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Right ascension

Right ascension is the angular distance of a particular point measured eastward along the celestial equator from the Sun at the March equinox to the point in question above the earth. When paired with declination, these astronomical coordinates specify the location of a point on the celestial sphere in the equatorial coordinate system. An old term, right ascension refers to the ascension, or the point on the celestial equator that rises with any celestial object as seen from Earth's equator, where the celestial equator intersects the horizon at a right angle, it contrasts with oblique ascension, the point on the celestial equator that rises with any celestial object as seen from most latitudes on Earth, where the celestial equator intersects the horizon at an oblique angle. Right ascension is the celestial equivalent of terrestrial longitude. Both right ascension and longitude measure an angle from a primary direction on an equator. Right ascension is measured from the Sun at the March equinox i.e. the First Point of Aries, the place on the celestial sphere where the Sun crosses the celestial equator from south to north at the March equinox and is located in the constellation Pisces.

Right ascension is measured continuously in a full circle from that alignment of Earth and Sun in space, that equinox, the measurement increasing towards the east. As seen from Earth, objects noted to have 12h RA are longest visible at the March equinox. On those dates at midnight, such objects will reach their highest point. How high depends on their declination. Any units of angular measure could have been chosen for right ascension, but it is customarily measured in hours and seconds, with 24h being equivalent to a full circle. Astronomers have chosen this unit to measure right ascension because they measure a star's location by timing its passage through the highest point in the sky as the Earth rotates; the line which passes through the highest point in the sky, called the meridian, is the projection of a longitude line onto the celestial sphere. Since a complete circle contains 24h of right ascension or 360°, 1/24 of a circle is measured as 1h of right ascension, or 15°. A full circle, measured in right-ascension units, contains 24 × 60 × 60 = 86400s, or 24 × 60 = 1440m, or 24h.

Because right ascensions are measured in hours, they can be used to time the positions of objects in the sky. For example, if a star with RA = 1h 30m 00s is at its meridian a star with RA = 20h 00m 00s will be on the/at its meridian 18.5 sidereal hours later. Sidereal hour angle, used in celestial navigation, is similar to right ascension, but increases westward rather than eastward. Measured in degrees, it is the complement of right ascension with respect to 24h, it is important not to confuse sidereal hour angle with the astronomical concept of hour angle, which measures angular distance of an object westward from the local meridian. The Earth's axis rotates around a small circle westward about the poles of the ecliptic, completing one cycle in about 26,000 years; this movement, known as precession, causes the coordinates of stationary celestial objects to change continuously, if rather slowly. Therefore, equatorial coordinates are inherently relative to the year of their observation, astronomers specify them with reference to a particular year, known as an epoch.

Coordinates from different epochs must be mathematically rotated to match each other, or to match a standard epoch. Right ascension for "fixed stars" near the ecliptic and equator increases by about 3.05 seconds per year on average, or 5.1 minutes per century, but for fixed stars further from the ecliptic the rate of change can be anything from negative infinity to positive infinity. The right ascension of Polaris is increasing quickly; the North Ecliptic Pole in Draco and the South Ecliptic Pole in Dorado are always at right ascension 18h and 6h respectively. The used standard epoch is J2000.0, January 1, 2000 at 12:00 TT. The prefix "J" indicates. Prior to J2000.0, astronomers used the successive Besselian epochs B1875.0, B1900.0, B1950.0. The concept of right ascension has been known at least as far back as Hipparchus who measured stars in equatorial coordinates in the 2nd century BC, but Hipparchus and his successors made their star catalogs in ecliptic coordinates, the use of RA was limited to special cases.

