Gladys May Aylward was a British-born evangelical Christian missionary to China, whose story was told in the book The Small Woman, by Alan Burgess, published in 1957, made into the film The Inn of the Sixth Happiness, starring Ingrid Bergman, in 1958. The film was produced by Twentieth Century Fox, filmed in North Wales and England. Aylward was born to a working-class family in Edmonton, North London, in 1902, her parents were Rosina Florence Aylward. Her siblings were Violet, she worked as a domestic worker in a posh house from her early teens. She always asked herself why she was short and had black eyes and hair instead of blond hair and blue eyes like the people she worked for, she felt a calling to go overseas as a Christian missionary. She was accepted by the China Inland Mission to study a preliminary three-month course for aspiring missionaries, but was not offered further training due to lack of progress in learning the Chinese language. On 15 October 1932, having worked for Sir Francis Younghusband, she spent her life savings on a train passage to Yangcheng, Shanxi Province, China.
The perilous trip took her across Siberia with the Trans-Siberian Railway. She was detained by the Russians, but managed to evade them with local help and took a lift from a Japanese ship, she took another ship to China. On her arrival in China Yangcheng, Aylward worked with an older missionary, Jeannie Lawson, to found The Inn of the Eight Happinesses, the name based on the eight virtues: Love, Gentleness, Loyalty, Truth and Devotion. There and Mrs. Lawson not only provided hospitality for travellers, but would share stories about Jesus, in hopes of sharing the Christian missionary religion. For a time she served as an assistant to the Government of the Republic of China as a "foot inspector" by touring the countryside to enforce the new law against footbinding young Chinese girls, she met with much success in a field that had produced much resistance, including sometimes violence against the inspectors. Aylward became a national of the Republic of China in 1936 and was a revered figure among the people, taking in orphans and adopting several herself, intervening in a volatile prison riot and advocating prison reform, risking her life many times to help those in need.
In 1938, the region was invaded by Japanese forces and Aylward led more than 100 orphans to safety over the mountains, despite being wounded herself. She not only led the orphans to safety, but cared for them and converted many of them to Christianity, she never married, but spent her entire life devoting herself to Christian work with the people of China. She did not return to Britain until 1949, at which point her life in China was in great danger from Communists - the army was seeking out missionaries, she taught young children at Basingstoke Preparatory School for several years.. She returned to China in 1957 after her mother had died and lived first in Hong Kong and in Formosa ] After about 10 years she sought to return to China, after rejection by the Communist government and a stay in British administered Hong Kong settled in Taiwan in 1958. There, she founded the Gladys Aylward Orphanage, where she worked until her death in 1970. A film based on her life, The Inn of the Sixth Happiness, was released in 1958.
It drew by Alan Burgess. Although she found herself a figure of international interest due to the popularity of the film, television and media interviews, Aylward was mortified by her depiction in the film and the liberties it took; the tall, blonde Swedish actress Ingrid Bergman was inconsistent with Aylward's small stature, dark hair and North London accent. The struggles of Aylward and her family to effect her initial trip to China were disregarded in favour of a movie plot device of an employer "condescending to write to'his old friend' Jeannie Lawson." Aylward's dangerous, complicated travels across Russia and Japan were reduced to, "a few rude soldiers", after which, "Hollywood's train delivered her neatly to Tsientsin." Many characters and place names were changed when these names had significant meaning, such as those of her adopted children and the name of the inn, named instead for the Chinese belief in the number 8 as being auspicious. For example, in real life she was given the Chinese name 艾偉德, however in the film she was given the name 真爱 Jen-Ai.
Colonel Linnan was portrayed as half-European, a change which she found insulting to his real Chinese lineage, she felt her reputation was damaged by the Hollywood-embellished love scenes in the film. Not only had she never kissed a man, but the film's ending portrayed her character leaving the orphans to re-join the colonel elsewhere though in reality she did not retire from working with orphans until she was 60 years old. Aylward died on 3 January 1970, just short of her 68th birthday, is buried in a small cemetery on the campus of Christ's College in Guandu, New Taipei, Taiwan, she was known to the Chinese as 艾偉德. A London secondary school known as "Weir Hall and Huxley", was renamed the Gladys Aylward School shortly after her death. There is a blu
British royal family
The British royal family comprises Queen Elizabeth II and her close relations. There is no strict legal or formal definition of, or is not a member of the British royal family; those who at the time are entitled to the style His or Her Royal Highness, any styled His or Her Majesty, are considered members, including those so styled before the beginning of the current monarch's reign. By this criterion, a list of the current royal family will include the monarch, the children and male-line grandchildren of the monarch and previous monarchs, the children of the eldest son of the Prince of Wales, all their current or widowed spouses; some members of the royal family have official residences named as the places from which announcements are made in the Court Circular about official engagements they have carried out. The state duties and staff of some members of the royal family are funded from a parliamentary annuity, the amount of, refunded by the Queen to the Treasury. Since 1917, when King George V changed the name of the royal house from Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, members of the royal family have belonged, either by birth or by marriage, to the House of Windsor.
