Paoli is a census-designated place in Chester County near Philadelphia, United States. It is situated in portions of two townships: Willistown. At the 2010 census, it had a total population of 5,575; the town of Paoli grew around an inn kept in 1769 by Joshua Evans, whose father bought 500 acres from William Penn in 1719 near the current site of the Paoli Post Office. Evans named his inn after General Pasquale Paoli, a Corsican, after he had received the 45th and final toast at a Saint Patrick's Day celebration; the inn's location on the Philadelphia and Lancaster Turnpike, about 20 miles from Philadelphia, ensured its success. On the evening of September 20, 1777, near Paoli, General Charles Grey and nearly 5,000 British soldiers launched a surprise attack, having intercepted General Washington's orders to General Wayne regarding British rearguard action, on the small regiment of Patriot troops commanded by General Anthony Wayne in an area near his home, what becomes known as the Paoli Massacre.
Not wanting to lose the element of surprise, Grey ordered his troops to remove the flint from their muskets and to use only bayonets or swords to attack the sleeping Americans under the cover of darkness. With the help of a Loyalist spy who provided a secret password, "here we are and there they go" and led them to the camp, General "No-flint" Grey and the British having overrun several pickets launched the successful attack on the unsuspecting men of the Pennsylvania regiment, stabbing them to death as they slept, it was alleged that the British soldiers took no prisoners during the attack, stabbing or setting fire to those who tried to surrender. Before it was over, nearly 200 Americans were wounded; the Paoli Massacre became a rallying cry for the Americans against British atrocities for the rest of the Revolutionary War. The Battle of Paoli occurred in the town; the construction of the Main Line of Public Works across Pennsylvania enhanced the village's stature, as the Philadelphia and Columbia Railroad passed through it.
This became the Pennsylvania Railroad, which built suburban commuter lines out from Philadelphia in the late 19th century, spurring the growth of that city's suburbs. The largest and longest of these commuter lines, the "Main Line", terminated in Paoli. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 2.0 square miles, all of, land. Paoli borders other towns, such as Malvern; these three towns belong to either the Great Valley school districts. As of the 2000 census, there were 5,425 people, 2,361 households and 1,437 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 2,710.2 per square mile. There were 2,468 housing units at an average density of 1,233.0/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 90.93% White, 5.36% Black, 0.09% Native American, 2.64% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.39% from other races, 0.57% from two or more races. 0.85% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 2,361 households, of which 24.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.0% were married couples living together, 7.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 39.1% were non-families.
32.9% of all households were made up of individuals, 15.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.24 and the average family size was 2.89. 20.2% of the population were under the age of 18, 4.7% from 18 to 24, 31.5% from 25 to 44, 25.0% from 45 to 64, 18.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 89.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 83.2 males. The median household income was $55,800 and the median family income was $69,519. Males had a median income of $46,536 and females $34,702; the per capita income was $30,570. 4.7% of the population and 3.6% of families were below the poverty line. 8.0% of those under the age of 18 and 4.6% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line. Notable people who were born or lived in Paoli include: Joe Butler, boxer Mary Pat Christie, former First Lady of New Jersey and investment banker Wharton Esherick, sculptor Susan Henking, president of Shimer College Kristin Luckenbill, professional soccer goalkeeper Max Patkin, baseball player and clown Anthony Wayne, US Army officer Isaac Wayne, US representative The Tredyffrin/Easttown School District serves the portions of Paoli CDP in Tredyffrin Township.
