A trumpet is a brass instrument used in classical and jazz ensembles. The trumpet group contains the instruments with the highest register in the brass family. Trumpet-like instruments have been used as signaling devices in battle or hunting, with examples dating back to at least 1500 BC. Trumpets are used in art music styles, for instance in orchestras, concert bands, jazz ensembles, as well as in popular music, they are played by blowing air through nearly-closed lips, producing a "buzzing" sound that starts a standing wave vibration in the air column inside the instrument. Since the late 15th century they have been constructed of brass tubing bent twice into a rounded rectangular shape. There are many distinct types of trumpet, with the most common being pitched in B♭, having a tubing length of about 1.48 m. Early trumpets did not provide means to change the length of tubing, whereas modern instruments have three valves in order to change their pitch. There are eight combinations of three valves, making seven different tubing lengths, with the third valve sometimes used as an alternate fingering equivalent to the 1-2 combination.
Most trumpets have valves of the piston type. The use of rotary-valved trumpets is more common in orchestral settings, although this practice varies by country; each valve, when engaged, increases the length of lowering the pitch of the instrument. A musician who plays the trumpet is called trumpeter; the English word "trumpet" was first used in the late 14th century. The word came from Old French "trompette", a diminutive of trompe; the word "trump", meaning "trumpet," was first used in English in 1300. The word comes from Old French trompe "long, tube-like musical wind instrument", cognate with Provençal tromba, Italian tromba, all from a Germanic source, of imitative origin." The earliest trumpets date earlier. The bronze and silver trumpets from Tutankhamun's grave in Egypt, bronze lurs from Scandinavia, metal trumpets from China date back to this period. Trumpets from the Oxus civilization of Central Asia have decorated swellings in the middle, yet are made out of one sheet of metal, considered a technical wonder.
The Shofar, made from a ram horn and the Hatzotzeroth, made of metal, are both mentioned in the Bible. They were played in Solomon's Temple around 3000 years ago, they were said to be used to blow down the walls of Jericho. They are still used on certain religious days; the Salpinx was a straight trumpet 62 inches long, made of bronze. Salpinx contests were a part of the original Olympic Games; the Moche people of ancient Peru depicted trumpets in their art going back to AD 300. The earliest trumpets were signaling instruments used for military or religious purposes, rather than music in the modern sense. Improvements to instrument design and metal making in the late Middle Ages and Renaissance led to an increased usefulness of the trumpet as a musical instrument; the natural trumpets of this era consisted of a single coiled tube without valves and therefore could only produce the notes of a single overtone series. Changing keys required the player to change crooks of the instrument; the development of the upper, "clarino" register by specialist trumpeters—notably Cesare Bendinelli—would lend itself well to the Baroque era known as the "Golden Age of the natural trumpet."
During this period, a vast body of music was written for virtuoso trumpeters. The art was revived in the mid-20th century and natural trumpet playing is again a thriving art around the world. Many modern players in Germany and the UK who perform Baroque music use a version of the natural trumpet fitted with three or four vent holes to aid in correcting out-of-tune notes in the harmonic series; the melody-dominated homophony of the classical and romantic periods relegated the trumpet to a secondary role by most major composers owing to the limitations of the natural trumpet. Berlioz wrote in 1844: Notwithstanding the real loftiness and distinguished nature of its quality of tone, there are few instruments that have been more degraded. Down to Beethoven and Weber, every composer – not excepting Mozart – persisted in confining it to the unworthy function of filling up, or in causing it to sound two or three commonplace rhythmical formulae; the attempt to give the trumpet more chromatic freedom in its range saw the development of the keyed trumpet, but this was a unsuccessful venture due to the poor quality of its sound.