With the invention of the telescope, it became possible for astronomers to observe celestial objects in greater detail, provided that the telescope could be kept pointed at the object for a period of time. The easiest way to do, to use an equatorial mount, which allows the telescope to be aligned with one of its two pivots parallel to the Earth's axis. A motorized clock drive is used with an equatorial mount to cancel out the Earth's rotation; as the equatorial mount became adopted for observation, the equatorial coordinate system, which includes right ascension, was adopted at the same time for simplicity. Equatorial mounts could be pointed at objects with known right ascension and declination by the use of setting circles

Miroslava (actress)

Miroslava Šternová, better known as Miroslava, was a Czechoslovak-born Mexican film actress who appeared in thirty two films. Born Miroslava Šternová in Prague, Miroslava moved to Mexico as a child with her mother and adoptive Jewish father in 1941, seeking to escape war in their native country. After winning a national beauty contest, Miroslava began to study acting, she appeared in a few Mexican films. She was offered a role in Ensayo de un crimen in 1955, directed by Luis Buñuel. Soon after the end of the film, Miroslava committed suicide by overdosing on sleeping pills, her body was found lying outstretched over her bed, she had a portrait of bullfighter Luis Miguel Dominguín in one hand. The Mexican and Hollywood star Katy Jurado claimed to be one of the first people to find the body. According to Jurado, the picture that Miroslava had between her hands was of Mexican comedian Cantinflas, but the artistic manager Fanny Schatz exchanged the photo to that of the Spanish bullfighter Luis Miguel Dominguín.

Another source states. Miroslava's friends stated her suicide was due to unrequited love for Dominguín, who had married Italian actress Lucia Bosè. Others claimed that her unrequited lover was Mario Moreno "Cantinflas." Bosè would go on to star in Buñuel's next movie, Cela s'appelle l'aurore. In his 1983 autobiography, Mon dernier soupir, Buñuel recalls the irony of Miroslava's cremation following her suicide, when compared to a scene in Ensayo de un crimen, her last film, in which the protagonist cremates a wax reproduction of Stern's character, her life is the subject of a short story by Guadalupe Loaeza, adapted by Alejandro Pelayo for his 1992 Mexican film called Miroslava, starring Arielle Dombasle. Adventures of Casanova as Cassandra's sister The Brave Bulls as Linda de Calderón Stranger on Horseback as Amy Lee Bannerman El charro inmortal Torero Tragic Wedding as Amparo Five Faces of Woman as Beatriz Fly Away, Young Man! as María Juan Charrasqueado as María Nocturne of Love as Marta Reyes Adventure in the Night as Elena Adventures of Casanova as Cassandra's sister Secreto entre mujeres as Claudia La liga de las muchachas as Marta La posesión as Rosaura La casa chica as Lucila del Castillo La muerte enamorada as Tacia, la muerte Monte de piedad as Elena Streetwalker as Elena Cárcel de mujeres as Evangelina Ocampo Ella y yo as Irene Garza El puerto de los siete vicios as Colomba Dos caras tiene el destino as Anita The Magnificent Beast as Meche Sueños de gloria as Elsa Las tres perfectas casadas as Leopoldina Música, mujeres y amor as Elisa Méndez Más fuerte que el amor as Bárbara El monstruo resucitado as Nora Reportaje as Nurse La visita que no tocó el timbre as Emma Escuela de vagabundos as Susana o Susi Ensayo de un crimen as Lavinia Foreign-born artists in Mexico Agrasánchez Jr. Rogelio.

Bellezas del cine mexicano/Beauties of Mexican Cinema. Archivo Fílmico Agrasánchez. ISBN 968-5077-11-8. Miroslava on IMDb "Miroslava". ITESM. Cinema of Mexico. Miroslava Stern at Find a Grave Miroslava Stern on the cover of Life magazine.

Louis-Émile Vanderburch

Louis-Émile Vanderburch was a 19th-century French writer and playwright. The painter Dominique Joseph Vanderburch was his grandfather. After he started a career in teaching as a professor of history, Vanderburch turned to literature and more to theatre. From 1816, he authored more than a hundred theatre plays. From 1836 to 1853, he lived in the Petit château of La Chapelle-Saint-Mesmin which now houses the city hall of this town of 10,000 inhabitants. Theatre 1835: Jacques II 1836: Le Gamin de Paris 1838: Clermont, ou Une femme d'artiste 1846: Une nuit au Louvre 1854: Le Sanglier des Ardennes 1855: Le sergent Frédéric, comédie en vaudevilles 1863: Peau d'âneOther1816: L'Épingle noire 1847: Scènes contemporaines laissées par Madame la Vicomtesse de Chamilly, Urbain Canel, 1828 collective pseudonym of François-Adolphe Loève-Veimars, Auguste Romieu and Vanderburch. 1832: Souvenirs de France, d'Écosse et d'Angleterre pendant les règnes de François I, Henri II, François II, Marie Stuart et Elisabeth.