The section of Paoli in Willistown Township is served by Great Valley School District. The portion of Paoli in T/E are divided between the zoned of Beaumont Elementary School in Easttown Township and Hillside Elementary School in Tredyffrin Township; the Great Valley elementary schools, Charlestown, K. D. Markley and General Wayne, all filter into Great Valley Middle School. Tredyffrin/Easttown operates two middle schools, Tredyffrin/Easttown and Valley Forge, all district students attend Conestoga High School. Great Valley students attend Great Valley High School. Delaware Valley Friends School is a school for those with learning differences in Paoli, it is adjacent to a business complex. Tredyffrin Township Libraries operates the Paoli Library within the Paoli CDP. Paoli is served by the U. S. Route 202 freeway, U. S. Route 30 and Pennsylvania Route 252 connecting it to King of Philadelphia. Paoli was on the Philadelphia and Lancaster Turnpike, absorbed into the Lincoln Highway, became US
Ridley Township, Delaware County, Pennsylvania
Ridley Township is a township in Delaware County, United States. The population was 30,768 at the 2010 census. Ridley Township contains the census designated places of Folsom and Woodlyn along with the unincorporated communities of Crum Lynne and Holmes. Ridley Township derives its name from Ridley, England, where John Simcock, one of the original settlers, emigrated from; the first mention of Ridley in court records is from 1684 when tax collectors were appointed for the township. During the Revolutionary War, Ridley was traversed by both the Continental Army and the British Army. George Washington moved his troops through Ridley Township on his way to Wilmington, Delaware to oppose General Howe. After the Battle of Brandywine, Continental Army soldiers camped along the road in Ridley and George Washington spent the night in the home of John McIlvain. On November 19, 1777, General Cornwallis marched 3,000 men from Philadelphia through Ridley township, it was reported that the "men robbed the inoffensive people on the route without mercy, taking food from the indigent widow as remorselessly from the wealthy husbandman."
On December 22, 1777, General Howe and troops passed through Ridley on their raid to and beyond Darby. Ridley Township is in southeastern Delaware County, northeast of Chester and southeast of Media, the county seat; the borough of Rutledge is a separate municipality. The unincorporated communities of Folsom and Woodlyn occupy the central and western parts of the township, respectively. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of 5.3 square miles, of which 5.1 square miles is land and 0.19 square miles, or 3.61%, is water. Most of the water area is in the Delaware River in the southernmost part of the township. Ridley Township's hardiness zones are close enough to the Delaware River. Springfield Township, Delaware County - north Upper Darby Township, Delaware County - northeast Darby Township, Delaware County - east Glenolden Borough, Delaware County - east Norwood Borough, Delaware County - east Prospect Park Borough, Delaware County - east Ridley Park Borough, Delaware County - surrounded on three sides by Ridley Township Tinicum Township, Delaware County - south Greenwich Township, Gloucester County, New Jersey - south Eddystone Borough, Delaware County - south City of Chester, Delaware County - southwest Nether Providence Township, Delaware County - southwest Swarthmore Borough, Delaware County - northwest Rutledge Borough, Delaware County - surrounded by Ridley Township As of Census 2010, the racial makeup of the township was 90.0% White, 5.7% African American, 0.1% Native American, 2.2% Asian, 0.5% from other races, 1.4% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.9% of the population. As of the census of 2000, there were 30,791 people, 12,121 households, 8,218 families residing in the township; the population density was 6,075.9 people per square mile. There were 12,544 housing units at an average density of 2,475.3/sq mi. The racial makeup of the township was 96.97% White, 0.26% African American, 0.07% Native American, 1.64% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 0.21% from other races, 0.80% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.92% of the population. There were 12,121 households, out of which 30.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.3% were married couples living together, 11.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.2% were non-families. 28.0% of all households were made up of individuals, 12.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 3.14. In the township the population was spread out, with 24.4% under the age of 18, 7.1% from 18 to 24, 30.3% from 25 to 44, 21.0% from 45 to 64, 17.2% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 92.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.0 males. The median income for a household in the township was $45,918, the median income for a family was $54,581. Males had a median income of $41,504 versus $29,972 for females; the per capita income for the township was $21,437. About 5.0% of families and 6.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.0% of those under age 18 and 9.0% of those age 65 or over. Students residing within the district attend schools within the Ridley School District, although there are several Catholic schools located in the township as well. Ridley Township encompasses the following towns and communities, which are all part of the township, are known by locals as Ridley, as they share the same taxes, school district, police department located in Folsom. Many of these communities, all own their own fire department, though they serve each other with a serious fire, or other major event.
