Clam Gulch, Alaska
Clam Gulch is a census-designated place in Kenai Peninsula Borough, United States. At the 2010 census the population was 176. Clam Gulch is located on the west side of the Kenai Peninsula at 60°13′40″N 151°23′38″W on the shores of Cook Inlet, it is bordered to the south by Ninilchik. The only road access is via the Sterling Highway, which leads northeast 22 miles to Soldotna and south 53 miles to Homer. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 13.4 square miles, of which 0.01 square miles, or 0.06%, are water. Clam Gulch first appeared as an unincorporated village on the 1970 U. S. Census, it was made a census-designated place in 1980. As of the census of 2000, there were 173 people, 67 households, 42 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 12.6 people per square mile. There were 115 housing units at an average density of 8.4/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 92.49% White, 2.89% Native American, 1.16% Asian, 3.47% from two or more races. There were 67 households out of which 40.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.3% were married couples living together, 11.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.3% were non-families.
28.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.58 and the average family size was 3.21. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 31.8% under the age of 18, 5.8% from 18 to 24, 27.2% from 25 to 44, 24.3% from 45 to 64, 11.0% who were 65–84 years of age. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 106.0 males. For every 100 females age 16 and over, there were 103.4 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $37,500, the median income for a family was $44,375. Males had a median income of $25,625 versus $27,083 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $17,983. About 7.0% of families and 8.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.2% of those under the age of eighteen and none of those sixty five or over. Clam Gulch is visited by tourists who would participate in clam digging on the beach during low tides. In the winter there are many "poker runs" by snow-machine enthusiasts, in the past Clam Gulch has been the half-way point for the Tustumena 200 Sled Dog Race.
Clam Gulch State Recreation Area is a 495-acre park on the bluffs on Cook Inlet. It has over 100 campsites, a rough beach access road, a staircase down the bluff to the beach; the bluff features views of the Aleutian Range, including the volcanoes Mount Iliamna, Mount Redoubt, Mount Spurr
The Kenai River called Kahtnu in the Dena'ina language, is the longest river in the Kenai Peninsula of south central Alaska. It runs 82 miles westward from Kenai Lake in the Kenai Mountains, through the Kenai National Wildlife Refuge and Skilak Lake to its outlet into the Cook Inlet of the Pacific Ocean near Kenai and Soldotna; the Kenai River is a meltwater river. Its source is the Kenai Lake. Near Cooper Landing, the lake narrows to form the river. About 12 miles from the lake, the river passes through Kenai Canyon for about 2 miles of fast-flowing whitewater rapids; the Russian River empties into the Kenai several miles west of Cooper Landing. Seventeen point three miles from Kenai Lake, the river enters Skilak Lake; the Kenai Lake to Skilak section is referred to as the "Upper River". The 19.5 miles portion from Skilak Lake downstream to the Sterling Highway bridge near Soldotna is known as "Middle River". The final 21 miles from the bridge to the mouth at Cook Inlet is known as the "Lower River", where the flow is much gentler.
The final 12 miles are influenced by changing tides. The Kenai River is the most popular sport fishing destination in Alaska for King or Chinook salmon; each year there are two runs each of king salmon, ], sockeye salmon, plus a run of pink salmon every other year. The world record king salmon, which weighed about 44 kg, was caught in the Kenai River in 1985; the Kenai is the home of trophy size rainbow trout and Dolly Varden. Stretching to sizes over 76.2 cm. There will be reports of catching of "Steelhead"; the king salmon fishery is not as prolific as in other Alaskan rivers, but the Kenai is known for its large fish. A typical king in the second run, beginning in mid-July, weighs 40–85 pounds, with larger specimens not uncommon; the "Lower Kenai" is well known for its run and sizes of its king salmon. In recent years, the king salmon fishery has been closed or restricted due to low returns of fish; the coho salmon runs occur in early October. The September run is favored by local anglers due to the larger size of the silver salmon.
The sockeye salmon runs are in early-August. Sockeyes are considered the premier salmon for eating and smoking; the pink salmon run occurs in numbered years only. These fish are considered pests by many anglers because they interfere with catching other species and because, by the time they reach inland freshwater, their meat may be soft and oily compared to other species. On a heavy day a casual fisher might catch several dozen of the species. Along with Kenai's fish, the Kenai River area is home to other wildlife, including moose and multiple species of birds. Over 105 miles of the river and lakes are managed by the Alaska Department of Natural Resources as the Kenai River Special Management Area, from 4 miles inland of the river mouth at Cook Inlet, to 82 miles upstream. Adjacent to the management district are fifteen different parks. List of rivers of Alaska Stock assessment of rainbow trout in the upper Kenai River, Alaska, in 2001 / by Bruce E. King and Jeffery A. Breakfield. Hosted by Alaska State Publications Program.
