Basset (card game)
Basset known as barbacole and hocca, is a gambling card game, considered one of the most polite. It was intended for persons of the highest rank because of the great losses or gains that might be accrued by players. According to DELI, the word Basetta is first recorded in the first half of the 15th century; the game Basset is described by a few authors as having been invented in 1593 by a noble Venetian named Pietro Cellini, punished with exile in Corsica for his contrivance. It may have been devised out of the game of Hocca, Hoca or Hoc, considered the precursor and an outlawed form of Italian roulette at which people lost considerable sums of money and an early iteration of Biribi, brought into fashion by Cardinal Mazarin. Basset was first introduced into France by Signior Justiniani, ambassador of Venice, in 1674; the game was popular at the court of King Charles II, after 15 January 1691 when Louis XIV issued an order from the privy council, by which he expressly forbade not only the officers belonging to his array, but all other persons of whatever sex or denomination to play at Hoca, Pharaoh and Basset.
The sums of money lost in France at this game were so considerable that the nobility were in danger of being undone after many persons of distinction were ruined. The law against gambling was tightened eluding which they disguised Basset under the name of "pour and contre", that is, "for and against". By the constitution of Basset, large advantages were secured to the tailleur and so vast were their gains, that the privilege of keeping a bank at Basset, where the stakes were unlimited, was granted only to cadets or other members of great families, it was certain that a considerable fortune could be realised by the tailleur in a short time. The advantages of the dealer arise in many ways, but from the temptations for adventurous players to increase their stakes on certain desperate chances, which turn up, which in the long run told in favour of the bank. Where licenses were otherwise conceded for keeping a public Basset table in France, the stakes were limited to twelve pence. Basset migrated to England in about 1677, introduced by a croupier called Morin, but never caught on outside Court circles on account of its costliness and the heavy risks it entailed on the players.
Its heyday seems to have been in the early 18th century. It has no place in Cotton's 1674 The Complete Gamester, but rates a lengthy entry in the 1721 edition where the fierceness of the gambling is stressed, it is there described as a "French Game" because it was imported from France. The game's high stakes, along with its devastations, is the subject of Susanna Centlivre's 1705 comedy The Basset Table; the English made basset quite different from what it was in France where, by royal edict, the public at large were not allowed to play at more than a franc or ten-penny bank, – and the losses or gains could not bring desolation to a family. In England the punters could do as they liked, staking from one guinea to one hundred guineas and more, upon a card. After three or four years, many players had impoverished their families to such an extent that Parliament enacted a prohibition with severe penalties against both games; when the couch was alpieued, or parolied, to sept-et-le-va, quinze-et-le-va, trente-et-le-va, etc. the punter's gains were prodigious.
If a player brought his stake to soissante-et-le-va, he was likely to break the bank, by gaining a sum which no tallière could pay. But this happened; the general advantage was with the bank, besides the standing rule that no two cards turning up that were the same could win for the players. In addition to this, other "privileges" operated in favour of the banker. However, it was "of so bewitching a nature," says our old writer, "by reason of the several multiplications and advantages which it offered to the unwary punter, that a great many like it so well that they would play at small game rather than give out; the play in Basset resulted in a lottery. A player might win, but the big winner was the dealer; the dealer had a number of privileges under the rules, including having the sole disposal of the first and last card. This was a truth so acknowledged in France that the king ordered, by public edict, that the privilege of a tallière should be allowed only to the chief cadets, his assumption was that whoever kept the bank must, in a short time, acquire a considerable fortune.
The players sat round a table, the talliere in the midst of them, with the bank of gold before him, the punters or players each having a book of 13 cards. Each laid down one, three, or more, as they pleased, with money upon them, as stakes; the talliere took the remaining pack in his hand and turned them up, with the bottom card appearing being called the fasse. After the fasse was turned up, the talliere and croupiere had looked round the cards on the table, taken advantage of the money laid on them, the former proceeded with his deal.
Gerolamo Mengozzi Colonna
Gerolamo Mengozzi Colonna was an Italian painter of frescoed quadratura. Born in Ferrara, Gerolamo was a pupil of the painters of architectural perspective painters Antonio Felice Ferrari and Francesco Scala in Emilia-Romagna, he moved to Venice by 1716, where he began collaborations that spanned over four decades with Giovanni Battista Tiepolo and his son Giandomenico. By 1716, he signs a contract with Mattia Bortoloni to decorate in fresco the Villa Cornaro in Piombino Dese for the patrician Andrea Cornaro, it is presumed that the two latter artists collaborated in decorating the octagonal room of the Villa Morosini Vendramin Calergi in Fiesso Umbertiano. Mengozzi's first collaboration with Tiepolo was the decoration of the hall on the first floor of the Villa Baglioni in Massanzago, depicting the Myth of Phaeton on the walls and the Triumph of Aurora on the ceiling; this was followed by the Apotheosis of Santa Teresa in the vault of a chapel of the church of Santa Maria degli Scalzi. He collaborated with Tiepolo in paintings for the church of the Cappucini in the sestiere of Castello.