1841-1843: Le Gamin de Paris à Alger. 1851: Histoire militaire des Français. À l'usage des écoles régimentaires et des écoles. Émile Chevalet, Les 365. Annuaire de la littérature et des auteurs contemporains, 1858. Charles Vander-Burch Fils, Biographie d'un homme de lettres, Imprimerie veuve Théolier Ainé et Cie, In-8°, 19 pages, Saint-Etienne, 1863, published by the Bnf, available Here From a gift of Philippe Collin, his great-nephew, the Émile Vanderburch funds gathers at the Bibliothèque nationale de France personal papers, the manuscripts of 9 unpublished plays and 8 published plays, 4 collections of poetry and songs, 3 handwritten works of his youth, intimate writings, programs, documents related to his theatrical activity and press articles. Émile Vanderburch on Data.bnf.fr

Dienestrol

Dienestrol known as dienoestrol, is a synthetic nonsteroidal estrogen of the stilbestrol group, or was used to treat menopausal symptoms in the United States and Europe. It has been studied for use by rectal administration in the treatment of prostate cancer in men as well; the medication was introduced in the U. S. in 1947 by Schering as Synestrol and in France in 1948 as Cycladiene. Dienestrol is a close analogue of diethylstilbestrol, it has 223% and 404% of the affinity of estradiol at the ERα and ERβ, respectively. Dienestrol diacetate exists and has been used medically. Benzestrol Hexestrol Methestrol

11 Downing Street

11 Downing Street is the official residence of Britain's Chancellor of the Exchequer. The residence, in Downing Street in London, was built alongside the official residence of the Prime Minister at Number 10 in 1682; the first Chancellor to live there was Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice in 1806, but Number 11 did not become the Chancellor's official residence until 1828. From 2016, Prime Ministers Theresa May and Boris Johnson moved from 10 Downing Street to 11, since it is much larger. Number 11 is part of a charcoal-brick Georgian-era converted mansion; the building overlooks St. James's Park and Horse Guards Parade and consists—from left to right—of Numbers 12, 11 and 10. Number 11 is located on the left side of Number 10, the official residence of the Prime Minister since the early 19th century. Number 12, to the left of Number 11, is the official residence of the Chief Whip, but it is now used as the Prime Minister's press office; as a result of many internal alterations over the years, the three terraced houses are internally a single complex.

The terraced house was one of several built by Sir George Downing between 1682 and 1684. It was altered c. 1723-35. 1766-75 by Kenton Couse and with early C.19 alterations. Along with Number 10, it underwent a major reconstruction by Raymond Erith, 1960-64. Despite reconstruction, the interior retains a fine staircase with carved bracket tread ends and three slender turned balusters per tread; the fine Dining Room of 1825-26 is by Sir John Soane. When Tony Blair became Prime Minister in 1997 he chose to reside in Number 11, rather than Number 10, as it has a larger living area. In 2007, when Brown became Prime Minister, he at first chose to live in Number 11, but soon moved back to Number 10. Following the 2010 general election, the incoming prime minister, David Cameron, moved into 11, instead of 10 Downing Street, because George Osborne chose to remain in his Notting Hill home. In early August 2011, Osborne moved into Number 10. Prime Minister Boris Johnson and former Chancellor of the Exchequer Sajid Javid have continued the recent practice of residing in the flats traditionally used by their counterparts.

On 13 February 2020 Sajid Javid resigned as chancellor after he rejected an order to fire his team of aides, saying "no self-respecting minister" could accept such a condition. 11 Downing Street section from the Survey of London online

Elmer T. Cunningham

Elmer Tiling Cunningham was an American entrepreneur and businessman, specializing in vacuum tubes and radio manufacturing. He is best known for being the most successful business person to produce counterfeit or unlicensed vacuum tubes. Cunningham was in direct violation by infringing on the De Forest vacuum tube patents. Unlike other businesses making unlicensed or bootlegged vacuum tubes, Cunningham was aggressive in his advertising. Manufacturers of counterfeit vacuum tubes ended their activities after a lawsuit has been filed but Cunningham came out ahead after various lawsuits brought against him and his company, the Audio Tron Sales Company, his successes encouraged many others to do the same thing. Elmer Tiling Cunningham was born, September 1889 in San Francisco. Cunningham's parents were Fanna E. Tiling, he graduated from Lowell High School, San Francisco in December 1906. At a young age he was interested in related topics. In 1910 he collaborated with George Francis Haller to write, "The Tesla High Frequency Coil: Its Construction and Uses".