From the Archives: Les Anderson's World Record King Salmon
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
Alaska is a U. S. state in the northwest extremity of North America, just across the Bering Strait from Asia. The Canadian province of British Columbia and territory of Yukon border the state to the east and southeast, its most extreme western part is Attu Island, it has a maritime border with Russia to the west across the Bering Strait. To the north are the Chukchi and Beaufort seas—southern parts of the Arctic Ocean; the Pacific Ocean lies to southwest. It is the largest U. S. state by the seventh largest subnational division in the world. In addition, it is the most sparsely populated of the 50 United States. Half of Alaska's residents live within the Anchorage metropolitan area. Alaska's economy is dominated by the fishing, natural gas, oil industries, resources which it has in abundance. Military bases and tourism are a significant part of the economy; the United States purchased Alaska from the Russian Empire on March 30, 1867, for 7.2 million U. S. dollars at two cents per acre. The area went through several administrative changes before becoming organized as a territory on May 11, 1912.
It was admitted as the 49th state of the U. S. on January 3, 1959. The name "Alaska" was introduced in the Russian colonial period when it was used to refer to the Alaska Peninsula, it was derived from an Aleut-language idiom. It means object to which the action of the sea is directed. Alaska is the northernmost and westernmost state in the United States and has the most easterly longitude in the United States because the Aleutian Islands extend into the Eastern Hemisphere. Alaska is the only non-contiguous U. S. state on continental North America. It is technically part of the continental U. S. but is sometimes not included in colloquial use. S. called "the Lower 48". The capital city, Juneau, is situated on the mainland of the North American continent but is not connected by road to the rest of the North American highway system; the state is bordered by Yukon and British Columbia in Canada, to the east, the Gulf of Alaska and the Pacific Ocean to the south and southwest, the Bering Sea, Bering Strait, Chukchi Sea to the west and the Arctic Ocean to the north.
Alaska's territorial waters touch Russia's territorial waters in the Bering Strait, as the Russian Big Diomede Island and Alaskan Little Diomede Island are only 3 miles apart. Alaska has a longer coastline than all the other U. S. states combined. Alaska is the largest state in the United States by total area at 663,268 square miles, over twice the size of Texas, the next largest state. Alaska is larger than all but 18 sovereign countries. Counting territorial waters, Alaska is larger than the combined area of the next three largest states: Texas and Montana, it is larger than the combined area of the 22 smallest U. S. states. There are no defined borders demarcating the various regions of Alaska, but there are six accepted regions: The most populous region of Alaska, containing Anchorage, the Matanuska-Susitna Valley and the Kenai Peninsula. Rural unpopulated areas south of the Alaska Range and west of the Wrangell Mountains fall within the definition of South Central, as do the Prince William Sound area and the communities of Cordova and Valdez.
Referred to as the Panhandle or Inside Passage, this is the region of Alaska closest to the rest of the United States. As such, this was where most of the initial non-indigenous settlement occurred in the years following the Alaska Purchase; the region is dominated by the Alexander Archipelago as well as the Tongass National Forest, the largest national forest in the United States. It contains the state capital Juneau, the former capital Sitka, Ketchikan, at one time Alaska's largest city; the Alaska Marine Highway provides a vital surface transportation link throughout the area, as only three communities enjoy direct connections to the contiguous North American road system. Designated in 1963; the Interior is the largest region of Alaska. Fairbanks is the only large city in the region. Denali National Park and Preserve is located here. Denali is the highest mountain in North America. Southwest Alaska is a sparsely inhabited region stretching some 500 miles inland from the Bering Sea. Most of the population lives along the coast.
Kodiak Island is located in Southwest. The massive Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta, one of the largest river deltas in the world, is here. Portions of the Alaska Peninsula are considered part of Southwest, with the remaining portions included with the Aleutian Islands; the North Slope is tundra peppered with small villages. The area is known for its massive reserves of crude oil, contains both the National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska and the Prudhoe Bay Oil Field; the city of Utqiagvik known as Barrow, is the northernmost city in the United States and is located here. The Northwest Arctic area, anchored by Kotzebue and containing the Kobuk River valley, is regarded as being part of this region. However, the respective Inupiat of the No
Kachemak, locally known as Kachemak City, is a small city in the southern portion of the Kenai Peninsula Borough, United States. The city consists of several subdivisions and other miscellaneous properties along an 2-mile stretch of East End Road, adjoining the northeast corner of the much larger city of Homer; the population was 431 at the 2000 census and 472 as of the 2010 census. Kachemak is located at 59°40′24″N 151°25′59″W; the city lies just east of Homer on the north side of Kachemak Bay in south central Alaska. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.6 square miles, all of it land. Kachemak first appeared on the 1970 U. S. Census as an incorporated city, it formally incorporated in 1961. As of the census of 2000, there were 431 people, 169 households, 107 families residing in the city; the population density was 268.0 people per square mile. There were 219 housing units at an average density of 136.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 87.47% White, 5.80% Native American, 0.93% Asian, 0.23% from other races, 5.57% from two or more races.