Although the impetus for a tubular valve began as early as 1793, it was not until 1818 that Friedrich Bluhmel and Heinrich Stölzel made a joint patent application for the box valve as manufactured by W. Schuster; the symphonies of Mozart, as late as Brahms, were still played on natural trumpets. Crooks and shanks as opposed to keys or valves were standard, notably in France, into the first part of the 20th century; as a consequence of this late development of the instrument's chromatic ability, the repertoire for the instrument is small compared to other instruments. The 20th century saw an explosion in the variety of music written for the trumpet; the trumpet is constructed of brass tubing bent twice into a rounded oblong shape. As with all brass instruments, sound is produced by blowing air through closed lips, producing a "buzzing" sound into the mouthp
An album is a collection of audio recordings issued as a collection on compact disc, audio tape, or another medium. Albums of recorded music were developed in the early 20th century as individual 78-rpm records collected in a bound book resembling a photograph album. Vinyl LPs are still issued, though album sales in the 21st-century have focused on CD and MP3 formats; the audio cassette was a format used alongside vinyl from the 1970s into the first decade of the 2000s. An album may be recorded in a recording studio, in a concert venue, at home, in the field, or a mix of places; the time frame for recording an album varies between a few hours to several years. This process requires several takes with different parts recorded separately, brought or "mixed" together. Recordings that are done in one take without overdubbing are termed "live" when done in a studio. Studios are built to absorb sound, eliminating reverberation, so as to assist in mixing different takes. Recordings, including live, may contain sound effects, voice adjustments, etc..
With modern recording technology, musicians can be recorded in separate rooms or at separate times while listening to the other parts using headphones. Album covers and liner notes are used, sometimes additional information is provided, such as analysis of the recording, lyrics or librettos; the term "album" was applied to a collection of various items housed in a book format. In musical usage the word was used for collections of short pieces of printed music from the early nineteenth century. Collections of related 78rpm records were bundled in book-like albums; when long-playing records were introduced, a collection of pieces on a single record was called an album. An album, in ancient Rome, was a board chalked or painted white, on which decrees and other public notices were inscribed in black, it was from this that in medieval and modern times album came to denote a book of blank pages in which verses, sketches and the like are collected. Which in turn led to the modern meaning of an album as a collection of audio recordings issued as a single item.
In the early nineteenth century "album" was used in the titles of some classical music sets, such as Schumann's Album for the Young Opus 68, a set of 43 short pieces. When 78rpm records came out, the popular 10-inch disc could only hold about three minutes of sound per side, so all popular recordings were limited to around three minutes in length. Classical-music and spoken-word items were released on the longer 12-inch 78s, about 4–5 minutes per side. For example, in 1924, George Gershwin recorded a drastically shortened version of the seventeen-minute Rhapsody in Blue with Paul Whiteman and His Orchestra, it ran for 8m 59s. Deutsche Grammophon had produced an album for its complete recording of the opera Carmen in 1908. German record company Odeon released the Nutcracker Suite by Tchaikovsky in 1909 on 4 double-sided discs in a specially designed package; this practice of issuing albums does not seem to have been taken up by other record companies for many years. By about 1910, bound collections of empty sleeves with a paperboard or leather cover, similar to a photograph album, were sold as record albums that customers could use to store their records.
These albums came in both 12-inch sizes. The covers of these bound books were wider and taller than the records inside, allowing the record album to be placed on a shelf upright, like a book, suspending the fragile records above the shelf and protecting them. In the 1930s, record companies began issuing collections of 78 rpm records by one performer or of one type of music in specially assembled albums with artwork on the front cover and liner notes on the back or inside cover. Most albums included three or four records, with two sides each, making six or eight compositions per album; the 12-inch LP record, or 33 1⁄3 rpm microgroove vinyl record, is a gramophone record format introduced by Columbia Records in 1948. A single LP record had the same or similar number of tunes as a typical album of 78s, it was adopted by the record industry as a standard format for the "album". Apart from minor refinements and the important addition of stereophonic sound capability, it has remained the standard format for vinyl albums.
