Vagrancy is the condition of a person who wanders from place to place homeless and without regular employment or income. A person who experiences this condition may be referred to as a vagrant, rogue, tramp or drifter. Vagrants live in poverty and support themselves by begging, temporary work, petty theft, garbage scraping or, where available, welfare. Vagrancy in Western societies was associated with petty crime and lawlessness, punishable by law by imprisonment, forced labor, forced military service, or confinement to dedicated labor houses; the word vagrant is conflated with the term homeless person, which does not include the wandering component. In modern societies, anti-homelessness legislation aims to both help and re-house homeless people on one side, criminalize homelessness and begging on the other. Both vagrant and vagabond derive from the Latin word vagari, meaning "wander"; the term vagabond is derived from Latin vagabundus. In Middle English, vagabond denoted a criminal. In settled, ordered communities, vagrants have been characterised as outsiders, embodiments of otherness, objects of scorn or mistrust, or worthy recipients of help and charity.
Some ancient sources show vagrants as passive objects of pity, who deserve generosity and the gift of alms. Others show them as subversives, or outlaws, who make a parasitical living through theft and threat; some fairy tales of medieval Europe have beggars cast curses on anyone, insulting or stingy towards them. In Tudor England, some of those who begged door-to-door for "milk, drink, pottage" were thought to be witches. Many world religions, both in history and today, have vagrant traditions or make reference to vagrants. In Christianity, Jesus is seen in the Bible shown having compassion for beggars and the disenfranchised; the Catholic church teaches compassion for people living in vagrancy. Vagrant lifestyles are seen in Christian movements in notable figures such as St. Paul. Many still exist in places like Europe and the Near East, as preserved by Gnosticism and various esoteric practices. In some East Asian and South Asian countries, the condition of vagrancy has long been associated with the religious life, as described in the religious literature of Hindu, Buddhist and Muslim Sufi traditions.
Examples include sadhus, dervishes and the sramanic traditions generally. From 27 November 1891, a vagabond could be jailed. Vagabonds and procurers were imprisoned in vagrancy prisons: Hoogstraten. There, the prisoners had to work for their living by working in the prison workhouse. If the prisoners had earned enough money they could leave the “colony”. On 12 January 1993, the Belgian vagrancy law was repealed. At that time, 260 vagabonds still lived in the Wortel colony. In premodern Finland and Sweden, vagrancy was a crime, which could result in a sentence of forced labor or forced military service. There was a "legal protection" obligation: those not part of the estates of the realm were obliged to be employed, or otherwise, they could be charged with vagrancy. Legal protection was mandatory in medieval Swedish law, but Gustav I of Sweden began enforcing this provision, applying it when work was available. In Finland, the legal protection provision was repealed in 1883. In 1936, a new law moved the emphasis from criminalization into social assistance.
Forced labor sentences were abolished in 1971 and anti-vagrancy laws were repealed in 1987. In Germany, according to the 1871 Penal Code, vagabondage was among the grounds to confine a person to a labor house. In the Weimar Republic, the law against vagrancy was relaxed, but it became much more stringent in Nazi Germany, where vagrancy, together with begging, "work-shyness", was classified "asocial behavior" as punishable by confinement to concentration camps. In the Russian Empire, the legal term "vagrancy" was defined in another way than corresponding terms in Western Europe. Russian law recognized one as a vagrant if he could not prove his own standing, or if he changed his residence without a permission from authorities, rather than punishing loitering or absence of livelihood. Foreigners, twice expatriated with prohibition of return to the Russian Empire and were arrested in Russia again were recognized as vagrants. Punishments were harsh: According to Ulozhenie, the set of empowered laws, a vagrant who could not elaborate on his kinship, standing, or permanent residence, or gave false evidence, was sentenced to 4-year imprisonment and subsequent exile to Siberia or another far-off province.