The products of these collaborations featured Mengozzi in the quadratura or painted architectural vistas, Tiepolo painting the figures. In 1726, he worked with Tiepolo in the gallery of the archbishop's palace and the Chapel of the Holy Sacrament in the Cathedral of Udine; this work was commissioned by the patrician Dionisio Dolfin. The frescoed scenes of Dream of Jacob, Sacrifice of Isaac, Hagar in the Desert and the Idols and the Angels, Sarah and the Angel were all completed in collaboration with Mengozzi Together with the Tiepolo, Mengozzi helped decorate the Venetian Palazzo Labia in 1745-1747; the ceiling depicts Bellerophon on Pegasus in flight toward the Glory and Eternity, while the walls are frescoed with the Meeting and Banquet of Anthony and Cleopatra. The quadratura painted frames the events. During most of the years between 1720 and 1743, Mengozzi is a member of the Venetian painters' guild, he journeyed to Rome in 1724. He entered the Academy of St. Luke, gave lectures in perspective in 1725-26.
Returning to Venice, in 1727 he became a member of the newly formed Accademia of Fine Arts in Venice, became a professor by 1766. Between 1728 and 1733, he worked as a scenic designer, a common pursuit for quadraturistas, he painted sets of San Giovanni Grisostomo. Between 1749-1750 he worked with sets of Teatro Regio in Turin, he was employed in decoration of the Palazzina di Caccia of Stupinigi. Mengozzi collaborated with the son of Giovanni Battista, Giandomenico Tiepolo. In 1754 he completed architectural perspective for scenes filled with figures by Giandomenico in the church of Santi Faustino e Giovita in Brescia. In 1757, with father and son Tiepolo, he painted the walls of the Palazzo Valmarana at Vicenza; that year, he collaborated with the elder Tiepolo in decorating certain salons in Ca' Rezzonico. In the Palazzo Rezzonico and Mengozzi were commissioned to decorate rooms for the wedding of Louis and Faustina Savorgnan. In the wedding room ceiling, we see the couple carried on Apollo's chariot, drawn by four white horses, preceded by Cupid and surrounded by allegorical figures: the three Graces, Wisdom, bearing the flag of Merit with the heraldic arms of the Rezzonico and Savorgnan family.
Again Tiepolo made the figures. In the Throne Room, they depicted the Triumph of Merit. Between 1760 and 1762 and Mengozzi and the elder Tiepolo collaborated in the massive Glory of the Pisani family on the ceiling of the central hall in the Villa Pisani at Stra. With the departure of Tiepolo for Spain in 1762, Mengozzi began a collaboration with Jacopo Guarana, a pupil of Tiepolo, in the chapel of the ducal palace. In addition, Mengozzi's son, Agostino became well known as a quadraturista. Among his pupils was Giovanni Giacomo Monti. Boni, Filippo de'. Biografia degli artisti ovvero dizionario della vita e delle opere dei pittori, degli scultori, degli intagliatori, dei tipografi e dei musici di ogni nazione che fiorirono da'tempi più remoti sino á nostri giorni. Seconda Edizione.. Venice. Pp. 640–641. Giambattista Tiepolo, 1696-1770, a full text exhibition catalog from The Metropolitan Museum of Art
Biribi, or cavagnole, a French game of chance similar to Lotto, played for low stakes, prohibited by law in 1837. It was played on a board; the players put their stakes on the numbers. The banker is provided with a bag from which he draws a case containing a ticket, the tickets corresponding with the numbers on the board; the banker calls out the number, the player who has backed it receives sixty-four times his stake. Casanova played it in Genoa and the South of France in the 1760s and describes it as "a regular cheats' game", he broke the bank and was rumored to have been in collusion with the bag-holder. In the French army "to be sent to Biribi" was a cant term for being sent to the disciplinary battalions in Algeria
A casino is a facility which houses and accommodates certain types of gambling activities. The industry that deals in casinos is called the gaming industry. Casinos are most built near or combined with hotels, retail shopping, cruise ships or other tourist attractions. There is much debate over whether the social and economic consequences of casino gambling outweigh the initial revenue that may be generated; some casinos are known for hosting live entertainment events, such as stand-up comedy and sporting events. The term "casino" is a confusing linguistic false friend for translators. Casino is of Italian origin; the term casino may mean summerhouse, or social club. During the 19th century, the term casino came to include other public buildings where pleasurable activities took place. In modern-day Italian a casino is either a brothel, a mess, or a noisy environment, while a gaming house is spelt casinò, with an accent. Not all casinos were used for gaming; the Catalina Casino, a famous landmark overlooking Avalon Harbor on Santa Catalina Island, has never been used for traditional games of chance, which were outlawed in California by the time it was built.