Crum Lynne Folsom Holmes Leedom Milmont Park Secane Swarthmorewood Woodlyn David Reese Esrey and banker Paul Felder, UFC Lightweight and former CFFC Lightweight Champion Joe Hackett, member of the Pennsylvania House of Representatives, District 161 from 2011 to 2015 George Gray Leiper, United States Congressman Bill McGlone, professional lacrosse player John Morton, signer of United States Declaration of Independence Steve Pulcinella and strongman George Trosley, cartoonist Joe Valerio, Former NFL football player, Kansas City Chiefs Hack Wilson, baseball player, single season all time RBI leader, in 1930, Chicago Cubs William P. Worrall, Pennsylvania State Representative for Delaware County from 1875 to 1876 Ridley Township official websi
30th Street Station
30th Street Station is an intermodal transit station in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It is Philadelphia's main railroad station, is a major stop on Amtrak's Northeast and Keystone corridors, it doubles as a major commuter rail station. It is served by several SEPTA city and suburban buses, as well as buses operated by NJ Transit and intercity operators, it is the tenth-busiest train station in the United States. The station is located at 2955 Market Street, it is located in Philadelphia's University City neighborhood, just across the Schuylkill River from Center City. The building, which first opened in 1933, is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Amtrak's code for the station is PHL, its IATA Airport Code is ZFV on United because Amtrak's service to Newark Liberty International Airport is codeshared with United Airlines. 30th Street Station is Amtrak's third-busiest station, by far the busiest of the 24 stations served in Pennsylvania, serving 4,411,662 passengers in fiscal year 2017.
On an average day in fiscal 2013, about 12,000 people boarded or left trains in Philadelphia, nearly twice as many as in the rest of the Pennsylvania stations combined. The Pennsylvania Railroad, headquartered in Philadelphia, acquired tunnel rights from the Schuylkill River to 15th Street from the city of Philadelphia in return for land that the city needed to construct the Benjamin Franklin Parkway; this allowed the company to build both Suburban Station and the 30th Street Station, which replaced Broad Street station as the latter was too small. Broad Street Station was a stub-end terminal in Center City and through trains had to back in and out, the company wanted a location which would accommodate trains between New York City and Washington. D. C. Broad St. station handled a large commuter operation, which the new underground Suburban Station was built to handle. The Chicago architectural firm of Graham, Anderson and White, the successor to D. H. Burnham & Company, designed the structure known as Pennsylvania Station–30th Street in accord with the naming style of other Pennsylvania Stations.
Its design was influenced by the Northeast Corridor electrification that allowed trains to pass beneath the station without exposing passengers to soot as steam engines of earlier times had. The station had a number of innovative features, including a pneumatic tube system, an electronic intercom, a reinforced roof with space for small aircraft to land, contained a mortuary, a chapel and more than 3,000 square feet of hospital space. Construction began in 1927 and the station opened in 1933, starting with two platform tracks; the vast waiting room is faced with travertine and the coffered ceiling is painted gold and cream. The building's exterior has columned porte-cocheres on the west and east facade, shows a balance between classical and modern architectural styles.30th Street Station had a Solari board dating back to the 1970s that displayed train departure times, the last such board at an Amtrak station as all the others had been replaced with digital boards. On November 30, 2018, Amtrak announced that the Solari board at 30th Street Station will be replaced with a digital board in January 2019.
Upon retirement, the Solari board will be relocated to the Railroad Museum of Pennsylvania in Strasburg. However, on December 11, 2018, Amtrak announced it will reconsider its decision to replace the Solari board after Congressman Brendan Boyle contacted Amtrak CEO Richard H. Anderson and urged for the Solari board to remain at the station. Amtrak says; the sign will be temporarily housed at the Railroad Museum of Pennsylvania until the 30th Street Station renovations are complete. Amtrak removed the Solari board from 30th Street Station on January 26, 2019. On February 28, 2019, the new digital board at 30th Street Station began operation. In 2005, Philadelphia-based Pew Charitable Trust asked Amtrak to change the name of 30th Street Station to "Ben Franklin Station" as part of the celebration of Ben Franklin's 300th birthday in January 2006; the cost of replacing signs at the station was estimated at $3 million. In January, Philadelphia Mayor John Street threw his support behind the name change, but others had mixed reactions to the proposal.
Pennsylvania Governor Ed Rendell, a former mayor of Philadelphia, was lukewarm, while Amtrak officials worried that a "Ben" station could be confused with its other three "Penn" stations. On January 25, 2006, Pew abandoned the campaign. In August 2014, a federal law was passed that will change the name of the station to William H. Gray III 30th Street Station in honor of the late congressman. At the time, the change was scheduled to occur "in the next few months"; the building is owned by Amtrak and houses many Amtrak corporate offices, although Amtrak is headquartered at Union Station in Washington, D. C; the 562,000 ft² facility features a cavernous main passenger concourse with ornate Art Deco decor. Prominently displayed is the Pennsylvania Railroad World War II Memorial, which honors Pennsylvania Railroad employees killed in World War II, it consists of a bronze statue of the archangel Michael lifting the body of a dead soldier out of the flames of war, was sculpted by Walker Hancock in 1950.