In the Criminal Code of the RSFSR, which came into force on 1 January 1961, systematic vagrancy was punishable by up to two years' imprisonment. This continued until 5 December 1991, when Section 209 was repealed and vagrancy ceased to be a criminal offence. At present, vagrancy is not a criminal offence in Russia, but it is an offence for someone over 18 to induce a juvenile to vagrancy, according to Chapter 20, Section 151 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation; the note, introduced by the Federal Law No. 162 of 8 December 2003, provides that the section does not apply, if such act is performed by a parent of the juvenile under harsh
A house is a building that functions as a home. They can range from simple dwellings such as rudimentary huts of nomadic tribes and the improvised shacks in shantytowns to complex, fixed structures of wood, concrete or other materials containing plumbing and electrical systems. Houses use a range of different roofing systems to keep precipitation such as rain from getting into the dwelling space. Houses may have doors or locks to secure the dwelling space and protect its inhabitants and contents from burglars or other trespassers. Most conventional modern houses in Western cultures will contain one or more bedrooms and bathrooms, a kitchen or cooking area, a living room. A house may have a separate dining room; some large houses in North America have a recreation room. In traditional agriculture-oriented societies, domestic animals such as chickens or larger livestock may share part of the house with humans; the social unit that lives in a house is known as a household. Most a household is a family unit of some kind, although households may be other social groups, such as roommates or, in a rooming house, unconnected individuals.
Some houses only have a dwelling space for similar-sized group. A house may be accompanied by outbuildings, such as a garage for vehicles or a shed for gardening equipment and tools. A house may have a backyard or frontyard, which serve as additional areas where inhabitants can relax or eat; the English word house derives directly from the Old English hus meaning "dwelling, home, house," which in turn derives from Proto-Germanic husan, of unknown origin. The house itself gave rise to the letter'B' through an early Proto-Semitic hieroglyphic symbol depicting a house; the symbol was called "bayt", "bet" or "beth" in various related languages, became beta, the Greek letter, before it was used by the Romans. Ideally, architects of houses design rooms to meet the needs of the people who will live in the house. Feng shui a Chinese method of moving houses according to such factors as rain and micro-climates, has expanded its scope to address the design of interior spaces, with a view to promoting harmonious effects on the people living inside the house, although no actual effect has been demonstrated.
Feng shui can mean the "aura" in or around a dwelling, making it comparable to the real-estate sales concept of "indoor-outdoor flow". The square footage of a house in the United States reports the area of "living space", excluding the garage and other non-living spaces; the "square metres" figure of a house in Europe reports the area of the walls enclosing the home, thus includes any attached garage and non-living spaces. The number of floors or levels making up the house can affect the square footage of a home. Many houses have several large rooms with specialized functions and several small rooms for other various reasons; these may include a living/eating area, a sleeping area, separate or combined washing and lavatory areas. Some larger properties may feature rooms such as a spa room, indoor pool, indoor basketball court, other'non-essential' facilities. In traditional agriculture-oriented societies, domestic animals such as chickens or larger livestock share part of the house with human beings.
Most conventional modern houses will at least contain a bedroom, kitchen or cooking area, a living room. A typical "foursquare house" occurred in the early history of the US where they were built, with a staircase in the center of the house, surrounded by four rooms, connected to other sections of the home. Little is known about the earliest origin of the house and its interior, however it can be traced back to the simplest form of shelters. Roman architect Vitruvius' theories have claimed the first form of architecture as a frame of timber branches finished in mud known as the primitive hut. Philip Tabor states the contribution of 17th century Dutch houses as the foundation of houses today; as far as the idea of the home is concerned, the home of the home is the Netherlands. This idea's crystallization might be dated to the first three-quarters of the 17th century, when the Dutch Netherlands amassed the unprecedented and unrivalled accumulation of capital, emptied their purses into domestic space.
In the Middle Ages, the Manor Houses facilitated different events. Furthermore, the houses accommodated numerous people, including family, employees and their guests, their lifestyles were communal, as areas such as the Great Hall enforced the custom of dining and meetings and the Solar intended for shared sleeping beds. During the 15th and 16th centuries, the Italian Renaissance Palazzo consisted of plentiful rooms of connectivity. Unlike the qualities and uses of the Manor Houses, most rooms of the palazzo contained no purpose, yet were given several doors; these doors adjoined rooms in which Robin Evans describes as a "matrix of discrete but interconnected chambers." The layout allowed occupants to walk room to room from one door to another, thus breaking the boundaries of privacy. "Once inside it is necessary to pass from one room to the next to the next to traverse the building. Where passages and staircases are used, as they are, they nearly always connect just one space to another and never serve as general distributors of movement.