The Copenhagen Casino was a theatre, known for the mass public meetings held in its hall during the 1848 Revolution, which made Denmark a constitutional monarchy. Until 1937, it was a well-known Danish theatre; the Hanko Casino in Hanko, Finland—one of that town's most conspicuous landmarks—was never used for gambling. Rather, it was a banquet hall for the Russian nobility which frequented this spa resort in the late 19th century and is now used as a restaurant. In military and non-military usage in German and Spanish, a casino or kasino is an officers' mess; the precise origin of gambling is unknown. It is believed that gambling in some form or another has been seen in every society in history. From the Ancient Greeks and Romans to Napoleon's France and Elizabethan England, much of history is filled with stories of entertainment based on games of chance; the first known European gambling house, not called a casino although meeting the modern definition, was the Ridotto, established in Venice, Italy in 1638 by the Great Council of Venice to provide controlled gambling during the carnival season.
It was closed in 1774. In American history, early gambling establishments were known as saloons; the creation and importance of saloons was influenced by four major cities: New Orleans, St. Louis and San Francisco, it was in the saloons that travelers could find people to talk to, drink with, gamble with. During the early 20th century in America, gambling became outlawed and banned by state legislation and social reformers of the time. However, in 1931, gambling was legalized throughout the state of Nevada. America's first legalized casinos were set up in those places. In 1976 New Jersey allowed gambling in Atlantic City, now America's second largest gambling city. Most jurisdictions worldwide have a minimum gambling age. Customers gamble by playing games of chance, in some cases with an element of skill, such as craps, baccarat and video poker. Most games played have mathematically determined odds that ensure the house has at all times an overall advantage over the players; this can be expressed more by the notion of expected value, uniformly negative.
This advantage is called the house edge. In games such as poker where players play against each other, the house takes a commission called the rake. Casinos sometimes give out complimentary comps to gamblers. Payout is the percentage of funds returned to players. Casinos in the United States say that a player staking money won from the casino is playing with the house's money. Video Lottery Machines have become one of the most popular forms of gambling in casinos; as of 2011 investigative reports have started calling into question whether the modern-day slot-machine is addictive. Casino design—regarded as a psychological exercise—is an intricate process that involves optimising floor plan, décor and atmospherics to encourage gambling. Factors influencing gambling tendencies include sound and lighting. Natasha Dow Schüll, an anthropologist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, highlights the decision of the audio directors at Silicon Gaming to make its slot machines resonate in "the universally pleasant tone of C, sampling existing casino soundscapes to create a sound that would please but not clash".
Dr Alan Hirsch, founder of the Smell & Taste Treatment and Research Foundation in Chicago, studied the impact of certain scents on gamblers, discerning that a pleasant albeit unidentifiable odour released by Las Vegas slot machines generated about 50% more in daily revenue. He suggested. Casino designer Roger Thomas is credited with implementing a successful, disruptive design for the Las Vegas Wynn Resorts casinos in 2008, he broke casino design convention by introducing natural sunlight and flora to appeal to women. Thomas put in skylights and antique clocks, defying the commonplace notion that a casino should be a timeless space; the following li
Great Council of Venice
The Great Council of Venice or Major Council the Consilium Sapientium, was a political organ of the Republic of Venice between 1172 and 1797 and met in a special large hall of the Palazzo Ducale. Participation in the Great Council was established on hereditary right, exclusive to the patrician families enrolled in the Golden Book of the Venetian nobility; the Great Council was unique at the time in its usage of lottery to select nominators for proposal of candidates, who were thereafter voted upon. The Great Council elected the Council of Ten. In 1143 the Consilium Sapientium was formally established as a permanent representation of the sovereign Concio of freemen; the Act formalized the set-up in communal form of the State, with the birth of the Commune Veneciarum. Thirty years the Consilium was transformed into sovereign assembly known as the Great Council; the council consisted of 35 councilors, but expanded to over 100. Some members were added to the Council of the Forty, which served as a Supreme Court or highest of constitutional bodies.
