercial cylinder recordings of its own, its catalogue of musical records in 1891 was 10 pages. Columbia's ties to Edison and the North American Phonograph Company were severed in 1894 with the North American Phonograph Company's breakup. Thereafter it sold only phonographs of its own manufacture. In 1902, Columbia introduced a molded brown wax record, to use up old stock. Columbia introduced black wax records in 1903. According to one source, they continued to mold brown waxes until 1904 with the highest number being 32601, "Heinie", a duet by Arthur Collins and Byron G. Harlan; the molded brown waxes may have been sold to Sears for distribution. Columbia began selling disc records and phonographs in addition to the cylinder system in 1901, preceded only by their "Toy Graphophone" of 1899, which used small, vertically cut records.
For a decade, Columbia competed with both the Edison Phonograph Company cylinders and the Victor Talking Machine Company disc records as one of the top three names in American recorded sound. In order to add prestige to its early catalog of artists, Columbia contracted a number of New York Metropolitan Opera stars to make recordings; these stars included Marcella Sembrich, Lillian Nordica, Antonio Scotti and Edouard de Reszke, but the technical standard of their recordings was not considered to be as high as the results achieved with classical singers during the pre–World War I period by Victor, England's His Master's Voice or Italy's Fonotipia Records. After an abortive attempt in 1904 to manufacture discs with the recording grooves stamped into both sides of each disc—not just one—in 1908 Columbia commenced successful mass production of what they called their "Double-Faced" discs, the 10-inch variety selling for 65 cents apiece; the firm introduced the internal-horn "Grafonola" to compete with the popular "Victrola" sold by the rival Victor Talking Machine Company.
During this era, Columbia used the "Magic Notes" logo—a pair of sixteenth notes in a circle—both in the United States and overseas. Columbia stopped recording and manufacturing wax cylinder records in 1908, after arranging to issue celluloid cylinder records made by the Indestructible Record Company of Albany, New York, as "Columbia Indestructible Records". In July 1912, Columbia decided to concentrate on disc records and stopped manufacturing cylinder phonographs, although they continued selling Indestructible's cylinders under the Columbia name for a year or two more. Columbia was split into one to make records and one to make players. Columbia Phonograph was moved to Connecticut, Ed Easton went with it, it was renamed the Dictaphone Corporation. In late 1922, Columbia went into receivership; the company was bought by its English subsidiary, the Columbia Graphophone Company in 1925 and the label, record numbering system, recording process changed. On February 25, 1925, Columbia began recording with the electric recording process licensed from Western Electric.
"Viva-tonal" records set a benchmark in tone and clarity unequaled on commercial discs during the 78-rpm era. The first electrical recordings were made by Art Gillham, the "Whispering Pianist". In a secret agreement with Victor, electrical technology was kept secret to avoid hurting sales of acoustic records. In 1926, Columbia acquired Okeh Records and its growing stable of jazz and blues artists, including Louis Armstrong and Clarence Williams. Columbia had built a catalog of blues and jazz artists, including Bessie Smith in their 14000-D Race series. Columbia had a successful "Hillbilly" series. In 1928, Paul Whiteman, the nation's most popular orchestra leader, left Victor to record for Columbia. During the same year, Columbia executiv