Thus, despite the precise architectural containment offe
Mixed-use development or simply Live-work space is a type of urban development strategy for living spaces that blends residential, cultural, institutional, or entertainment uses, where those functions are physically and functionally integrated, that provides pedestrian connections. Mixed-use development can take the form of a single building, a city block, or entire neighbourhoods; the term may be used more to refer to a mixed-use real estate development project—a building, complex of buildings, or district of a town or city, developed for mixed-use by a private developer, governmental agency, or a combination thereof. Traditionally, human settlements have developed in mixed-use patterns. However, with industrialisation as well as the invention of the skyscraper, governmental zoning regulations were introduced to separate different functions, such as manufacturing, from residential areas. In the United States, the heyday of separate-use zoning was after World War II, but since the 1990s, mixed-use zoning has once again become desirable as the benefits are recognized.
In most of Europe, government policy has encourage the continuation of the city center's role as a main location for business, retail and entertainment activity, unlike in the United States where zoning discouraged such mixed use for many decades. As a result, much of Europe's central cities are mixed use "by default" and the term "mixed-use" is much more relevant regarding new areas of the city, when an effort is made to mix residential and commercial activities – such as in Amsterdam's Eastern Docklands – rather than separate them. One of the earliest cities to adopt a policy on Mixed-use development is Ontario; the local government first played a role in 1986 with a zoning bylaw that allowed for commercial and residential units to be mixed. At the time, Toronto was in the beginning stages planning a focus on developing mixed-use development due to a growing popularity of more social housing; the law has since been updated as as 2013, refining much of its focus outside the downtown area, amalgamated into the main city since 1998.
With the regulations in place, the city has oversaw the development of high-rise condominiums throughout the city with the supply of amenities and transit stops nearby. Toronto case of developing Mixed-uses has expand to encompass other North American cities in Canada and The United States to bring in similar changes. In the United States, the Environmental Protection Agency collaborates with local governments by providing researchers developing new data that estimates how a city can be impacted by Mixed-use development. With the EPA putting models in the spreadsheet, it makes it much easier for municipalities, developers to estimate the traffic, with Mixed-use spaces; the linking models used as a resource tool measures the geography and land use characteristics in a city. The Environmental Protection Agency has conducted an analysis on six major metropolitan areas using land usage, household surveys, GIS databases. States such as California, New Mexico, Virginia has adopted this standard as statewide policy when assessing how urban developments can impact traffic.
Preconditions for the success of Mixed-use developments is employment and consumer spending. The three preconditions ensures that a development can attract quality tenants and financial success. Other factors determining the success of the Mixed-use development is the proximity of production time, the costs from the surrounding market. Mixed-use zones has been implemented in Portland, Oregon since the early 1990's as the local government was trying to figure out how to lower auto oriented development, prominent in the city at the time. In the state of Oregon alone, that housing must provide a clear objective towards design review; the city of Portland bureau of Planning and Sustainability has released a report in 2014 discussing the development trends in the city. The report eventuates the development of mixed-use spaces by focusing on the city center and its corridors. Portland's light rail system, MAX provides the encouragement of mixing up residential and work spaces into one zone. With this one zoning planning system, the use of land at increased densities provides a return in public investments throughout the city.
Main street corridors provide flexible building heights and high density uses to provide opportunities for gathering places. Mixed-use development allows the creation of plazas and outdoor corridors between buildings and sidewalks. Street facing facades have a maximum setback to how much space is allocated for pedestrians to gather in. Landscaping another feature in outdoor spaces allow trees and plants to grow on buildings vertically rather than being faced out in a front row. Public Infrastructure Mixed-use in centers that have increased in population density has allowed people to access places through public transit and has helped encourage walking and cycling to places of work and errands. Transportation has played a role in mitigating climate change by reducing congestion on roads and building up freight movement for goods and services. With street-level design in place in cities like Boston and Denver Mixed-uses allowed the designs of pedestrian walkways and eye distances to shops and workplaces.