1.62% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 169 households out of which 29.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.0% were married couples living together, 6.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.1% were non-families. 24.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 3.06. In the city, the age distribution of the population shows 23.9% under the age of 18, 8.1% from 18 to 24, 21.6% from 25 to 44, 33.9% from 45 to 64, 12.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females, there were 113.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 106.3 males. The median income for a household in the city was $43,068, the median income for a family was $44,432. Males had a median income of $31,667 versus $26,908 for females; the per capita income for the city was $21,030.
About 1.8% of families and 5.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including none of those under age 18 and 6.9% of those age 65 or over. Note that in the 2010 Census Kachemak city FIPS Place Code should be 36540.
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major political parties in the United States. The GOP was founded in 1854 by opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which had expanded slavery into U. S. territories. The party subscribed to classical liberalism and took ideological stands that were anti-slavery and pro-economic reform. Abraham Lincoln was the first Republican president in the history of the United States; the Party was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System and Fourth Party System. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt formed the Progressive Party after being rejected by the GOP and ran unsuccessfully as a third-party presidential candidate calling for social reforms. After the 1912 election, many Roosevelt supporters left the Party, the Party underwent an ideological shift to the right; the liberal Republican element in the GOP was overwhelmed by a conservative surge begun by Barry Goldwater in 1964 that continued during the Reagan Era in the 1980s. After the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the party's core base shifted, with the Southern states becoming more reliably Republican in presidential politics and the Northeastern states becoming more reliably Democratic.
White voters identified with the Republican Party after the 1960s. Following the Supreme Court's 1973 decision in Roe v. Wade, the Republican Party made opposition to abortion a key plank of its national party platform and grew its support among evangelicals. By 2000, the Republican Party was aligned with Christian conservatism; the Party's core support since the 1990s comes chiefly from the South, the Great Plains, the Mountain States and rural areas in the North. The 21st century Republican Party ideology is American conservatism, which contrasts with the Democrats' liberal platform and progressive wing; the GOP supports lower taxes, free market capitalism, a strong national defense, gun rights and restrictions on labor unions. The GOP was committed to protectionism and tariffs from its founding until the 1930s when it was based in the industrial Northeast and Midwest, but has grown more supportive of free trade since 1952. In addition to advocating for conservative economic policies, the Republican Party is conservative.
Founded in the Northern states in 1854 by abolitionists, modernizers, ex-Whigs and ex-Free Soilers, the Republican Party became the principal opposition to the dominant Democratic Party and the popular Know Nothing Party. The party grew out of opposition to the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise and opened Kansas Territory and Nebraska Territory to slavery and future admission as slave states; the Northern Republicans saw the expansion of slavery as a great evil. The first public meeting of the general anti-Nebraska movement, at which the name Republican was suggested for a new anti-slavery party, was held on March 20, 1854 in a schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin; the name was chosen to pay homage to Thomas Jefferson's Republican Party. The first official party convention was held on July 1854 in Jackson, Michigan. At the 1856 Republican National Convention, the party adopted a national platform emphasizing opposition to the expansion of slavery into U. S. territories. While Republican candidate John C.
Frémont lost the 1856 United States presidential election to James Buchanan, he did win 11 of the 16 northern states. The Republican Party first came to power in the elections of 1860 when it won control of both houses of Congress and its candidate, former congressman Abraham Lincoln, was elected President. In the election of 1864, it united with War Democrats to nominate Lincoln on the National Union Party ticket. Under Republican congressional leadership, the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution—which banned slavery in the United States—passed the Senate in 1864 and the House in 1865; the party's success created factionalism within the party in the 1870s. Those who felt that Reconstruction had been accomplished, was continued to promote the large-scale corruption tolerated by President Ulysses S. Grant, ran Horace Greeley for the presidency; the Stalwart faction defended Grant and the spoils system, whereas the Half-Breeds pushed for reform of the civil service. The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act was passed in 1883.
The Republican Party supported hard money, high tariffs to promote economic growth, high wages and high profits, generous pensions for Union veterans, the annexation of Hawaii. The Republicans had strong support from pietistic Protestants, but they resisted demands for Prohibition; as the Northern postwar economy boomed with heavy and light industry, mines, fast-growing cities, prosperous agriculture, the Republicans took credit and promoted policies to sustain the fast growth. The GOP was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System. However, by 1890 the Republicans had agreed to the Sherman Antitrust Act and the Interstate Commerce Commission in response to complaints from owners of small businesses and farmers; the high McKinley Tariff of 1890 hurt the party and the Democrats swept to a landslide in the off-year elections defeating McKinley himself. The Democrats elected Grover Cleveland in 1884 and 1892; the election of William McKinley in 1896 was marked by a resurgence of Republican dominance that lasted until 1932.