On the four sides of the base of that sculpture are the 1,307 names of those employees in alphabetical order. The building was restored in 1991 by Dan Peter Kopple & Associates; when the station was renovated, updated retail amen
A secondary school is both an organization that provides secondary education and the building where this takes place. Some secondary schools can provide both lower secondary education and upper secondary education, but these can be provided in separate schools, as in the American middle and high school system. Secondary schools follow on from primary schools and lead into vocational and tertiary education. Attendance is compulsory in most countries for students between the ages of 11 and 16; the organisations and terminology are more or less unique in each country. Within the English speaking world, there are three used systems to describe the age of the child; the first is the'equivalent ages' countries that base their education systems on the'English model' use one of two methods to identify the year group, while countries that base their systems on the'American K-12 model' refer to their year groups as'grades'. This terminology extends into research literature. Below is a convenient comparison.
The building needs to accommodate: Curriculum content Teaching methods Costs Education within the political framework Use of school building Constraints imposed by the site Design philosophyEach country will have a different education system and priorities. Schools need to accommodate students, storage and electrical systems, support staff, ancillary staff and administration; the number of rooms required can be determined from the predicted roll of the school and the area needed. According to standards used in the United Kingdom, a general classroom for 30 students needs to be 55 m², or more generously 62 m². A general art room for 30 students needs to be 83 m ². A drama studio or a specialist science laboratory for 30 needs to be 90 m². Examples are given on, and 1,850 place secondary school. The building providing the education has to fulfil the needs of: The students, the teachers, the non-teaching support staff, the administrators and the community, it has to meet general government building guidelines, health requirements, minimal functional requirements for classrooms and showers, electricity and services and storage of textbooks and basic teaching aids.
An optimum secondary school will meet the minimum conditions and will have: adequately sized classrooms. Government accountants having read the advice publish minimum guidelines on schools; these enable environmental establishing building costs. Future design plans are audited to ensure. Government ministries continue to press for cost standards to be reduced; the UK government published this downwardly revised space formula in 2014. It said the floor area should be 1050m² + 6.3m²/pupil place for 11- to 16-year-olds + 7m²/pupil place for post-16s. The external finishes were to be downgraded to meet a build cost of £1113/m². A secondary school locally may be called high senior high school. In some countries there are two phases to secondary education and, here the junior high school, intermediate school, lower secondary school, or middle school occurs between the primary school and high school. Names for secondary schools by countryArgentina: secundaria or polimodal, escuela secundaria Australia: high school, secondary college Austria: Gymnasium, Hauptschule, Höhere Bundeslehranstalt, Höhere Technische Lehranstalt Azerbaijan: orta məktəb Bahamas, The: junior high, senior high Belgium: lagere school/école primaire, secundair onderwijs/école secondaire, humaniora/humanités Bolivia: educación primaria superior and educación secundaria and Herzegovina: srednja škola, gimnazija Brazil: ensino médio, segundo grau Brunei: sekolah menengah, a few maktab Bulgaria: cредно образование Canada: High school, junior high or middle school, secondary school, école secondaire, collegiate institute, polyvalente Chile: enseñanza media China: zhong xue, consisting of chu zhong from grades 7 to 9 and gao zhong from grades 10 to 12 Colombia: bachillerato, segunda enseñanza Croatia: srednja škola, gimnazija Cyprus: Γυμνάσιο, Ενιαίο Λύκειο Czech Republic: střední škola, gymnázium, střední odborné učiliště Denmark: gymnasium Dominican Republic: nivel medio, bachillerato Egypt: Thanawya Amma, Estonia: upper secondary school, Lyceum Finland: lukio gymnasium France: collège, lycée Germany: Gymnasium, Realschule, Fachoberschule Greece: Γυμνάσιο, Γενικό Λύκειο, Ενιαίο Λύκειο, Hong Kong: Secondary school Hungary: gimnázium, k
The Boeing Company is an American multinational corporation that designs and sells airplanes, rockets and missiles worldwide. The company provides leasing and product support services. Boeing is among the largest global aircraft manufacturers. Boeing stock is included in the Dow Jones Industrial Average. Boeing was founded by William Boeing on July 15, 1916, in Washington; the present corporation is the result of the merger of Boeing with McDonnell Douglas on August 1, 1997. Former Boeing's chair and CEO Philip M. Condit continued as the chair and CEO of the new Boeing, while Harry Stonecipher, former CEO of McDonnell Douglas, became the president and chief operating officer of the newly merged company; the Boeing Company has its corporate headquarters in Illinois. The company is led by CEO Dennis Muilenburg. Boeing is organized into five primary divisions: Boeing Commercial Airplanes. In 2017, Boeing recorded $93.3 billion in sales, ranked 24th on the Fortune magazine "Fortune 500" list, ranked 64th on the "Fortune Global 500" list, ranked 19th on the "World's Most Admired Companies" list.
