Oakland, West Virginia
Oakland is an unincorporated community in Morgan County, West Virginia. It is located along south of Stotlers Crossroads. Oakland is connected to Valley Road by County Route 28. Media related to Oakland, West Virginia at Wikimedia Commons
Berkeley Springs, West Virginia
Berkeley Springs is a town in, the county seat of, Morgan County, West Virginia, United States, in the state's Eastern Panhandle. While the area was part of Virginia, the town was incorporated as Bath. Since 1802, it has been referred to by the name of its original Virginia post office, Berkeley Springs; the population of the town was 800. The town is located within MD-WV Metropolitan Statistical Area. Berkeley Springs is a sister city to Bath, England; the area contains mineral water springs that were frequented by Native Americans indigenous to the area for thousands of years. After settlement by Europeans, the mineral springs drew many visitors from urban areas. Notable colonial visitors to the area included James Rumsey. Berkeley Springs remained a popular resort area during the early years of the United States, it is the home of the Berkeley Springs International Water Tasting, the longest running and largest such event in the world. The area continues to be a popular resort area with tourism the main industry in the county and four full-service spas using the mineral water.
A historic building whose construction began in 1888, was built as a retreat for Rosa and Samuel Taylor Suit overlooking the town. It is called "Berkeley Castle". Berkeley Springs is a noted arts community with working artists accounting for 1% of the county population of 16,000. Since 1994, the town has been listed in all four editions of John Villani's "100 Best Art Towns in America". During colonial times in 1748, George Washington just 16 years old, was part of the team that surveyed the Eastern Panhandle region for Thomas Fairfax, 6th Lord Fairfax of Cameron. Washington returned several times over the next several years with his half-brother, ill, in hopes that the warm springs might improve his health; the springs, their rumored medicinal benefits, attracted numerous Native Americans as well as Europeans to the area. While vacationing in the area in 1767, Washington made note of how busy the colonial town had become. Lord Fairfax had built a summer home there and a "private bath" making the area a popular destination for Virginia's social elite.
With the advent of independence, An act for establishing a town at the Warm Springs in the county of Berkeley was adopted by the Virginia General Assembly in December 1776. The town was named Bath, in honor of England's spa city of Bath. George Washington, his family members and several of the colonial elite were among the town's first landowners; the town's main north-south street was named Washington and the main east-west street was named Fairfax. Four acres were set aside for "suffering humanity." The area around the springs always was public land known as The Grove and overseen by a state-appointed group of Berkeley Springs trustees. This would become a historic park with its springs and bathhouses, made part of the West Virginia state park system in 1925. Nearby, Cacapon State Park was opened in 1933; the mountain that gives its name to the park has an elevation of 2,320 feet above sea level. Bath's population increased during and after, the Revolutionary War as wounded soldiers and others came to the area believing that the warm springs had medicinal qualities.
Bath gained a reputation as a somewhat wild town where eating, drinking and gambling on the daily horse races were the order of the day. In 1772, the springs were part of the newly formed Berkeley County, named after its colonial governor, Norborne Berkeley; the waters became known as Berkeley Springs because the existing protocol was to name springs after the colonial Virginia county in which they were located. The area had been called Warm Springs and Medicinal Springs among other names. Bath became known permanently to the world as Berkeley Springs in 1802 when the Virginia postal system was established in the new nation and there was a Bath, Virginia, in Bath County. West Virginia became a state following the Wheeling Conventions of 1861, in which 50 northwestern counties of Virginia decided to break away from Virginia during the American Civil War; the new state was admitted to the Union on June 20, 1863. Berkeley Springs remained the conventional name used for the town, its Sister City is England.