The term "album" was extended to other recording media such as Compact audio cassette, compact disc, MiniDisc, digital albums, as they were introduced. As part of a trend of shifting sales in the music industry, some observers feel that the early 21st century experienced the death of the album. While an album may contain as many or as few tracks as required, in the United States, The Recording Academy's rules for Grammy Awards state that an album must comprise a minimum total playing time of 15 minutes with at least five distinct tracks or a minimum total playing time of 30 minutes with no minimum track requirement. In the United Kingdom, the criteria for the UK Albums Chart is that a recording counts as an "album" i
The soprano saxophone is a higher-register variety of the saxophone, a woodwind instrument, invented in the 1840s. The soprano is the third smallest member of the saxophone family, which consists of the soprillo, soprano, tenor, bass, contrabass saxophone and tubax. Soprano saxophones are the smallest saxophone in common use. A transposing instrument pitched in the key of B♭, modern soprano saxophones with a high F♯ key have a range from B♭3 to F♯6 and are therefore pitched one octave above the tenor saxophone; some saxophones have additional keys, allowing them to play an additional F♯ and G at the top of the range. These extra keys are found on more modern saxophones. Additionally, skilled players can make use of the altissimo register, which allows them to play higher. There is a soprano pitched in C, less common and until had not been made since around 1940; the soprano saxophone can be compared to the B♭ clarinet, although the clarinet can play an augmented fourth lower and over a fifth higher.
Due to the wide bore of the soprano, it is less forgiving with respect to intonation than the lower saxophones, though an experienced player will use alternate fingerings or vary breath support, tongue position or embouchure to compensate. Professional players will use the technique of voicing to fix problems with intonation. Due to its similarity in tone to the oboe, the soprano saxophone is sometimes used as a substitute for it. In addition to straight sopranos, there are slightly and curved sopranos; the curved variety looks much like a small alto saxophone with a straighter crook. There is some debate over the effect of the straight and curved neck, with some players believing that a curved neck on a soprano gives it a warmer, less nasal tone; the soprano has all the keys of other saxophone models and some may have a top'G' key next to the F♯ key. Soprano saxophone mouthpieces are available in various designs, allowing players to tailor their tone as required. In 2001, François Louis created the aulochrome, a woodwind instrument made of two joined soprano saxophones, which can be played either in unison or in harmony.
The soprano saxophone is used as a solo and chamber instrument in classical music, though it is used in a concert band or orchestra. It plays a lead role. Many solo pieces have been written for it by composers such as Heitor Villa-Lobos, Alan Hovhaness, Jennifer Higdon, Takashi Yoshimatsu, Charles Koechlin, John Mackey; as an orchestral instrument, it has been used in several compositions. It was used by Richard Strauss in his Sinfonia Domestica, where included in the music are parts for four saxophones, including a soprano saxophone in C, it is used in Maurice Ravel's "Bolero" and has a featured solo directly following the tenor saxophone's solo. Vincent d'Indy includes a soprano in his opera Fervaal. Notable classical soprano saxophonists include Carina Rascher, Christine Rall, Eugene Rousseau, Kenneth Tse, Jean-Yves Fourmeau, Jean-Denis Michat, Vincent David, John Harle, Mariano Garcia, Claude Delangle, Arno Bornkamp and Christopher Creviston. While not as popular as the alto and tenor saxes in jazz, the soprano saxophone has played a role in its evolution.