In March 1910, William E. Boeing bought Heath's shipyard in Seattle on the Duwamish River, which became his first airplane factory. Boeing was incorporated in Seattle by William Boeing, on July 15, 1916, as "Pacific Aero Products Co". Boeing was incorporated in Delaware. Boeing, who studied at Yale University, worked in the timber industry, where he became wealthy and learned about wooden structures; this knowledge proved invaluable in his subsequent assembly of airplanes. The company stayed in Seattle to take advantage of the local supply of spruce wood. One of the two "B&W" seaplanes built with the assistance of George Conrad Westervelt, a U. S. Navy engineer, took its maiden flight on June 15, 1916. Boeing and Westervelt decided to build the B&W seaplane after having flown in a Curtiss aircraft. Boeing bought a Glenn Martin "Flying Birdcage" seaplane and was taught to fly by Glenn Martin himself. Boeing soon crashed the Birdcage and when Martin informed Boeing that replacement parts would not become available for months, Boeing realized he could build his own plane in that amount of time.
He and his friend Cdr. G. C. Westervelt soon produced the B&W Seaplane; this first Boeing airplane was assembled in a lakeside hangar located on the northeast shore of Seattle's Lake Union. Many of Boeing's early planes were seaplanes. On April 6, 1917, the U. S. declared war on Germany and entered World War I. On May 9, 1917, the company became the "Boeing Airplane Company". With the U. S. entering the war, Boeing knew that the U. S. Navy needed seaplanes for training. So Boeing shipped two new Model Cs to Pensacola, where the planes were flown for the Navy; the Navy ordered 50 more. The company moved its operations to a larger former shipbuilding facility known as Boeing Plant 1, located on the lower Duwamish River, Washington state; when World War I ended in 1918, a large surplus of cheap, used military planes flooded the commercial airplane market, preventing aircraft companies from selling any new airplanes, driving many out of business. Others, including Boeing, started selling other products. Boeing built dressers and furniture, along with flat-bottom boats called Sea Sleds.
In 1919 the Boeing B-1 flying boat made its first flight. It accommodated two passengers and some mail. Over the course of eight years, it made international airmail flights from Seattle to Victoria, British Columbia. On May 24, 1920, the Boeing Model 8 made its first flight, it was the first plane to fly over Mount Rainier. In 1923, Boeing entered competition against Curtiss to develop a pursuit fighter for the U. S. Army Air Service. Although Curtiss finished its design first and was awarded the contract, Boeing continued to develop its PW-9 fighter; that plane, along with the Boeing P-12/F4B fighter, made Boeing a leading manufacturer of fighters over the course of the next decade. In 1925, Boeing built its Model 40 mail plane for the U. S. government to use on airmail routes. In 1927, an improved version of this plane was built, the Model 40A which won the U. S. Post Office's contract to deliver mail between San Chicago; the 40A had a passenger cabin that accommodated two. That same year, Boeing created an airline named Boeing Air Transport, which merged a year with Pacific Air Transport and the Boeing Airplane Company.