Senior titled members of the royal family do not use a surname, although since 1960 Mountbatten-Windsor, incorporating Prince Philip's adopted surname of Mountbatten, has been prescribed as a surname for Elizabeth II's direct descendants who do not have royal styles and titles, it has sometimes been used when required for those who do have such titles. The royal family are regarded as British cultural icons, with young adults from abroad naming the family among a group of people that they most associated with UK culture. On 30 November 1917, King George V issued letters patent defining the styles and titles of members of the royal family; the KING has been pleased by Letters Patent under the Great Seal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, bearing date the 30th ultimo, to define the styles and titles to be borne henceforth by members of the royal family. It is declared by the Letters Patent that the children of any Sovereign of the United Kingdom and the children of the sons of any such Sovereign and the eldest living son of the eldest son of the Prince of Wales shall have and at all times hold and enjoy the style, title or attribute of Royal Highness with their titular dignity of Prince or Princess prefixed to their respective Christian names or with their other titles of honour.
In 1996, Queen Elizabeth II modified these letters patent, this Notice appeared in the London Gazette: The QUEEN has been pleased by Letters Patent under the Great Seal of the Realm dated 21st August 1996, to declare that a former wife of a son of a Sovereign of these Realms, of a son of a son of a Sovereign and of the eldest living son of the eldest son of The Prince of Wales shall not be entitled to hold and enjoy the style, title or attribute of Royal Highness. On 31 December 2012, letters patent were issued to extend a title and a style borne by members of the royal family to additional persons to be born, this Notice appeared in the London Gazette: The QUEEN has been pleased by Letters Patent under the Great Seal of the Realm dated 31 December 2012 to declare that all the children of the eldest son of The Prince of Wales should have and enjoy the style and attribute of Royal Highness with the titular dignity of Prince or Princess prefixed to their Christian names or with such other titles of honour.
Members and relatives of the British royal family represented the monarch in various places throughout the British Empire, sometimes for extended periods as viceroys, or for specific ceremonies or events. Today, they perform ceremonial and social duties throughout the United Kingdom and abroad on behalf of the United Kingdom. Aside from the monarch, their only constitutional role in the affairs of government is to serve, if eligible and when appointed by letters patent, as a Counsellor of State, two or more of whom exercise the authority of the Crown if the monarch is indisposed or abroad. In the other countries of the Commonwealth royalty do not serve as Counsellors of State, although they may perform ceremonial and social duties on behalf of individual states or the organisation; the Queen, her consort, her children and grandchildren, as well as all former sovereigns' children and grandchildren, hold places in the first sections of the official orders of precedence in England and Wales and Northern Ireland.
Wives of the said enjoy their husbands' precedence, husbands of princesses are unofficially but habitually placed with their wives as well. However, the Queen changed the private order of precedence in the royal family in favour of Princesses Anne and Alexandra, who henceforth take private precedence over the Duchess of Cornwall, otherwise the realm's highest ranking woman after the Queen herself, she did not alter the relative precedence of other born-princesses, such as the daughters of her younger sons. As of 2019, members of the royal family are: The Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh The Prince of Wales and the Duchess of Cornwall The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge (the Queen's gra
Silvanus Bevan (1743–1830)
Silvanus Bevan was a British banker. He was born on 3 October 1743 in Plough Court Pharmacy, Lombard Street, the son of Timothy Bevan and his wife Elizabeth Barclay. In 1767, he joined his uncle James Barclay, in 1776, their firm became "Barclay and Bening", he was a sleeping partner in the Perkins brewery at Southwark. On 10 April 1769, he married Isabella Wakefield, the daughter of Edward and Isabella Wakefield, from an old Westmorland Quaker family, she died of fever on 17 November 1769, aged 17. On 23 September 1773, Bevan married Louisa Kendall, the daughter of Henry Kendall, a banker, of Lincoln's Inn Fields, they had seven sons. On marrying a non-Quaker, he was expelled from the Society of Friends. In 1783 he bought Swallowfield, from John Dodd for £20,000, sold the house in about 1788. In 1789 he bought Riddlesworth Hall. In 1814 he moved to Fosbury House, Wiltshire, he had houses at 31 Gloucester Place and Collingwood House, 127 Marine Parade, Brighton. Silvanus and Isabella Bevan had seven children: David Bevan.