In 1915 Cunningham started the Audio Tron Sales Company in San Francisco. Based on the West Coast, he was in direct competition with Lee de Forest, a leading manufacturer of triodes sold under the Audion brand. Before 1915, triode vacuum tubes were shaped like an incandescent light bulb. Cunningham took a different route, his triode tube had the capability of being double sided. This design allowed dual filaments. Cunningham was able to maintain quality; the rise in amateur radio interest was a great asset to Audio Tron sales. This design proved influential on vacuum tube production, prompted De Forest to come up with a Tubular Audion. Another important design in the Audio Tron Tube is the use of a cylindrical plate instead of the typical flat plate in the audion; the cylindrical plate provided tube efficiency. This design for the Audio Tron was inspired by George Haller with whom he co-authored the book about Tesla Coils. In February 1916 DeForest Company sued Audio Tron for infringement of the DeForest Audion patent.

The lawsuit was settled out of court and Cunningham continued to sell Audio Trons uninterrupted. The competition between Cunningham and DeForest became a price war on the West Coast; every time DeForest Company lowered the price of their vacuum tubes, the Audio Tron Company responded by lowering their prices as well. The original price of the Audio Tron when it first came out was $7.50. Less than a year it was $5.25. Elmer Cunningham would continue to make Audio Trons until April 6, 1917. With the coming of World War I, the US Government ordered all amateur radio equipment either dismantled or put away; this resulted in a large loss of market for Audio Tron, their sales stopped. This LINK will show you; the flyer gives testimonials from users. In 1916, Elmer T. Cunningham and his writing partner George Haller formed the Haller-Cunningham Company; the main purpose was to make wireless equipment. In addition, Cunningham provided financial backing to Otis B. Moorehead late in 1915, to start a new vacuum tube company, called Moorehead Laboratories based in San Francisco, CA.

In July 1916 Otis Moorehead marketed the Electron Relay Tube. This vacuum tube was similar in appearance as Cunningham's Audio Tron. Like the Audio Tron Moorehead's tube would cut into De Forest's tube business on the west coast and De Forest would take legal action on Moorehead as well. Moorehead would make the first military tubes for the US and United Kingdom during World War I; the Audio Tron tubes went on sale again after June 1919. Cunningham launched an aggressive sales plan that made claims that his tubes were licensed under the Fleming or DeForest patents, his competitors on the west coast put out counter advertising. His competitors were right, Cunningham's Audio Tron was never a licensed product. In 1919, the Radio Corporation of America took legal action against Cunningham for the violation of the Flemming and DeForest patents; the decision made by the US District Court for Northern California proved quite favorable to Cunningham. The court decision summary was as follows: Cunningham gets permission to have his tubes licensed for 90 days and limited to 5000 units Audio Tron Sales will be renamed as Audio Tron Manufacturing Company After the 90 days RCA would supply Cunningham with tubes and packaging of his choice until DeForest patent expired.

All of these items will have Cunningham's name and trademarks After the 90 days Cunningham would get a guaranteed a set minimum of tubes each year until the DeForest patent expired. By 1921, Audio Tron Manufacturing Company started changing their name to "E. T. Cunningham Inc." This continued until 1931 when a new line was added: E. T. Cunningham Inc. A Subsidiary of Radio Corporation of AmericaAn advertising page for Audio Tron tubes in Pacific Radio News August 1920 shows Cunningham's early response to the court decision. CLICK HERE to see AD. How was Elmer Cunningham able to get such a favorable decision? No one knows but according to Alan Douglas, a noted radio historian, there might have been some "dirt" or material he had on certain RCA individuals that helped his case. Douglas mentions Bob Palmer, an old-time wireless man on the west coast who knew everyone including Cunningham, he did not have a high opinion of Cunningham and considered him "lower than a snake in the grass". In sum