The first airmail flight for the airline was on July 1, 1927. In 1929 the company merged with Pratt & Whitney, Hamilton Aero Manufacturing Company, Chance Vought under the new title United Aircraft and Transport Corporation; the merge was followed by the acquisition of the Sikorsky Manufacturing Corporation, Stearman Aircraft Corporation, Standard Metal Propeller Company. United Aircraft purchased National Air Transport in 1930. On July 27, 1928, the 12-passenger Boeing 80 biplane made its first flight. With three engines, it was Boeing's first plane built with the sole intention of being a passenger transport. An upgraded version, the 80A, carrying eighteen passengers, made its first flight in September 1929. In the early 1930s Boeing became a leader in all-metal aircraft construction, in the design revolution t
Chester is a city in Delaware County, United States. With a population of 33,972 at the 2010 census it is the largest city in Delaware County. Incorporated in 1682, Chester is the oldest city in Pennsylvania and is located on the western bank of the Delaware River between the cities of Philadelphia and Wilmington, Delaware; the Indian tribe that owned the land where Chester now stands were the Okehockings, removed by order of William Penn in 1702 to other lands in Chester County. The original Indian name of Chester was Mecoponaca; the first European settlers in the area were members of the New Sweden colony. The settlement that became Chester was first called "Finlandia" and "Upland" after the Swedish province of Uppland; the New Sweden settlers built Fort Mecoponacka in 1641 to defend the settlement. In 1644, the present site of Chester was a tobacco plantation operated by the New Sweden colonists. By 1682, Upland was the most populous town of the new Province of Pennsylvania. On October 27, the ship Welcome arrived bearing William Penn on his first visit to the province.
Penn renamed the settlement for the English city of Chester. Chester County stretched from the Delaware River to the Susquehanna River from its founding in 1682 until 1729 when Lancaster County was formed from the western part. Chester served as the county seat for Chester County from 1682 to 1788. In 1724 the Chester Courthouse was built to support the legal needs of the county. Chester played only a small role in the American Revolutionary War. Throughout 1776 and 1777, there were significant forces stationed in nearby Marcus Hook. In April 1776, nearly 1,000 men were stationed in Chester under Colonel Samuel Miles in preparation for the defense of Philadelphia. However, Colonel Miles led the troops to New York City in July 1776 when it became clear that the British Fleet was threatening New York rather than Philaldelphia. In 1777, the Continental Army led by George Washington passed through Chester on the way to meet the British Army led by General Howe at the Battle of Brandywine. John Armstrong was ordered to take command of the militia stationed at Chester.
The Continental Army fled back to Chester after defeat at the Battle of Brandywine. A portion of the British force occupied Chester as they chased the Continental Army fleeing to Philadelphia. In 1788, the Chester County seat was moved from Chester to West Chester. In 1789, Delaware County was formed from the eastern part of Chester County, Chester became the new county seat. On March 5, 1795, the borough of Chester, governed under the charter granted by Penn in 1701 was incorporated by the Pennsylvania Assembly. In the 1700s and 1800s, Chester was a hub for business due to easy access to the Delaware River for the transport of raw materials and finished goods by ship. By the mid-1800s, many textile mills and factories were built along Chester Creek including the Upland Mills by John Price Crozer and the Powhattan Mills by David Reese Esrey and Hugh Shaw. During the War of 1812, a group of volunteers from Chester called the Mifflin Guards was raised and led by Dr. Samuel Anderson; the troops were sent to Fort DuPont to defend the Delaware River from the threatened attack of British Admiral George Cockburn but did not see any action.
In 1851, the Delaware County seat was moved from Chester to the borough of Media. On February 14, 1866, Chester was incorporated as a city and the first mayor elected was John Larkin, Jr.. In 1871, the Delaware River Iron Ship Building and Engine Works was opened by John Roach through the purchase of the Reaney, Son & Archbold shipyard; the first steel ships of the U. S. Navy were built at the Roach shipyard. For the first 15 years of operation, it was the largest and most productive shipyard in the United States. More tonnage of ships were built at the Roach shipyard than its next two competitors combined. Roach built other businesses to supply materials for his shipbuilding including the Chester Rolling Mill in 1873 to supply metal hull plates and beams, the Chester Pipe and Tube Company in 1877 for the manufacture of iron pipes and boiler tubes, the Standard Steel Casting Company in 1883 to supply steel ingots. Roach built the Combination Steel and Iron Company in 1880 to supply steel rails and other products for businesses beyond the Roach shipyard.