Berkeley Springs is located at 39°37′32″N 78°13′37″W, in the Appalachian Mountains. The town lies in the Eastern Panhandle of West Virginia 26 miles NW of Martinsburg, West Virginia and 36 miles W of Hagerstown, Maryland. Berkeley Springs is the county seat of Morgan County. Morgan County makes up one of the western counties in the Eastern Panhandle. According to the United States Census Bureau, the incorporated town of Bath has a total area of 0.34 square miles, all land. The main road through the town is U. S. Route 522. West Virginia Route 9 runs west through the town. There are two rivers in Morgan County; the Potomac makes up the northern border and the Cacapon River cuts through the center of the county connecting with the Potomac at Great Cacapon. The Cacapon and Sleepy Creek Mountains are the two most notable mountains in the county. Berkeley Springs is nestled in the extreme northern Shenandoah Valley at an elevation of 499 feet. Warm Spring Run cuts through the center of the town and connects with the Potomac River near the Hancock Station.
Sleepy Creek connects with the Potomac along River Road east of the town. As of the census of 2010, there were 624 people, 314 households, 158 families residing in the incorporated town of Bath; the population density was 1,835.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 416 housing units at an aver
Orleans Cross Roads, West Virginia
Orleans Cross Roads is an unincorporated community hamlet that lies on the western flanks of Sideling Hill on the Potomac River in Morgan County, West Virginia. To its south, Rockwell Run, a mountain stream fed by springs, empties into the Potomac. Orleans Cross Roads lies along the old Baltimore and Ohio Railroad directly across the river from Little Orleans, it is accessible by way of Orleans Road from Cacapon Road via Detour Road. Once the site of a functioning station on the B&O, Orleans Cross Roads had its own operating post office; the community and post office were known as Orleans Cross Roads or Orleans Crossroads while its station was known as Orleans Road Station. It is still inhabited today and is the site of the historic Orleans Cross Roads Methodist Episcopal Church, built in the 1850s
West Virginia is a state located in the Appalachian region in the Southern United States, considered to be a part of the Middle Atlantic States. It is bordered by Pennsylvania to the north, Maryland to the east and northeast, Virginia to the southeast, Kentucky to the southwest, Ohio to the northwest. West Virginia is the 41st largest state by area, is ranked 38th in population; the capital and largest city is Charleston. West Virginia became a state following the Wheeling Conventions of 1861, after the American Civil War had begun. Delegates from some Unionist counties of northwestern Virginia decided to break away from Virginia, although they included many secessionist counties in the new state. West Virginia was admitted to the Union on June 20, 1863, was a key border state during the war. West Virginia was the only state to form by separating from a Confederate state, the first to separate from any state since Maine separated from Massachusetts, was one of two states admitted to the Union during the American Civil War.
While a portion of its residents held slaves, most of the residents were yeomen farmers, the delegates provided for gradual abolition of slavery in the new state Constitution. The Census Bureau and the Association of American Geographers classify West Virginia as part of the Southern United States; however the Bureau of Labor Statistics classifies West Virginia as a part of the Mid-Atlantic. The northern panhandle extends adjacent to Pennsylvania and Ohio, with the West Virginia cities of Wheeling and Weirton just across the border from the Pittsburgh metropolitan area, while Bluefield is less than 70 miles from North Carolina. Huntington in the southwest is close to the states of Ohio and Kentucky, while Martinsburg and Harpers Ferry in the Eastern Panhandle region are considered part of the Washington metropolitan area, in between the states of Maryland and Virginia; the unique position of West Virginia means that it is included in several geographical regions, including the Mid-Atlantic, the Upland South, the Southeastern United States.
It is the only state, within the area served by the Appalachian Regional Commission. The state is noted for its mountains and rolling hills, its significant logging and coal mining industries, its political and labor history, it is known for a wide range of outdoor recreational opportunities, including skiing, whitewater rafting, hiking, mountain biking, rock climbing, hunting. Many ancient man-made earthen mounds from various prehistoric mound builder cultures survive in the areas of present-day Moundsville, South Charleston, Romney; the artifacts uncovered in these give evidence of village societies. They had a tribal trade system culture. In the 1670s during the Beaver Wars, the powerful Iroquois, five allied nations based in present-day New York and Pennsylvania, drove out other American Indian tribes from the region in order to reserve the upper Ohio Valley as a hunting ground. Siouan language tribes, such as the Moneton, had been recorded in the area. A century the area now identified as West Virginia was contested territory among Anglo-Americans as well, with the colonies of Pennsylvania and Virginia claiming territorial rights under their colonial charters to this area before the American Revolutionary War.