Married Favell Bourke Lee Henry Bevan, married Harriet Droz. Rev. Frederick Stephen Bevan, married Ann Elizabeth Buxton. Charles Bevan, married Mary Johnstone. Rev. George Bevan, married Anne Buchanan. Robert Bevan, married Mary Peele Taylor. Richard Bevan, married Charlotte Hunter Sarah Dewar, he was a banker based in Brighton. He died in 1830
Thomas Leverton was an English architect. He was born in Waltham Abbey, where he was baptised on 11 June 1743, the son of the builder Lancelot Leverton. Having learned his father's trade he acquired the skills of architecture with the help of patrons, he built houses both in London and the countryside, including Watton Wood Hall, built in 1777–82 for Sir Thomas Rumbold, which includes a hall decorated in the Etruscan style. In 1780 he designed Plaistow Lodge for Peter Thellusson at Bromley, Kent in a style suggestive of Adams, his domed refit of Scampston Hall near Malton, reflected the work of Wyatt. Other houses by Leverton, now demolished, included Woodford Hall, built in 1775 for William Hunt, Riddlesworth Hall, built in 1792 for Silvanus Bevan III. In the grounds of Parlington Hall, Yorkshire, he built a triumphal arch in commemoration of the American victory in the War of Independence for Sir Thomas Gascoigne. Leverton showed the design at the Royal Academy in 1781, he has sometimes been credited with the design of Bedford Square in London: while this is uncertain some of the individual houses are attributed to him, interiors, including those at No 13, where he lived from 1795.
His chief skill lay in the innovatory design of small-scale interiors. Describing his work at Woodhall Park, Nikolaus Pevsner said that Leverton's interiors "have a style, decidedly their own, different from Adam's or Chambers's or Hollands's" their character coming out most in the central staicase hallway, "profusely but delicately decorated with plaster à la antique". Leverton was surveyor to the Grocers' Company, for whom he built a new hall, completed in 1802. A brick building with stone facings, it was described in a contemporary account as "though not a splendid fabric... well adapted to its enclosed situation." The foundations proved inadequate, by 1814 cracks had developed in the building. He was surveyor to the theatres royal in London and the Phoenix Fire Insurance Company, for which he built offices in Lombard Street in about 1787 and a fire engine house at Charing Cross, both demolished, he took over as architect at the Department of Land Revenue after the retirement of John Marquand.
In this capacity he, along with his pupil, Thomas Chawner, submitted a plan for the improvement of the crown property of Marylebone Park Farm in July 1811, although John Nash's plans were preferred. He exhibited at the Royal Academy from 1777 until 1803, he was a Justice of the Peace for Westminster, Middlesex and Kent. He was married twice, firstly in 1766 and in 1803, to Rebecca Craven of Blackheath, but his only son predeceased him, his niece married a pupil, James Donaldson, was the mother of Thomas Leverton Donaldson, who became Professor of Architecture at London University. Leverton died at 13 Bedford Square, London, on 23 September 1824, he was buried at Waltham Abbey. The Thomas Leverton Charity, founded by money left in Leverton's will, is intended to aid deserving women in distress, preferably widows resident in the united parishes of St Giles and St George, it has since been amalgamated into the St Giles-in-the-Fields and Bloomsbury United Charity. Woodford Hall in Essex Watton Wood Hall, Hertfordshire.