The Council of Forty was established around the year 1179. Proposals for participation in the transformation of the hereditary right to counsel or co-opted by the board itself had been presented and rejected several times under dogadi of Giovanni Dandolo, in 1286. However, under Doge Pietro Gradenigo the nobility insisted that to ensure more stability and continuity of participation in the Government of the Republic, new laws needed to be enacted; this was brought together on 28 February 1297, an event known as the Serrata. This provision of law opened the Great Council only to those, part of the preceding four years, every year, forty raffled among their descendants; the reform removed time limits on how long a person could be a member of the Council. The entry of new members was further limited by additional laws in 1307 and 1316. On 19 July 1315, a book of Italian nobilities was established. Only those listed in the book and above 18 years of age were eligible for the position in the Major Council.
In 1423 the Great Council formally abolished the concio. In 1506 and 1526, records were established in order to determine births and marriages to facilitate the detection of the right of access to the body of nobility. In 1527 the members of the Greater Council, chose to grant equal rights to members of the council for all men over twenty years of the most illustrious families of the city. At this point, the council reached its maximum size of 2746 members; the effect of the provisions of the Serrata had increased the number of members. In the sixteenth century, it was common for up to 2095 patricians with the right to sit in the Ducal Palace. There was an obvious difficulty in managing such a body; this led to a delegation of more immediate functions of government bodies to smaller and selected bodies, in particular the Senate. In some rare cases, facing severe economic difficulties and dangers, access to the Great Council was open to new families. Compared with lavish gifts to the state was the case with the War of Chioggia and the War of Candia, when, to support the enormous cost of war, families who were admitted were more economically wealthy to support the war effort.
Another peculiarity was the creation over time of a division in the nobility and the wealthy nobility, that is, families who were able in time to keep intact or to increase their economic capacity, the poor. These may have or had depleted their wealth, but continued to maintain the hereditary right to sit in the Grand Council; this took the two sides of the nobility to clash in council and opened the possibility to cases of vote-buying. It was the Great Council, on 12 May 1797 that declared the end of the Republic of Venice, by selecting–in face of the Napoleonic invasion–to accept the abdication of the last Doge Ludovico Manin and dissolve the aristocratic assembly: despite lacking the required quorum of 600 members, the board voted overwhelmingly the end of the Venetian Republic and the transfer of powers to an indefinite provisional government. Minor Council The Council of Forty Signoria of Venice Concio Serrata del Maggior Consiglio The first volume of Annali Veneti e del Mondo written by Stefano Magno describes the origins of the Venetian noble families and presents the alphabetically arranged list with dates of their admission to Great Council
Faro (card game)
Faro, Pharao, or Farobank is a late 17th-century French gambling card game. It is descended from Basset, belongs to the Lansquenet and Monte Bank family of games due to the use of a banker and several players. Winning or losing occurs when cards turned up by the banker match those exposed, it is not a direct relative of poker, but Faro was just as popular, due to its fast action, easy-to-learn rules, better odds than most games of chance. The game of Faro admits any number of players. Wildly popular in North America during the 1800s, Faro was overtaken by poker as the preferred card game of gamblers in the early 1900s; the earliest references to a card game named Pharaon are found in Southwestern France during the reign of Louis XIV. Basset was outlawed in 1691, Pharaoh emerged several years as a derivative of Basset, before it too was outlawed. Despite the French ban and Basset continued to be played in England during the 18th century, where it was known as Pharo, an English alternate spelling of Pharaoh.
The game was easy to learn, quick and, when played the odds for a player were the best of all gambling games, as Gilly Williams records in a letter to George Selwyn in 1752. With its name shortened to Faro, it spread to the United States in the 19th century to become the most widespread and popularly favored gambling game, it was played in every gambling hall in the Old West from 1825 to 1915. Faro could be played in over 150 places in Washington, D. C. alone during the Civil War. An 1882 study considered faro to be the most popular form of gambling, surpassing all others forms combined in terms of money wagered each year, it was widespread in the German states during the 19th century, where it was known as Pharao or Pharo. A simplified version played with 32 German-suited cards was known as Deutsches Süßmilch, it is recorded in card game compendia from at least 1810 to 1975. In the US, Faro was called "bucking the tiger" or "twisting the tiger's tail", a reference to early card backs that featured a drawing of a Bengal tiger.