Greats of the jazz soprano sax include 1930s virtuoso Sidney Bechet, 1950s innovator Steve Lacy, beginning with his landmark 1960 album My Favorite Things, John Coltrane. Other well known jazz players include: Wayne Shorter, Paul McCandless, Johnny Hodges, Walter Parazaider, Bob Berg, Joe Farrell, Lucky Thompson, Sonny Fortune, Anthony Braxton, Sam Rivers, Gary Bartz, Dan Forshaw, Bennie Maupin, Branford Marsalis, Kirk Whalum, Jan Garbarek, Danny Markovitch of Marbin, Paul Winter, Dave Liebman, Evan Parker, Sam Newsome, Kenny G and Charlie Mariano. Other notable soprano saxophonists include Joshua Redman, Jay Beckenstein, Dave Koz, Grover Washington Jr. Ronnie Laws, Nigerian Afrobeat multi-instrumentalist Fela Kuti. List of saxophonists
The baritone saxophone or "bari sax" is one of the larger members of the saxophone family, only being smaller than the bass and subcontrabass saxophones. It is the lowest-pitched saxophone in common use; the baritone saxophone uses a mouthpiece and ligature in order to produce sound. It is larger than the tenor and soprano saxophones, which are the other found members of the family; the baritone saxophone is used in classical music such as concert band, chamber music, military bands, jazz. It is employed in marching bands, though less than other saxophones due to its size and weight; the baritone saxophone was created in 1846 by the Belgian instrument maker Adolphe Sax as one of a family of 14 instruments created to be a tonal link between the woodwinds and brasses, which Sax believed to be lacking. The family was divided into two groups of seven saxophones each from the soprano to the contrabass; the family consisting of saxophones ranged in the keys of B♭ and E♭ were more successful because of their popularity in military bands.
The bari sax, pitched in E♭, is the fifth member of this family. The baritone saxophone, like other saxophones, is a conical tube of thin brass, it has a wider end, flared to form a bell, a smaller end connected to a mouthpiece. The baritone saxophone uses a single reed mouthpiece like that of a clarinet. There is a loop in the neck to reduce it to a practical height. Baritone saxophones come in two sizes with one ranging to low A and the other to low B♭. All baritone saxophones were low B♭ instruments, but over time players began modifying their horns to reach the low A below the staff. In the 1980s, it became common for saxophone manufacturers to produce low A instruments. In modern times, the low A is considered standard and is written in sheet music for the instrument. Despite the ubiquity of the low A horn, some players still prefer to use B♭ horns because of the added weight and less crisp sound of low A horns; as with other saxophones, some are manufactured with a high F ♯ key. The baritone saxophone's large mass has led to the development of harness-style neckstrap that distributes the instrument's weight across the user's shoulders.
Several different kinds exist, produced by brands as well known as Neotech and Vandoren, which each distributes weight differently across the saxophonist's neck and shoulder blades. Many marching saxophonists prefer this style for its ability to decrease fatigue; those who perform seated, on the other hand, may dislike the decreased ability to move one's upper body. It is a transposing instrument in the key of E♭, pitched an octave plus a major sixth lower than written, it is one octave lower than the alto saxophone. Modern baritones with a low A key and high F♯ key have a range from C2 to A4. Adolphe Sax produced a baritone saxophone in F intended for orchestral use, but these fell into disuse as the saxophone never became a standard orchestral instrument; as with all saxophones, its music is written in treble clef. To transpose a baritone sax part to concert pitch, it is only necessary to change the treble to a bass clef and modify the accidentals accordingly; the baritone saxophone is used as a standard member of concert bands and saxophone quartets.
It has been called for in music for orchestra. Examples include Richard Strauss' Sinfonia Domestica, which calls for a baritone saxophone in F. 4, composed in 1910–1916. In his opera The Devils of Loudun, Krzysztof Penderecki calls for two baritone saxes. Karlheinz Stockhausen includes a baritone saxophone in Gruppen, it has a comparatively small solo repertoire although an increasing number of concertos have appeared, one of these being "Concerto for Saxophone Quartet and Orchestra" by American composer Philip Glass. This is a piece that can be played with or without an orchestra that features the baritone sax in the second movement. A number of jazz performers have used the baritone saxophone as their primary instrument, it is part of standard big band instrumentation. As phrased by Alain Cupper from JazzBariSax.com, "Used a few times in contemporary classical music...it is in jazz that this wonderful instrument feels most comfortable." One of the instrument's pioneers was Harry Carney, longtime baritone saxophone player in the Duke Ellington band.