Triumphal Arch, Parlington Hall, Yorkshire. Riddlesworth Hall in Norfolk. Grocers' Hall, City of London. Scampston Hall, Yorkshire. Gordon House, Chelsea. Office for the Phoenix Fire Insurance Company, Lombard Street, London. Fire engine house at Charing Cross fire engine house at Charing Cross, and when he died his wife set up a school in Highbridge Street, with money that Thomas had left for 20 poor boys and 20 poor girls in the parish to attend a school. Graves, Algernon; the Royal Academy: A Complete Dictionary of Contributors from its Foundations in 1769 to 1904. 5. London: Henry Graves. Pevsner, Nikolaus. Hertfordshire. Buildings of England. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books. Winters, W.. Our Parish Records. Waltham Cross: W. Winters
British Armed Forces
The British Armed Forces known as Her Majesty's Armed Forces, are the military services responsible for the defence of the United Kingdom, its overseas territories and the Crown dependencies. They promote Britain's wider interests, support international peacekeeping efforts and provide humanitarian aid. Since the formation of a Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707, the armed forces have seen action in a number of major wars involving the world's great powers, including the Seven Years' War, the Napoleonic Wars, the Crimean War, the First World War, the Second World War. Emerging victorious from conflicts has allowed Britain to establish itself as one of the world's leading military and economic powers. Today, the British Armed Forces consist of: the Royal Navy, a blue-water navy with a fleet of 75 commissioned ships, together with the Royal Marines, a specialised amphibious light infantry force; the British Armed Forces include standing forces, Regular Reserve, Volunteer Reserves and Sponsored Reserves.
Its Commander-in-chief is the British monarch Queen Elizabeth II, to whom members of the forces swear allegiance. The UK Parliament approves the continued existence of the British Army by passing an Armed Forces Act at least once every five years, as required by the Bill of Rights 1689; the Royal Navy, Royal Air Force and Royal Marines among with all other forces do not require this act. The armed forces are managed by the Defence Council of the Ministry of Defence, headed by the Secretary of State for Defence; the United Kingdom is one of five recognised nuclear powers, is a permanent member on the United Nations Security Council, is a founding and leading member of the NATO military alliance, is party to the Five Power Defence Arrangements. Overseas garrisons and facilities are maintained at Ascension Island, Belize, British Indian Ocean Territory, Canada, the Falkland Islands, Gibraltar, Montserrat, Qatar and the United States. With the Acts of Union 1707, the armed forces of England and Scotland were merged into the armed forces of the Kingdom of Great Britain.
During the half of the seventeenth century, in particular, throughout the eighteenth century, British foreign policy sought to contain the expansion of rival European powers through military and commercial means – of its chief competitors. This saw Britain engage in a number of intense conflicts over colonial possessions and world trade, including a long string of Anglo-Spanish and Anglo-Dutch wars, as well as a series of "world wars" with France, such as. During the Napoleonic wars, the Royal Navy victory at Trafalgar under the command of Horatio Nelson marked the culmination of British maritime supremacy, left the Navy in a position of uncontested hegemony at sea. By 1815 and the conclusion of the Napoleonic Wars, Britain had risen to become the world's dominant great power and the British Empire subsequently presided over a period of relative peace, known as Pax Britannica. With Britain's old rivals no-longer a threat, the nineteenth century saw the emergence of a new rival, the Russian Empire, a strategic competition in what became known as The Great Game for supremacy in Central Asia.
Britain feared that Russian expansionism in the region would threaten the Empire in India. In response, Britain undertook a number of pre-emptive actions against perceived Russian ambitions, including the First Anglo-Afghan War, the Second Anglo-Afghan War and the British expedition to Tibet. During this period, Britain sought to maintain the balance of power in Europe against Russian expansionism, who at the expense of the waning Ottoman Empire had ambitions to "carve up the European part of Turkey"; this led to British involvement in the Crimean War against the Russian Empire. The beginning of the twentieth century served to reduce tensions between Britain and the Russian Empire due to the emergence of a unified German Empire; the era brought about an Anglo-German naval arms race which encouraged significant advancements in maritime technology, in 1906, Britain had determined that its only naval enemy was Germany. The accumulated tensions in European relations broke out into the hostilities of the First World War, in what is recognised today, as the most devastating war in British military history, with nearly 800,000 men killed and over 2 million wounded.
Allied victory resulted in the defeat of the Central Powers, the end of the German Empire, the Treaty of Versailles and the establishment of the League of Nations. Although Germany had been defeated during the First World War, by 1933 fascism had given rise to Nazi Germany, which under the leadership of Adolf Hitler re-militarised in defiance of the Treaty of Versailles. Once again tensions accumulated in European relations, following Germany's invasion of Poland in September 1939, the Second World War began; the conflict was the most widespread in British history, with British Empire and Commonwealth troops fighting in campaigns from Europe and North Africa, to the Middle East and the Far East. 390,000 British Empire and Commonwealth troops lost their lives. Allied victory resulted in the defeat of the Axis powers and the