Some speculative land companies, such as the Vandalia Company, the Ohio Company and Indiana Company, tried to legitimize their claims to land in parts of West Virginia and present day Kentucky, but failed. This rivalry resulted in some settlers petitioning the Continental Congress to create a new territory called Westsylvania. With the federal settlement of the Pennsylvania and Virginia border dispute, creating Kentucky County, Kentuckians "were satisfied, the inhabitants of a large part of West Virginia were grateful."The Crown considered the area of West Virginia to be part of the British Virginia Colony from 1607 to 1776. The United States considered this area to be the western part of the state of Virginia from 1776 to 1863, before the formation of West Virginia, its residents were discontented for years with their position in Virginia, as the government was dominated by the planter elite of the Tidewater and Piedmont areas. The legislature had electoral malapportionment, based on the counting of slaves toward regional populations, the western white residents were underrepresented in the state legislature.
More subsistence and yeoman farmers lived in the west and they were less supportive of slavery, although many counties were divided on their support. The residents of this area became more divided after the planter elite of eastern Virginia voted to secede from the Union during the Civil War. Residents of the western and northern counties set up a separate government under Francis Pierpont in 1861, which they called the Restored Government. Most voted to separate from Virginia, the new state was admitted to the Union in 1863. In 1864 a state constitutional convention drafted a constitution, ratified by the legislature without putting it to popular vote. West Virginia abolished slavery by a gradual process and temporarily disenfranchised men who had held Confederate office or fought for the Confederacy. West Virginia's history has been profoundly affected by its mountainous terrain and vast river valleys, rich natural resources; these were all factors driving its economy and the lifestyles of its residents, who tended to live in many small isolated communities in the mountain valleys.
A 2010 analysis of
Morgan County, West Virginia
Morgan County is a county located in the U. S. state of West Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 17,541, its county seat is Berkeley Springs. The county was formed in 1820 from parts of Hampshire and Berkeley Counties and named in honor of General Daniel Morgan, prominent soldier of the American Revolutionary War. Morgan County is the home of an important mine producing special sand for the glass industry. Morgan County was created by an act of the Virginia General Assembly in March 1820 from parts of Berkeley and Hampshire counties, it was named in honor of General Daniel Morgan. He was born in Hunterdon County, New Jersey, moved to Winchester, Virginia as a youth, he served as a wagoner in Braddock's Army during the campaign against the Native Americans in 1755. During the campaign, a British Lieutenant became angry with him and hit him with the flat of his sword. Morgan punched the Lieutenant. Morgan was sentenced to 500 lashes. Morgan joked that the drummer who counted out the lashes miscounted and he received only 499 lashes.
For the rest of his life he claimed. The first English settlers in present-day Morgan County arrived during the 1730s; because most of these early pioneers were squatters, there is no record of their names. Historians claim that the first cabin in the county was built around 1745; as word of the county's warm springs spread eastward, Thomas Fairfax, 6th Lord Fairfax of Cameron decided that the county needed to be surveyed. In 1748, George Washington just 16 years old, was part of the survey party the surveyed the Eastern Panhandle region for Lord Fairfax, he returned to Bath several times over the next several years with his half-brother, ill and hoped that the warm springs might improve his health. The springs, their rumored medicinal benefits, attracted numerous Native Americans as well as Europeans to the area; as mentioned George Washington visited present-day Berkeley Springs several times with his half-brother, Lawrence. When he vacationed in the area in 1767, he noted. Lord Fairfax had built a summer home there and a "private bath" making the area a popular destination for Virginia's social elite.