This in turn has reduced parking lots in garages. Historic Preservation Older cities such as Chicago and San Francisco landmark preservation policies to allow more flexibility on older buildings being reused as third spaces. Benefits of mixed-use development include: greater housing variety and density, more affordable housing, life-cycle housing (start
Right to an adequate standard of living
The right to an adequate standard of living is recognized as a human right in international human rights instruments and is understood to establish a minimum entitlement to food and housing at an adequate level. The right to food and the right to housing have been further defined in human rights instruments; the right to an adequate standard of living is enshrined in Article 25 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and Article 11 of the International Covenant on Economic and Cultural Rights. The most significant inspiration for the inclusion of the right to an adequate standard of living in the UDHR was the Four Freedoms speech by US President Franklin Roosevelt, which declared amongst others the "freedom from want". Fulfillment of the right to an adequate standard of living depends on a number of other economic and cultural rights, including the right to property, the right to work, the right to education and the right to social security. There have been a number of proposed policies to guarantee people a basic standard of living through the concept of offering a basic income guarantee gifting all citizens a basic level of "free money" in order to meet basic needs such as food and shelter.
The most significant inspiration for the inclusion of the right to an adequate standard of living in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights was the 1941 Four Freedoms speech by US President Franklin Roosevelt, which declared freedom of speech, freedom of faith, freedom from want and freedom from fear. On the basis of the speech the American Law Institute established a draft proposals for an international bill of rights, the Statement of Essential Human Rights, which influenced the UDHR; the statement included the right to adequate food and housing and the right to social security, including the right to health. Article 25 of the UDHR recognises the right to an adequate standard of living, stating that: " Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and his family, including food, clothing and medical care and necessary social services, the right to security in the event of unemployment, disability, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control.
Motherhood and childhood are entitled to special assistance. All Children, whether born in or out of wedlock shall enjoy the same social protection." The UDHR establishes that the realisation of the right to an adequate standard of living requires as a minimum the enjoyment of subsistence rights, adequate food and nutrition, clothing and care when required. The UDHR recognises that the right to an adequate standard of living will require different measures depending on the situation of a person, it specifies that persons who are unable to secure the enjoyment of conditions necessary for an adequate standard of living have a right to care. Article 25 is related to Article 22 of the UDHR, which explicitly enshrines the right to social security. Article 25 specifically mentions the rights of children born out of wedlock, which have been subject to discrimination; the nature of the right to an adequate standard of living was further defined in Article 11 of the International Covenant on Economic and Cultural Rights, which defines the right to an adequate standard of living in two paragraphs.
Paragraph one states that: "The States Parties to the present Covenant recognize the right of everyone to an adequate standard of living for himself and his family, including adequate food and housing, to the continuous improvement of living conditions. The States Parties will take appropriate steps to ensure the realization of this right, recognizing to this effect the essential importance of international co-operation based on free consent." Medical care and health, which were included in the UDHR under the right to an adequate standard of living, were included in Article 12 of the ICESCR under the right to health. Rights relating to motherhood are recognised in Article 10 of the ICESCR on the protection of the family; when the ICESCR was drafted increased malnutrition was an urgent international concern, giving Article 11 an overall emphasis on food. Paragraph two of Article 11 states that: "The States Parties to the present Covenant, recognizing the fundamental right of everyone to be free from hunger, shall take and through international co-operation, the measures, including specific programmes, which are needed: To improve methods of production and distribution of food by making full use of technical and scientific knowledge, by disseminating knowledge of the principles of nutrition and by developing or reforming agrarian systems in such a way as to achieve the most efficient development and utilization of natural resources.