By the mid 19th century, the tiger was so associated with the game that gambling districts where faro was popular became known as "tiger town", or in the case of smaller venues, "tiger alley". Some gambling houses would hang a picture of a tiger in their windows to advertise that a game could be played there. Faro's detractors regarded it as a dangerous scam that destroyed families and reduced men to poverty because of rampant rigging of the dealing box. Crooked faro equipment was so popular that many sporting-house companies began to supply gaffed dealing boxes specially designed so that the bankers could cheat their players. Cheating was so prevalent that editions of Hoyle’s Rules of Games began their faro section by warning readers that not a single honest faro bank could be found in the United States. Criminal prosecutions of faro were involved in the Supreme Court cases of United States v. Simms, 5 U. S. 252, Ex parte Milburn, 34 U. S. 704. Although the game became scarce after World War II, it continued to be played at a few Las Vegas and Reno casinos through 1985.
Historians have suggested that the name Pharaon comes from Louis XIV's royal gamblers, who chose the name from the motif that adorned one of the French-made court cards. A game of faro was called a "faro bank", it was played with an entire deck of playing cards. One person was designated the "banker" and an indeterminate number of players, known as "punters", could be admitted. Chips were purchased by the punter from the banker. Bet values and limits were set by the house. Usual check values were 50 cents to $10 each; the faro table was oval, covered with green baize, had a cutout for the banker. A board was placed on top of the table with one suit of cards pasted to it in numerical order, representing a standardized betting "layout"; each player laid his stake on one of the 13 cards on the layout. Players could place multiple bets and could bet on multiple cards by placing their bet between cards or on specific card edges. A player could reverse the intent of his bet by placing a hexagonal token called a "copper" on it.
Some histories said. This was known as "coppering" the bet, reversed the meaning of the win/loss piles for that particular bet. Players had the choice of betting on the "high card" bar located at the top of the layout. A deck of cards was shuffled and placed inside a "dealing box", a mechanical device known as a "shoe", used to prevent manipulations of the draw by the banker and intended to assure players of a fair game; the first card in the dealing box was called the "soda" and was "burned off", leaving 51 cards in play. The dealer drew two cards: the first was called the "banker's card" and was placed on the right side of the dealing box; the next card after the banker's card was called the carte anglaise or the "player's card", it was placed on the left of the shoe. The banker's card was the bettor's "losing card"; the player's card was the "winning card". All bets placed on the card that had that denomination were returned to the players with a 1 to 1 payout by the bank. A "high card" bet won.
The dealer settled all bets after each two cards drawn. This allowed players
The Rialto is a central area of Venice, Italy, in the sestiere of San Polo. It has been for many centuries the financial and commercial heart of the city. Rialto is known for its prominent markets as well as for the monumental Rialto Bridge across the Grand Canal; the area was settled by the ninth century, when a small area in the middle of the Realtine Islands on either side of the Rio Businiacus was known as the Rivoaltus, or "high bank". The Businiacus became known as the Grand Canal, the district the Rialto, referring only to the area on the left bank; the Rialto became an important district in 1097, when Venice's market moved there, in the following century a boat bridge was set up across the Grand Canal providing access to it. This was soon replaced by the Rialto Bridge; the bridge has since become iconic, appearing for example in the seal of Rialto, California. The market grew, both as a wholesale market. Warehouses were built, including the famous Fondaco dei Tedeschi on the other side of the bridge.
Meanwhile, shops selling luxury goods and insurance agencies appeared and the city's tax offices were located in the area. The city's abattoir was in the Rialto. Most of the buildings in the Rialto were destroyed in a fire in 1514, the sole survivor being the church San Giacomo di Rialto, while the rest of the area was rebuilt; the Fabriche Vechie dates from this period, while the Fabbriche Nuove is only more recent, dating from 1553. The statue Il Gobbo di Rialto was sculpted in the sixteenth century; the area is still a busy retail quarter, with the daily Erberia greengrocer market, the fish market on the Campo della Pescheria. The Rialto is mentioned in works of literature, notably in Shakespeare's The Merchant of Venice, where Shylock asks "What news on the Rialto?" at the opening of Act 1, Scene III, Solanio in Act 3 Scene I poses the same question. In Sonnets from the Portuguese Sonnet 19, Elizabeth Barrett Browning writes that "The soul's Rialto hath its merchandise...". There is a huge variety of fish and seafood options available on the market including shellfish, cuttlefish, giant tiger prawns, eels, crabs and lobsters.
Rialto is the location of a game map within the video game Overwatch, added on May 3rd, 2018. The map features a castle, several canals through the streets, a museum, it is the setting for a map in Counter-Strike: Global Offensive's "Wingman" game mode. Satellite image from Google Maps