As the town continued to grow, the Virginia General Assembly decided to formally recognize it. In October 1776, the town was named Bath, in honor of England's spa city called Bath; the town's main north-south street was named Washington and the main east-west street was named Fairfax. Seven acres were set aside for "suffering humanity." When West Virginia gained statehood, that area became West Virginia's first state park. Bath's population increased during and after the American Revolutionary War as wounded soldiers and others came to the area believing that the warm springs had medicinal qualities. Bath gained a reputation as a somewhat wild town where eating, drinking and gambling on the daily horse races were the order of the day. Bath became known as Berkeley Springs because the town's post office took that name to avoid confusion with another post office, located in southeastern Virginia, called Bath; because the mail was sent to and from Berkeley Springs, that name took precedence. According to the U.
S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 230 square miles, of which 229 square miles is land and 0.5 square miles is water. U. S. Highway 522 West Virginia Route 9 Washington County, Maryland Berkeley County Frederick County, Virginia Hampshire County Allegany County, Maryland Potomac River Cacapon River Cherry Run Sir Johns Run Sleepy Creek Meadow Branch Warm Spring Run As of the census of 2000, there were 14,943 people, 6,145 households, 4,344 families residing in the county; the population density was 65 people per square mile. There were 8,076 housing units at an average density of 35 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 98.30% White, 0.60% Black or African American, 0.17% Native American, 0.12% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.23% from other races, 0.57% from two or more races. 0.83% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 6,145 households out of which 28.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.90% were married couples living together, 8.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.30% were non-families.
24.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 2.84. The age distribution is 22.40% under the age of 18, 6.80% from 18 to 24, 27.30% from 25 to 44, 26.90% from 45 to 64, 16.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females there were 96.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.00 males. The median income for a household in the county was $35,016, the median income for a family was $40,690. Males had a median income of $29,816 versus $22,307 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,109. About 8.00% of families and 10.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.60% of those under age 18 and 8.80% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 17,541 people, 7,303 households, 5,015 families residing in the county; the population density was 76.6 inhabitants per square mile.
There were 9,753 housing units at an average density of 42.6 per square mile (16
A town is a human settlement. Towns are larger than villages but smaller than cities, though the criteria to distinguish them vary between different parts of the world; the word town shares an origin with the German word Zaun, the Dutch word tuin, the Old Norse tun. The German word Zaun comes closest to the original meaning of the word: a fence of any material. An early borrowing from Celtic *dunom. In English and Dutch, the meaning of the word took on the sense of the space which these fences enclosed. In England, a town was a small community that could not afford or was not allowed to build walls or other larger fortifications, built a palisade or stockade instead. In the Netherlands, this space was a garden, more those of the wealthy, which had a high fence or a wall around them. In Old Norse tun means a place between farmhouses, the word is still used in a similar meaning in modern Norwegian. In Old English and Early and Middle Scots, the words ton, etc. could refer to diverse kinds of settlements from agricultural estates and holdings picking up the Norse sense at one end of the scale, to fortified municipalities.
If there was any distinction between toun and burgh as claimed by some, it did not last in practice as burghs and touns developed. For example, "Edina Burgh" or "Edinburgh" was built around a fort and came to have a defensive wall. In some cases, "town" is an alternative name for "city" or "village". Sometimes, the word "town" is short for "township". In general, today towns can be differentiated from townships, villages, or hamlets on the basis of their economic character, in that most of a town's population will tend to derive their living from manufacturing industry and public services rather than primary industry such as agriculture or related activities. A place's population size is not a reliable determinant of urban character. In many areas of the world, e.g. in India at least until recent times, a large village might contain several times as many people as a small town. In the United Kingdom, there are historical cities; the modern phenomenon of extensive suburban growth, satellite urban development, migration of city dwellers to villages has further complicated the definition of towns, creating communities urban in their economic and cultural characteristics but lacking other characteristics of urban localities.