As such Article 11 of the ICESCR establishes two human rights, the right to be free from hunger, known as the right to food, the right to an adequate standard of living in relation to subsistence rights to clothing and food. The ICESCR requires as a minimum; the right to food and the right to housing have subsequently been defined as independent rights in other human rights instruments. Other aspects of the right to an adequate standard of living, such as the right to clothing have not received such attention, nor development; the ICESC makes it clear that states must take appropriate steps to ensure the realization of the right to an adequate standard of living, by for example requiring the state to ta
South Africa the Republic of South Africa, is the southernmost country in Africa. It is bounded to the south by 2,798 kilometres of coastline of Southern Africa stretching along the South Atlantic and Indian Oceans. South Africa is the largest country in Southern Africa and the 25th-largest country in the world by land area and, with over 57 million people, is the world's 24th-most populous nation, it is the southernmost country on the mainland of the Eastern Hemisphere. About 80 percent of South Africans are of Sub-Saharan African ancestry, divided among a variety of ethnic groups speaking different African languages, nine of which have official status; the remaining population consists of Africa's largest communities of European and multiracial ancestry. South Africa is a multiethnic society encompassing a wide variety of cultures and religions, its pluralistic makeup is reflected in the constitution's recognition of 11 official languages, the fourth highest number in the world. Two of these languages are of European origin: Afrikaans developed from Dutch and serves as the first language of most coloured and white South Africans.
The country is one of the few in Africa never to have had a coup d'état, regular elections have been held for a century. However, the vast majority of black South Africans were not enfranchised until 1994. During the 20th century, the black majority sought to recover its rights from the dominant white minority, with this struggle playing a large role in the country's recent history and politics; the National Party imposed apartheid in 1948. After a long and sometimes violent struggle by the African National Congress and other anti-apartheid activists both inside and outside the country, the repeal of discriminatory laws began in 1990. Since 1994, all ethnic and linguistic groups have held political representation in the country's liberal democracy, which comprises a parliamentary republic and nine provinces. South Africa is referred to as the "rainbow nation" to describe the country's multicultural diversity in the wake of apartheid; the World Bank classifies South Africa as an upper-middle-income economy, a newly industrialised country.
Its economy is the second-largest in Africa, the 34th-largest in the world. In terms of purchasing power parity, South Africa has the seventh-highest per capita income in Africa; however and inequality remain widespread, with about a quarter of the population unemployed and living on less than US$1.25 a day. South Africa has been identified as a middle power in international affairs, maintains significant regional influence; the name "South Africa" is derived from the country's geographic location at the southern tip of Africa. Upon formation, the country was named the Union of South Africa in English, reflecting its origin from the unification of four separate British colonies. Since 1961, the long form name in English has been the "Republic of South Africa". In Dutch, the country was named Republiek van Zuid-Afrika, replaced in 1983 by the Afrikaans Republiek van Suid-Afrika. Since 1994, the Republic has had an official name in each of its 11 official languages. Mzansi, derived from the Xhosa noun umzantsi meaning "south", is a colloquial name for South Africa, while some Pan-Africanist political parties prefer the term "Azania".
South Africa contains human-fossil sites in the world. Archaeologists have recovered extensive fossil remains from a series of caves in Gauteng Province; the area, a UNESCO World Heritage site, has been branded "the Cradle of Humankind". The sites include one of the richest sites for hominin fossils in the world. Other sites include Gondolin Cave Kromdraai, Coopers Cave and Malapa. Raymond Dart identified the first hominin fossil discovered in Africa, the Taung Child in 1924. Further hominin remains have come from the sites of Makapansgat in Limpopo Province and Florisbad in the Free State Province, Border Cave in KwaZulu-Natal Province, Klasies River Mouth in Eastern Cape Province and Pinnacle Point and Die Kelders Cave in Western Cape Province; these finds suggest that various hominid species existed in South Africa from about three million years ago, starting with Australopithecus africanus. There followed species including Australopithecus sediba, Homo ergaster, Homo erectus, Homo rhodesiensis, Homo helmei, Homo naledi and modern humans.