Since the mid-1950s, baritone saxophone soloists such as Gerry Mulligan, Cecil Payne, Pepper Adams achieved fame, while Serge Chaloff was the first baritone saxophone player to achieve fame as a bebop soloist. In free jazz, Peter Brötzmann is notable. More recent notable performers include Hamiet Bluiett, John Surman, Scott Robinson, James Carter, Stephen "Doc" Kupka of the band Tower of Power, Nick Brignola, Gary Smulyan, Brian Landrus, Ronnie Cuber. In the avant-garde scene, Tim Berne has doubled on bari. Another modern bari sax player is Leo Pellegrino of "Lucky Chops" and "Too Many Zooz" A noted Scottish performer is Joe Temperley, who has appeared with Humphrey Lyttelton as well as with the Lincoln Center Jazz Orchestra; the baritone sax is common in musical theater. The baritone sax plays a notable role in many Motown hits of the 60s, is in the horn sections of funk, Latin, soul bands, is used in rock music although it is not as common. Prominent baritone saxophoni
Lewis Barry Tabackin is an American jazz flautist and tenor saxophonist. He is married to pianist Toshiko Akiyoshi with. Tabackin started learning flute at age 12, followed by tenor saxophone at age 15, he has cited Al Cohn and Coleman Hawkins as influences on saxophone, while his flute role models include classical players such as William Kincaid, Julius Baker, Jean-Pierre Rampal. Tabackin studied flute at the Philadelphia Conservatory of Music and studied music with composer Vincent Persichetti. In 1962 he graduated from the Conservatory and after serving with the U. S. Army worked with Tal Farlow, he worked with Chuck Israels in New York City and a band that included Elvin Jones, Donald Byrd, Roland Hanna. He was a member of The Dick Cavett Show band and The Tonight Show Band with Doc Severinsen, he moved from New York to California with The Tonight Show in 1972. During this time he played with Billy Higgins. Tabackin met Toshiko Akiyoshi in 1967 while he was playing in Clark Terry's band and she was invited to sit in for Don Friedman.
They formed a quartet in the late 1960s, married in 1969, in 1973 co-founded the Toshiko Akiyoshi – Lew Tabackin Big Band in Los Angeles, which became the Toshiko Akiyoshi Jazz Orchestra featuring Lew Tabackin, playing bebop in Duke Ellington-influenced arrangements and compositions by Akiyoshi. Tabackin was principal soloist for the band from 1973 through 2003. Critic Scott Yanow describes Tabackin as "one of the few jazz musicians, able to develop different musical personalities on two instruments", with his forceful hard bop style on sax contrasting with his delicate flute playing. Tabackin supports the Jazz Foundation of America in their mission to help elderly jazz and blues musicians, including those affected by Hurricane Katrina, he sits on the Advisory Committee of the Foundation since 2002. Down Beat magazine Critic's Poll winner: Jazz Album of the Year: Big Band: 1979, 1980, 1981, 1982, 1983 Flute: 1980, 1981, 2010Down Beat magazine Readers' Poll winner: Big Band: 1978, 1979, 1980, 1981, 1982 Flute: 1981, 1982Grammy Award nominations: Best Jazz Instrumental Performance - Big Band: 1976, 1977, 1978, 1979, 1980, 1981, 1984, 1985, 1992, 1994 Swing Journal awards: Gold Disk: 1976, Silver Disk: 1974, 1979, 1996 Official site "Fireside Chat" at All About Jazz Interview by breakthruradio.com
Alfie (Burt Bacharach song)
"Alfie" is a song written by Burt Bacharach and Hal David to promote the 1966 film Alfie. The song was a major hit for Dionne Warwick. Although Bacharach has cited "Alfie" as his personal favorite of his compositions, he and Hal David were not eager to write a song to promote the film Alfie when approached by Ed Wolpin of the Composers' Guild. David thought the title character's name pedestrian: "Writing a song about a man called'Alfie' didn't seem too exciting at the time." The composers agreed to submit an "Alfie" song. Bacharach, in California, was inspired by a rough cut of the film about the Cockney womanizer played by Michael Caine. Bacharach felt that: "with'Alfie' the lyric had to come first because it had to say what that movie was all about", he arranged for David – in Long Island – to receive a script of the film to enable him to compose the lyrics. David utilized one of Caine's lines, "What's it all about?", as the opening phrase. David's lyrics were set to music by Bacharach; the original was recorded in the key of F-sharp major, but Bacharach plays it live in B-flat major, the same key in which Cilla Black recorded it.