Some forms of non-rural settlement, such as temporary mining locations, may be non-rural, but have at best a questionable claim to be called a town. Towns exist as distinct governmental units, with defined borders and some or all of the appurtenances of local government. In the United States these are referred to as "incorporated towns". In other cases the town lacks its own governance and is said to be "unincorporated". Note that the existence of an unincorporated town may be set out by other means, e.g. zoning districts. In the case of some planned communities, the town exists in the form of covenants on the properties within the town; the United States Census identifies many census-designated places by the names of unincorporated towns which lie within them. The distinction between a town and a city depends on the approach: a city may be an administrative entity, granted that designation by law, but in informal usage, the term is used to denote an urban locality of a particular size or importance: whereas a medieval city may have possessed as few as 10,000 inhabitants, today some consider an urban place of fewer than 100,000 as a town though there are many designated cities that are much smaller than that.
Australian geographer Thomas Griffith Taylor proposed a classification of towns based on their age and pattern of land use. He identified five types of town: Infantile towns, with no clear zoning Juvenile towns, which have developed an area of shops Adolescent towns, where factories have started to appear Early mature towns, with a separate area of high-class housing Mature towns, with defined industrial and various types of residential area In Afghanistan and cities are known as shār; as the country is an rural society with few larger settlements, with major cities never holding more than a few hundred thousand inhabitants before the 2000s, the lingual tradition of the country does not discriminate between towns and cities. In Albania "qytezë" means town, similar with the word for city. Although there is no official use of the term for any settlement. In Albanian "qytezë" means "small city" or "new city", while in ancient times "small residential center within the walls of a castle"; the center is a population group, larger than a village, smaller than a city.
Though the village is bigger than a hamlet In Australia, towns or "urban centre localities" are understood to be those centers of population not formally declared to be cities and having a population in excess of about 200 people. Centers too small to be called towns are understood to be a township. In addition, some local government entities are styled as towns in Queensland, Western Australia and the Northern Territory, before the statewide amalgamations of th
West Virginia Route 9
West Virginia Route 9 is a major east–west state highway located in the eastern extents of West Virginia's Eastern Panhandle. The western terminus of the route is at the Maryland state line north of Paw Paw, where WV 9 becomes Maryland Route 51 upon crossing the Potomac River; the eastern terminus is at the Virginia state line at Keyes Gap near Mannings, West Virginia, where WV 9 continues onward as Virginia State Route 9. With no east–west US Highway in the region, WV 9 acts as the major east–west transportation artery between Morgan and Jefferson counties. WV 9 enters Hampshire County where it intersects with WV 29 near Pin Oak. WV 9 underwent a major upgrade. U. S. Senator Robert C. Byrd began securing funding for the projects in the early 1990s. Shortly thereafter, a short portion of the road along the southern edge of Martinsburg was upgraded to four lanes, from Queen Street to Kelly Island Road. In the mid-2000s, a short stretch was upgraded to four lanes from Interstate 81 west to Harlan Springs Road.
The next significant improvement did not take place until September 2007, when a four-mile stretch of the upgraded road opened up from Charles Town, through Bardane to Leetown Road in Kearneysville. In early 2008, the future west-bound lanes of traffic were opened to two-way traffic from Kelly Island Road to, over, Opequon Creek; this allowed for the former road surface to be the eastbound lanes to be built. It allowed for the demolition of the old bridge over the Opequon, the site of several fatal accidents. In April 2009, a short 1.3-mile section of the new WV 9 was opened from the Eastern Regional Jail to the Opequon Creek bridge. A four-mile section of WV 9 from the Eastern Regional Jail to Short Road was completed at the end of 2009. Construction from Short Road to Leetown Road was completed in August 2010; the stretch from the Virginia line to Charles Town was the most recent stage of construction. A pair of new bridges span U. S. Route 340 south of Charles Town; the bypass carries WV 9 away from its previous winding route across the Shenandoah River and the Blue Ridge.
Instead, it follows a straight path near Cattail Run Road, connecting with Virginia Route 9 at Keyes Gap. Despite opposition from some Virginia residents, who were concerned about increasing traffic along the narrow, winding stretch of SR 9 through the town of Hillsboro, this stretch of road opened to traffic on November 14, 2012. In April 2008, a section of the road, which passes by his Gap View Farm home, was named and dedicated in Frank Buckles's honor by then-West Virginia Governor Joe Manchin. U. S. Roads portal West Virginia portal WVDOT WV Route 9