He lost control of the company after his shipbuilding enterprise entered receivership in 1885. World War I brought Chester its first massive growth. People migrated to Chester for 63 % of which were in manufacturing. Between 1910 and 1920, Chester's population increased from 38,000 to 58,000 due to the influx of southern and eastern Europeans and southern U. S. blacks. The Sun Shipbuilding & Drydock Co. was opened in 1917 to build ships for the United States until its closure in 1990. The idled Roach shipyard was purchased in 1917 by W. Averell Harriman to build merchant ships during World War I, renamed the Merchant Shipbuilding Corporation; the shipyard closed permanently in 1923. Like many boomtowns, Chester was unprepared for the social changes that came along with rapid growth; as southern blacks migrated to Pennsylvania as part of the Great Migration, racial violence broke out, racially segregated neighborhoods expanded and economic discrimination emerged. A four-day race riot that resulted in 7 deaths broke out in the city in July 1917 and the separation of blacks and whites in Chester's neighborhoods and workplaces became more defined.
Chester was known as a freewheeling destination for vices such as drugs, numbers rackets and prostitution. Chester was known as Greater Philadelphia's "Saloon Town". By 1914, Chester had more saloons than police officers. In 1927, the Ford Motor Company opene
Pennsylvania the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle; the Commonwealth is bordered by Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie and the Canadian province of Ontario to the northwest, New York to the north, New Jersey to the east. Pennsylvania is the 33rd-largest state by area, the 6th-most populous state according to the most recent official U. S. Census count in 2010, it is the 9th-most densely populated of the 50 states. Pennsylvania's two most populous cities are Philadelphia, Pittsburgh; the state capital and its 10th largest city is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 140 miles of waterfront along the Delaware Estuary; the state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States. Part of Pennsylvania, together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden.
It was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12, 1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the state's largest city of Philadelphia. During the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg was fought in the south central region of the state. Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washington's headquarters during the bitter winter of 1777–78. Pennsylvania is 170 miles north to south and 283 miles east to west. Of a total 46,055 square miles, 44,817 square miles are land, 490 square miles are inland waters, 749 square miles are waters in Lake Erie, it is the 33rd-largest state in the United States. Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Of the original Thirteen Colonies, Pennsylvania is the only state that does not border the Atlantic Ocean; the boundaries of the state are the Mason–Dixon line to the south, the Twelve-Mile Circle on the Pennsylvania-Delaware border, the Delaware River to the east, 80° 31' W to the west and the 42° N to the north, with the exception of a short segment on the western end, where a triangle extends north to Lake Erie.
Cities include Philadelphia, Reading and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown and Easton in the central east. The northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining cities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest. State College serves the central region while Williamsport serves the commonwealth's north-central region as does Chambersburg the south-central region, with York and the state capital Harrisburg on the Susquehanna River in the east-central region of the Commonwealth and Altoona and Johnstown in the west-central region; the state has five geographical regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain and the Erie Plain. New York Ontario Maryland Delaware West Virginia New Jersey Ohio Pennsylvania's diverse topography produces a variety of climates, though the entire state experiences cold winters and humid summers. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, with the exception of the southeastern corner, has a humid continental climate.
The southern portion of the state has a humid subtropical climate. The largest city, has some characteristics of the humid subtropical climate that covers much of Delaware and Maryland to the south. Summers are hot and humid. Moving toward the mountainous interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increases, snowfall amounts are greater. Western areas of the state locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches of snowfall annually, the entire state receives plentiful precipitation throughout the year; the state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into fall. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, such as 30 recorded tornadoes in 2011; as of 1600, the tribes living in Pennsylvania were the Algonquian Lenape, the Iroquoian Susquehannock & Petun and the Siouan Monongahela Culture, who may have been the same as a little known tribe called the Calicua, or Cali. Other tribes who entered the region during the colonial era were the Trockwae, Saponi, Nanticoke, Conoy Piscataway, Iroquois Confederacy—possibly among others.
Other tribes, like the Erie, may have once held some land in Pennsylvania, but no longer did so by the year 1600. Both the Dutch and the English claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their colonial lands in America; the Dutch were the first to take possession. By June 3, 1631, the Dutch had begun settling the Delmarva Peninsula by establishing the Zwaanendael Colony on the site of present-day Lewes, Delaware. In 1638, Sweden established the New Sweden Colony, in the region of Fort Christina, on the site of present-day Wilmington, Delaware. New Sweden claimed and, for the most part, controlled the lower Delaware River region (parts of present-day Delaware, New Jersey, Pe