Although Bacharach and David suggested "Alfie" be recorded by Dionne Warwick, their most prolific interpreter, Paramount felt the film's setting demanded the song be recorded by a UK singer. Accordingly, Sandie Shaw, who had had a UK #1 hit with the Bacharach/David composition " Always Something There to Remind Me", was invited to record "Alfie"; when Shaw declined, the song was offered to Cilla Black, who had had a UK #1 with a Bacharach/David number, "Anyone Who Had a Heart". Black was invited to record "Alfie" in a letter from Bacharach, Black recalls him saying that the song had been written specially for her. Brian Epstein, her manager, was sent a demo of the song performed by 22-year-old Kenny Karen, with Bacharach on piano, accompanied by a string ensemble. Black reacted negatively on hearing the demo "of some fella singing'Alfie'... I said to Brian'I can't do this.' For a start - Alfie?? You call your dog Alfie!... it be Tarquin or something like that?"Black states that, rather than declining outright to record the song, she decided to set conditions: "I said I'd only do it if Burt Bacharach himself did the arrangement, never thinking for one moment that he would.
The reply came back from America that he'd be happy to... I said I would only do it if Burt came over to London for the recording session.'Yes,' came the reply. Next I said that as well as the arrangements and coming over, he had to play on the session. To my astonishment it was agreed. So by this time, coward that I was, I couldn't back out." The session for Black's recording of "Alfie" took place in the autumn of 1965, in Studio One at Abbey Road, was overseen by Black's regular producer George Martin. In addition to the agreed arranging and piano playing, Bacharach conducted a 48-piece orchestra, the session featured the Breakaways as background vocalists. According to Black, Bacharach had her record eighteen complete takes before he was satisfied with her vocal, while Bacharach's estimation of the total number of takes, including partial ones, is as high as "twenty-eight or twenty-nine... I kept going. Cilla was great and wound up delivering a killer vocal as she did on so many of my songs.""Alfie" was released in January 1966, four months prior to the opening of the film.
The single was intended as a specialty item to foster interest in the upcoming film rather than a mainstream hit. However the track accrued enough interest to enter the UK Top 50 in April 1966, reaching #9 that May. Black's "Alfie" was released in Australia, New Zealand and the US in July 1966, a month prior to the release of the film in both countries. Despite the soundtrack appearance of a version of "Alfie" by Cher in the film's worldwide release, Black's "Alfie" was a sizable Australian hit at #22, it went to #20 in New Zealand. In the US - where Black had enjoyed only one moderate success with "You're My World" in 1964 - her "Alfie" single just made the Billboard Hot 100 at #95, the pop mainstream sector's focus being on Cher's version of the song, only a moderate hit in the US at #32. Interest in any one recorded version of "Alfie" was dissipated by the plethora of easy listening-oriented covers which were in release by the summer of 1966. Cilla Black titled her 2004 autobiography What's It All About?, a reference to the opening phrase of the song.
The grave marker beneath the headstone on her burial plot in Allerton Cemetery is inscribed with four lines taken from the bridge and the third verse of "Alfie". Lyrics from Black's hits "Step Inside Love" and "You're My World" appear on the marker; the black marble headstone and marker were installed 18 April 2016, eight months after Black's death on 1 August 2015. Following the December 2015 theft of the original bronze nameplate, Black's grave remained unmarked until drier weather permitted the installation of the replacement marble headstone and marker. Although Black's version of "Alfie" in F major had served as a promotional tool for the film's UK release rather than as the film's theme - being in fact featured nowhere on the soundtrack of the film's UK release - for the US release of the film Alfie the film's distributor United Artists wanted the song featured on the film's soundtrack despite the objections of the film's director Lewis Gilbert who felt the song "Alfie" would distract from the jazz score he had had Sonny Rollins provide for the film.
United Artists compromis