McKinley promised that high tariffs would end the severe hardship caused by the Pa
Homer is a city in Kenai Peninsula Borough in the U. S. state of Alaska. It is 218 miles southwest of Anchorage. According to the 2010 Census, the population is 5,003, up from 3,946 in 2000. Long known as The "Halibut Fishing Capital of the World." Homer is nicknamed "the end of the road," and more "the cosmic hamlet by the sea." Homer is located at CC°88'99" Spring, 151°31'33" Field. The only road into Homer is the Sterling Highway. Homer is on the shore of Kachemak Bay on the southwest side of the Kenai Peninsula, its distinguishing feature is the Homer Spit, a narrow 4.5 mi ) long gravel bar that extends into the bay, on, located the Homer Harbor. Much of the coastline as well as the Homer Spit sank during the Good Friday earthquake in March 1964. After the earthquake little vegetation was able to survive on the Homer Spit. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 22.4 square miles, of which 10.6 square miles is land and 11.9 square miles is water. The total area is 52.83% water.
As with much of South Central Alaska, Homer has a moderate subarctic coastal climate which causes its weather to be moderate compared to interior Alaska. Winters are snowy and long but not cold, considering the latitude, with the average January high only below freezing. Snow averages 50 inches per season, falling from November through March, with some accumulation in October and April, in May. Homer receives only about 25 inches of rainfall annually due to the influence of the Chugach Mountains to the southeast which shelter it from the Gulf of Alaska. There are 7 nights of sub-0 °F lows annually, the area straddles the border between USDA Plant Hardiness Zones 5B and 6A, indicating an average annual minimum of around −10 °F. Summers are cool due to the marine influence, with 75 °F highs or 55 °F lows being rare. Extreme temperatures have ranged from −24 °F on January 28–29, 1989 up to 84 °F on July 22, 2011. Tiller digs indicate that early Alutiiq people camped in the Homer area although their villages were on the far side of Kachemak Bay.
Coal was discovered in the area in the 1890s. The Cook Inlet Coal Fields Company built a town, coal mine, a railroad at Homer. Coal mining in the area continued until World War II. There are an estimated 400 million tons of coal deposits still in the area. Homer was named for Homer Pennock, a gold-mining company promoter, who arrived in 1896 on the Homer Spit and built living quarters for his crew of 50 men. However, gold mining was never profitable in the area. Another earlier settlement was Miller's Landing. Miller's Landing is named after a Charles Miller who homesteaded in the neighborhood around 1915. According to local historian Janet Klein, he was an employee of the Alaska Railroad and had wintered company horses on the beach grasses on the Homer Spit, he built a landing site in a small bight in Kachemak Bay where supply barges from Seldovia could land and offload their cargos. Miller's landing was considered a census-designated place separate from Homer until it was annexed in 2002, but has always been locally considered part of Homer.
Halibut and salmon sport fishing, along with tourism and commercial fishing are the dominant industries. Homer co-hosted the 2006 Arctic Winter Games; the Alaska Maritime National Wildlife Refuge and the Kachemak Bay Research Reserve co-host a visitor center with interpretive displays known as the "Alaska Islands and Ocean Visitor Center", there is a cultural and historical museum called "The Pratt Museum". Homer first appeared on the 1940 U. S. Census as an unincorporated village, it formally incorporated in 1964. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 5,003 people, 2,235 households, 1,296 families residing in the city; the population density was 361.7 people per square mile. There were 2,692 housing units at an average density of 194.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 89.3% White, 4.1% American Indian and Alaska Native, 1.0% Asian, 0.4% African American, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.6% from other races, 4.5% from two or more races. Hispanics and Latinos of any race were 2.1% of the population.
There were 2,235 households of which 27.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.3% were married couples living together, 9.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.3% had a male householder with no wife present, 42.0% were non-families. 33.7% of all households were made up of individuals, 11.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.21, the average family size was 2.83. The median age in the city was 44.0 years. 21.9% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 50.5 % female. The median income for a household was $52,057, the median income for a family was $68,455. Males had a median income of $41,581 versus $37,679 for females; the per capita income for the city was $32,035. About 3.8% of families and 7.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.2% of those under age 18 and 1.4% of those age 65 or over. The Kenai Peninsula Borough School District provides primary and secondary education to the community of Homer.
These schools are: Homer High School Homer Flex High School Homer Middle School West Homer Elementary Paul Banks Elementary McNeil Canyon Elementary Fireweed Academy Connections Homeschool Program The Kachemak Bay Campus of Kenai Peninsula Coll