Modern humans have inhabited Southern Africa for at least 170,000 years. Various researchers have located pebble tools within the Vaal River valley. Settlements of Bantu-speaking peoples, who were iron-using agriculturists and herdsmen, were present south of the Limpopo River by the 4th or 5th century CE, they displaced and absorbed the original Khoisan speakers, the Khoikhoi and San peoples. The Bantu moved south; the earliest ironworks in modern-day KwaZulu-Natal Province are believed to date from around 1050. The southernmost group was the Xhosa people, whose language incorporates certain linguistic traits from the earlier Khoisan people; the Xhosa reached the Great Fish River, in today's Eastern Cape Province. As they migrated, these larger Iron Age populations
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights is a historic document, adopted by the United Nations General Assembly at its third session on 10 December 1948 as Resolution 217 at the Palais de Chaillot in Paris, France. Of the 58 members of the United Nations, 48 voted in favor, none against, eight abstained, two did not vote; the Declaration consists of 30 articles affirming an individual's rights which, although not binding in themselves, have been elaborated in subsequent international treaties, economic transfers, regional human rights instruments, national constitutions, other laws. The Declaration was the first step in the process of formulating the International Bill of Human Rights, completed in 1966, came into force in 1976, after a sufficient number of countries had ratified them; some legal scholars have argued that because countries have invoked the Declaration for more than 50 years, it has become binding as a part of customary international law. However, in the United States, the Supreme Court in Sosa v. Alvarez-Machain, concluded that the Declaration "does not of its own force impose obligations as a matter of international law."
Courts of other countries have concluded that the Declaration is not in and of itself part of domestic law. The underlying structure of the Universal Declaration was introduced in its second draft, prepared by René Cassin. Cassin worked from a first draft, prepared by John Peters Humphrey; the structure was influenced by the Code Napoléon, including a preamble and introductory general principles. Cassin compared the Declaration to the portico of a Greek temple, with a foundation, four columns, a pediment; the Declaration consists of a preamble and thirty articles: The preamble sets out the historical and social causes that led to the necessity of drafting the Declaration. Articles 1–2 established the basic concepts of dignity, liberty and brotherhood. Articles 3–5 established other individual rights, such as the right to life and the prohibition of slavery and torture. Articles 6–11 refer to the fundamental legality of human rights with specific remedies cited for their defence when violated. Articles 12–17 established the rights of the individual towards the community.
Articles 18–21 sanctioned the so-called "constitutional liberties", with spiritual and political freedoms, such as freedom of thought, opinion and conscience, peaceful association of the individual. Articles 22–27 sanctioned an individual's economic and cultural rights, including healthcare. Article 25 states: "Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing and medical care and necessary social services." It makes additional accommodations for security in case of physical debilitation or disability, makes special mention of care given to those in motherhood or childhood. Articles 28–30 established the general ways of using these rights, the areas in which these rights of the individual can not be applied, that they can not be overcome against the individual; these articles are concerned with the duty of the individual to society and the prohibition of use of rights in contravention of the purposes of the United Nations Organisation.
During World War II, the Allies adopted the Four Freedoms—freedom of speech, freedom of religion, freedom from fear, freedom from want—as their basic war aims. The United Nations Charter "reaffirmed faith in fundamental human rights, dignity and worth of the human person" and committed all member states to promote "universal respect for, observance of, human rights and fundamental freedoms for all without distinction as to race, language, or religion"; when the atrocities committed by Nazi Germany became apparent after World War II, the consensus within the world community was that the United Nations Charter did not sufficiently define the rights to which it referred. A universal declaration that specified the rights of individuals was necessary to give effect to the Charter's provisions on human rights. In June 1946, the UN Economic and Social Council established the Commission on Human Rights, comprising 18 members from various nationalities and political backgrounds; the Commission, a standing body of the United Nations, was constituted to undertake the work of preparing what was conceived as an International Bill of Rights.
The Commission established a special Universal Declaration of Human Rights Drafting Committee, chaired by Eleanor Roosevelt, to write the articles of the Declaration. The Committee met in two sessions over the course of two years. Canadian John Peters Humphrey, Director of the Division of Human Rights within the United Nations Secretariat, was called upon by the United Nations Secretary-General to work on the project and became the Declaration's principal drafter. At the time, Humphrey was newly appointed as Director of the Division of Human Rights within the United Nations Secretariat. Other well-known members of the drafting committee included René Cassin of France, Charles Malik of Lebanon, P. C. Chang of the Republic of China. Humphrey provided the initial draft. According to Allan Carlson, the Declaration's pro-family phrases were the result of the Christian Democratic movement's influence on Cassin and Malik. Once the Committee finished its work in May 1948, the draft was further discussed by the Commission on Human Rights, the Economic and Social Council, the Third Committee of the General Assembly before being put to vote in December 1948.
During these discussions many amendments and propositions were made by UN Member States. British re